"Man is becoming god. Those who see in national socialism nothing more than a political movement know scarcely anything of it. It is more even than a religion. It is the will to create mankind anew."
"National Socialism is nothing more than applied biology."
"They were all doctors."
During the industrial revolution the authority of established institutions such as the church and the aristocracy, particularly in Europe and Germany, is called into question. The strides made in the physical sciences and the breakneck advancement of industry cause an upheaval in everyday life. Traditional beliefs and hierarchies are shaken. Religious beliefs, long held without question, are examined from the new "modern" scientific viewpoint. In Germany, traditional culture is perceived as being threatened, partially by the Catholic church, which is seen as favoring slavic interests. German- speaking Austria yearns to reunify with Germany. The Lebensreform (Life Reform) movement and other groups promote the return to the soil and to ancient Germanic folklore, meditation and the occult. Various concepts of race and ancient Germanic history/destiny are extant throughout the German speaking lands.
In an effort to delve deeper into the mysteries, various people journey to Tibet, long held to be a center of mystical and occult knowledge. One such person is Madam Helena Petrova Blavatsky. She says that while in Tibet, she saw a secret doctrine that outlined the future of mankind and the secrets of the universe. In this doctrine, she describes various races as having played key roles throughout the history of the world. She describes one race, calling it the Aryan race, that founded Grecian culture and was supposed to have possessed paranormal powers. According to Blavatsky, the Aryans are destined to lead mankind out of the darkness that has befallen him and usher in the next phase of human evolution. The sign of the Aryans is the swastika.
Blavatsky's followers introduce the doctrine of the Aryans to the German people and around 1888, she publishes The Secret Doctrine, which describes all this. She is the founder of an America occult society that publishes the first publication in Germany to carry a swastika on its cover. Later, other mystics promote the myth of the Aryan man, even going so far as to propose an outline for a society that would embody the principles of these occult teachings. These teachings go hand in glove with the new science of eugenics. Key figures in the Nazi hierarchy, such as Himmler, are avid pupils of these occult teachings. Darwinism, eugenics and the occult racial principles that proceeded them will enhance traditional beliefs about the German aristocracy and its inherent superior characteristics being founded in ancient times by teutonic divinities. This will form the cornerstone of the Third Reich and eventually lead to the wholesale slaughter of millions. Two belief systems, psychiatric eugenics and the occult, will merge and become virtually indistinguishable to make Europe a nightmare. They will also be embraced and promoted elsewhere in the "civilized" world.
"In science all that really matters is getting interesting, accurate results as quickly as possible; there is simply no time to talk to patients...the introduction of machines in no way eases the situation, for the more expensive and complicated the machines, the more the investigator distances himself from the person who is being investigated. This attitude reduces the person to a subservient depersonalized object. Such a process formed the bond which held the psychiatrists, anthropologists, and Hitler together."
Benno Muller Hill
In modern times, killing people to achieve the ideal of eugenics (racial purification) really took hold in central Europe in the 30's and 40's. This concept had its roots in certain beliefs held by the schools of anthropology, biology and physiology. These ideas were poised for use by the acceptance of earlier mystical concepts concerning race and destiny and given a platform on which to be organized and implemented by the political power structure of the Nazis. The belief systems of eugenics and mystical concepts provided the environment for the legitimization of mass murder. Psychiatry provided the methods.
People are exterminated for being, among other things, Jewish. They are attacked and killed on a genetic basis. As psychiatrists view mental illness as physical and hereditary, the ideas of genetics, the brain and physical/mental illness are inextricably entwined. The holocaust was essentially a medical/psychiatric incident.
After working with key Nazi party officials to subject the SS, other officials of the German Reich and the German public to an effective PR campaign which included using concepts of genetics, physiology and psychology to legitimize existing occult beliefs to view the killing of human beings as a necessary evolutionary step, psychiatrists and other "scientists" expanded the ongoing slaughter of Germans (they had been killing thousands of mental patients since WWI) to include political undesirables and, eventually, "non-Aryans." This resulted in the murder of millions of men, women and children. Much attention is given here to the psychiatric/eugenic holocaust for a number of reasons:
- The political regime at the time in Germany gave psychiatrists the license to actually carry out on a broad basis what they had previously been permitted to execute only selectively on individual helpless mental patients. German psychiatrists were not ordered to murder people; they were simply given the right to do so, which they did, with enthusiasm. Through a gradient approach, these "mental hygienists" were able to expand their definition of "undesirable" people until the wholesale slaughter of tens of millions of innocent people could be accepted as necessary to "purify the race."
- These ideas were not limited to Central Europe. Throughout the world, long before the holocaust, psychiatrists, psychologists and other "scientists" developed the ideas that led to murder, sterilization and experimentation. Those responsible for developing sterilization legislation in the U.S. disseminated their support to German's burgeoning laws. Later in France, over 40,000 mental patients were starved to death in a covert killing program without any orders from the Nazis.
- It provides an excellent example of how far people will go in accepting false data cloaked in "scientific authority" and then stand by and witness the most outrageous acts, simply accepting them as a logical outgrowth legitimized by a progression of ideas. That the acts are contrary to every law of decent behavior and moral/ethical principals is overlooked. Even today, psychiatry is still allowed to shock, drug and otherwise torture psychiatric inmates.
- German psychiatrists provided the scientific basis for the ideology of racial superiority and helped develop and forward the pseudosubject of "eugenics." All that was necessary to be a medical doctor in Germany at that time was to have a license that could be obtained by taking an examination. An actual doctorate was not necessary.
- The ratio of SS affiliations among doctors was seven times that of teachers.
- Mental illness, specifically "schizophrenia" was viewed by German psychiatrists as a physical disease, resulting in inevitable deterioration. German psychiatrists also saw themselves as servants of the state, rather than individual doctors.
"...you are incapable of believing, you don't believe it. And the things that went on in Auschwitz...the gas chambersnobody would have believed that. And then the houses that the crematoria hadyou know, brick houses, windows, curtains, white picket fences around the front. And people never thought of anythingregardless of chimneys smoking. They could not believe it...There was a touch of diabolic genius."
An Auschwitz survivor.
One survivor details the extent of the doctor's involvement in the killing process.
"He went on to list the series of steps in SS doctors' involvement in the killing: first, the chief doctor's assignments to his subordinates concerning duty schedules and immediate selections policies; second, the individual doctor's service on the ramp, performing selections 'in a very noble (seemingly kind) manner'; third, the doctor riding in the ambulance or Red Cross car to the crematoria; fourth, the doctor ordering 'how many (pellets) of gas should be thrown in...these holes from the ceilings, according to the number of people, and who should do it...There were three or four Desinfektoren'; fifth, 'He observed through the hole how the people are dying'; sixth, 'When the people were dead...he gave the order to ventilate...to open the gas chamber, and he came...with a gas mask into the chamber'; seventh, 'He signed a (form) that the people are dead...and how long it took'; and eighth, 'he... observed...the teeth...extraction (from) the corpses.' This was the survivor who concluded that 'the killing program was led by doctorsfrom the beginning to the end. In fact, doctors in the camps made selections at the moment people arrived at the camps, separating those who were to die to those who were to be allowed to live a while to labor in the camp. "
The Nazi Doctors
"...none of them, not a single former Nazi doctor I spoke to arrived at a clear ethical evaluation of what he had done, and what he had been part of." [there] was no tendency to defy the overall killing program, as it was viewed as a necessary biological purge.
"Dangerous Jewish characteristics could be linked with alleged data of scientific disciplines, so that a 'mainstream of racism' formed from 'the fusion of anthropology, eugenics, and social thought.' The resulting 'racial and social biology' could make vicious forms of anti-semitism seem intellectually respectable to learned men and women....One can speak of the Nazi state as a 'biocracy'....The Nazi biocracy differed from a classical theocracy ("government or political rule by priests or clergy as representatives of God" - Websters) in that the biological priests did not actually rule....In any case, Nazi ruling authority was maintained in the name of the higher biological principle. As it was stated by one survivor, 'Auschwitz was like a medical operation...the killing program was led by doctors from beginning to end'.
Robert J. Lifton
"The Jews were a lower species of life, a kind of vermin, which upon contact infected the German people with deadly diseases."
jurist and General Governor
of Poland under the Nazis
"The state organism...(is) a whole with its own laws and rights, much like one selfcontained human organism...which, in the interest of the welfare of the whole, alsoas we doctors knowabandons and rejects parts or particles that have become worthless or dangerous."
psychiatrist, Nazi Germany
"The most effective racepreserving measure is that which gives the greatest support to the natural defenses....We may - and we must - rely on the healthy instincts of the best of our people...for the extermination of elements of the population loaded with dregs. Otherwise, these deleterious mutations will permeate the body of the people like the cells of a cancer."
lecturer in general psychology,
University of Konigsberg,
1940, Nazi Germany
"I have employed definitions that are good enough to distinguish cults from genuine religious sects, but rather than undertaking a semantic discussion of it beyond what I've already given you, I prefer to ask myself within the medical model how one distinguishes malignant cells from healthy ones in the human body for the purpose of treatment. A good approach if you were interested in curing a cancer is to find a chemical that kills the malignant cells and spares those that are healthy. What would be the effect of a device or technique which, when applied by society to any organization calling itself religious would have no untoward effect upon bonafide religions, but would be deadly to the fakes?"
Louis Jolyon West,
Psychiatrist, 1983, USA
1923 The Director of the health
institutions in Zwickau, Germany writes to the Minister of the
Interior urging passage of a eugenic sterilization law. He says,
"In a cultured nation of the first order, in the United States of
America, that which we strive toward was introduced and tested long
ago." The Minister of the Interior subsequently writes to the
German Foreign office, asking for information regarding eugenic
legislation in the United States. The Foreign Office contacts its
embassy in Washington and requests are sent from there to German
consulates throughout the United States. Data is forthcoming from US
mental institutions, state governments and prisons. This information
is forwarded to Washington and over to Berlin.
1923 Adolf Hitler and General von
Lootendorf lead an aborted coup to overthrow the Bavarian government.
von Lootendorf says worship of an ancient Norse god is necessary for
national salvation and that he is in psychic communion with the Nordic
1923 Hitler, while in prison,
reads a book by Drs. Fischer, Lenz and Baur, The Principals
of Human Heredity and Race Hygiene. He explores the principals of
eugenics and geopolitics which go hand in glove with his earlier
exposure to mystical writings. He incorporates these ideas in his own
book, Mein Kampf (My Struggle), in which he writes, ..."anyone
who wants to cure this era, which is inwardly sick and rotten, must
first of all summon up the courage to make clear the causes of this
1923 Carl Brigham, assistant
professor of psychology at Princeton, publishes A Study of American
Intelligence, working from a research grant from the Committee on
Scientific Problems of Human Migration, part of the Division of
Anthropology and Psychology of the National Research Council. He found
that IQ of immigrants increased in proportion to the number of years
of US residence. He decides this is due to a lower proportion of
Nordic blood over the years, rather than an increased familiarization
with cultural and educational factors. He goes on to develop the SAT
test (still used to screen students for college) and is elected
secretary of the American Psychological Association in the late 1920s.
1924 Madison Grant is the
principal signatory on a report by the Committee on Selective
Immigration of the Eugenics Committee of the United States of America.
The report states,..."Had mental tests been in operation
(previously)...over 6,000,000 aliens now living in this country
...would never have been admitted..." Also on the committee is
Edward L. Thorndike, professor of psychology at Columbia University
and the most influential figure in shaping American elementary school
education during the first half of the 20th century. Harry Laughlin
delivers a lecture as a member of the committee, describing the
desirable American traits of love of truth, inventiveness, common
sense, artistic sense, love of beauty, responsibility, etc., as being
"of a biological order."
1924 Otto Rank develops the idea
of "primal anxiety" stemming from separation of the child
from the mother. He sees this as the basis for all subsequent
"separation anxiety." He develops "will therapy,"
stressing re-experiencing birth. These ideas precede Janov's
"primal therapy," Orr's "rebirthing" and other
similar so-called "pop psychology" methods of the late 60s
1924 Adolf Hitler publishes
Mein Kampf which contains statements such as, "Those who
are physically and mentally unhealthy and unworthy must not perpetuate
their suffering in the body of their children." In this book,
Hitler praises the American Immigration Restriction Act of 1924.
1925 The Edder Society is founded
by Rudolph Goolslaben. He attempts to decipher ancient Islandic texts
known as the Edder that are said to contain the secrets of the ancient
April, 1925 SS formed.
1927 Oliver Wendell Holmes writes
a US Supreme court decision upholding the State of Virginia's decision
to sterilize Carrie Buck, an 18 year old woman in an institution, to
prevent her from having any more children.
1929 Eugene Gosney and Paul
Popenoe write Sterilization for Human Betterment.
1929 International Congress of
Eugenics in Rome. Dr. Davenport of the USA, President of the
International Foundation of Eugenic Organizations, sends Mussolini a
telegram on the vital need for eugenics. He says "Maximum speed
is necessary; the danger is enormous." Davenport later asks
Fischer of Berlin to become Chairman of the Committee on Racial
Crosses of the Foundation. In 1933, he asks him to become his
successor. Fischer declines, and Rudin (Berlin) takes over.
1920s-30s As a forerunner of the
holocaust, mental hospitals in Germany are used as forced labor camps
("work therapy"), causing them to become profit centers (one
hospital made 222,505 RM in profits in one year). These institutions
are very much like concentration camps. If inmates are uncooperative,
a series of shock treatments are prescribed (post 1938). If the
patient views these shocks as punishment and not as therapy, this is
viewed as evidence of insanity, so more shocks are prescribed. Courses
of 60 shock treatments are not uncommon. With the help of the SS, the
psychiatrists later simply expand these operations elsewhere to create
the larger camps which include Gypsies, Jews, other "non-
Aryans" and other undesirables.
Late 20s The myth of the Aryan
man has spread throughout Europe, the U.S. and Britain. Swastika
jewelry worn in U.S., UK, Europe. British Druidic cults use swastikas
on their robes.
1930 Ernst Rudin, professor of
psychiatry at Munich and Director of the Department of Heredity at the
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, visits the US and is praised by leaders of
the Carnegie Foundation. Later, using a U.S. model, he is the
architect of Nazi Germany's sterilization law, and is supported in his
work by a large grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.
1932 British periodical appears
called Superman, devoted to physical culture and carrying articles by
leading British scientists concerning racial contamination of Saxon
Britons. Its cover is adorned with swastikas.
1932 Third International Congress
of Eugenics is held in New York. The paper "Selective
Sterilization for Race Culture" is presented, in which Dr.
Theodore Russell Roble of the Essex County Mental Hygiene Clinic calls
for the sterilization of at least 14,000,000 Americans who received
low intelligence test scores since World War I.
1932 Professor Fischer tells a
member of National Socialist party "Your party has not been in
existence nearly as long as our eugenic movement."
c 1933 Thousands of European
"undesirables," fleeing the Nazi eugenic death machine,
attempt to find asylum in the United States. They are denied entry
and returned to Germany because of US laws based on the same
principals in use by the Nazis.