1900 Alfred Krupp, the head of Germany's largest armament firm, recognizes the connection between eugenics policies and increased labor production. He sponsors an essay contest entitled, "What does the Theory of Evolution Teach us in Regard to the Internal Political Development and Legislation of States?"
1900 The work of Mendel (genetics) is rediscovered and used to bolster the idea that mental traits are inherited.
1900 North Dakota bans marriage for alcoholics, the insane and those suffering from tuberculosis. (By 1929, there are 30,000 US sterilizations.)
c 1900 Guido Von Lizt incorporates the racial teachings of the mystic Helena Blavatsky into his own German mythology. He says the imposition of Christianity on the ancient Aryan teutonic tribes forced occult knowledge underground, causing groups like the Rosecrucians, Freemasons and Knights Templar to carry the knowledge forward. Describing an ancient Germanic aristocracy, he posits a grand design for a future German state that carries on the traditions of aryan superiority where only aryans will be entitled to citizenship and strict laws will ensure racial purity. His teachings become famous throughout Germany.
1904 Alfred Binet, director of the psychology laboratory at Sorbonne, is commissioned by the French government to develop a means of detecting children who would not benefit from normal teaching methods.
1904 The Carnegie Foundation of Washington establishes a biological experiment station in New York, with eugenicist Charles Davenport as its first director.
1904 The first chair of Eugenics is established at the University College in London.
1904 Alfred Ploetz founds the Archive for Racial and Social Biology.
1905 Jeorge Luntz founds Ostara, a publication blending the occult, racist teachings of Von Lizt and eugenics into what he calls Theozoology. He states that Germans should reproduce and the lower classes should be enslaved or sterilized. He claims annual circulation of 100,000 for Ostara.
1905 Dr. Ploetz founds the Society of Race Hygiene in Germany. Proposals for control of the population through regulation of the reproductive activities of the German people is widely discussed at this time.
1905 The Pennsylvania State Legislature passes an "Act for the Prevention of Lunacy," which contains a sterilization clause. It is vetoed by the governor.
1906 Charles Sherrington writes The Integrative Action of the Nervous System, bringing together concepts of evolution and neurophysiology. The classification and location of all mental illness as originating in the brain/nervous system is firmly established by this time.
1906 William Bateson, in his inaugural address to the Third Conference Hybridization and Plant Breeding, says "I suggest for the consideration of this congress the term Genetics, which sufficiently indicates that our labours are devoted to the elucidation of the phenomena of heredity and variation..."
1907 International Society for Racial Hygiene founded, composed mostly of German racial hygienists.
1907 Luntz forms the Order of the New Templars. The rituals of this group are based on his experiences while a monk in a monastery. Prayers include appeals to the "Aryan Christ" for extermination of inferior races. The order aims to organize religion, ethics and art into an occult religion and achieve the goal of racial purification of the Aryan race throughout the world.
1907 Sterilizations in certain U.S. states for mentally handicapped and epileptic.
1907 Indiana law on sterilization of the mentally ill and criminally insane.
1907 Hermann Oppenheim, professor of psychiatry in Berlin, gives a popular series of lectures on the mental problems of children. He advises that children not be permitted to read newspapers, go to museums, galleries or theaters or demonstrate strong emotions. He says, "...it is in our power...to see to it that the bud * is not allowed to develop luxuriantly, to fully flower, and in that way to prevent the creation of a disease." (* meaning the child)
1907 Indiana passes the first US compulsory sterilization law, calling for mandatory sterilization of confirmed criminals, idiots, imbeciles and rapists. Over the next 10 years, 15 other states will enact similar legislation. Between 1907 and 1928, twenty-one states enact eugenic sterilization laws, resulting in an estimated 8,500 sterilizations.
1908 In the German colony of Southwest Africa, all mixed marriages are banned -existing ones are dissolved.
1908 William McDougall defines psychology as a science of behavior in 1905 and establishes social psychology with the book Introduction to Social Psychology in 1908. He stresses that man's behavior is primarily motivated by instinct.
1909 Adolf Hitler, 20 years old, visits Luntz to obtain back copies of the mystical/racial publication Ostara, of which he is an avid reader.
1910 Charles Davenport founds the Eugenics Records Office (set up for research and propaganda purposes) with funds donated by Mrs. E. H. Harriman. Among other pursuits, the office makes recommendations regarding public policies on eugenics and sterilizations. One advisory committee to the Office finds that approximately 10% of the population carries "bad seed." Davenport writes a textbook in 1911 called Heredity in Relation to Eugenics. He cites immigration as principal cause for what he perceives as a general decline in American society, e.g., increased crime, etc.
1910 Some visual criteria used by immigration officials in detecting undesirable aliens standing in line to be processed upon arrival in the U.S. include: Active or Maniacal Psychosis: Striking peculiarities in dress; talkativeness; apparent shrewdness; keenness; excitement; smiling; facial expression of mirth; laughing; eroticism; uncommon activity. Alcoholism or Organic Dementia: untidiness; expressionless face; great amount of calmness; jovial air; self-confident smile; fussiness. Also, "if an Englishman reacts to questions in the manner of an Irishman, his lack of mental balance would be suspected...If the Italian responded to questions as the Russian Finn responds, the former would in all probability be suffering with a depressive psychosis."
1910 John D. Rockefeller helps establish the Bureau of Social Hygiene. It supports study of prostitution, venereal disease, delinquent females, prostitution, etc.
1911 Italian physician/criminologist Cesare Lombroso writes that criminals have certain identifiable physical traits that predispose them toward a particular personality.
1911 International Hygiene Exhibition in Dresden, organized by the International Society for Racial Hygiene. Eugenicists gather from Germany, Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, Great Britain, Austria, Sweden, Denmark and the United States.
1912 German Order founded, dedicated to the teachings of Von Lizt; very anti-democratic and anti- semitic. Members are required to prove their aryan blood line. The German Order is governed by a council of 12 initiates. von Lizt says the future German empire will be governed by a council of similar initiates. (When the SS is formed, members must prove their pure German blood back to 1750. The SS is governed by Himmler in close association with a council of 12 inner initiates.
1912 Salmon, a member of the National Committee on Mental Hygiene, works to get Congress to enact legislation requiring mental exams for immigrants. Many are refused entry.
1912 The American Medico- Psychological Association (to become in 1921 the American Psychiatric Association) appoints a Committee on Applied Eugenics.
1912 Henry H. Goddard (early founder of "intelligence testing") writes The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble- Mindedness. He delivers the IQ test to immigrants arriving in American and concludes that 83 percent of the Jews, 80 percent of the Hungarians, 79 percent of the Italians and 87 percent of the Russians are "feebleminded." The number of aliens deported due to feeblemindedness increases 350 percent in 1913 and 570 percent in 1914.
1912 The first International Congress of Eugenics is held at University of London. The President is Major Leonard Darwin, son of Charles Darwin. An English Vice President is Secretary for Home Affairs, Winston Churchill. German Vice-Presidents include von Gruger, professor of hygiene at Munich and Dr. Alfred Ploetz, President of the International Society of Race Hygiene. America is represented by Charles W. Eliot, President Emeritus of Harvard and Alexander Graham Bell.
1913 Dr. Fischer publishes a study on people of mixed blood in South Africa, calling them "inferior" and predicting their "decline and destruction."
1913 Geza von Hoffmann, former Austrian vice-consulate in California, writes a book Racial Hygiene in the United States of North America. He says that Galton's hope of eugenics becoming "the religion of the future" was coming true in America. He quotes President Woodrow Wilson as saying during a speech that "the whole nation has awakened to and recognizes the extraordinary importance of the science of human heredity, as well as its application to the ennoblement of the human family."
1914 Racial hygienists in Germany get the Reichstag to consider a sterilization law, but the process is interrupted by the outbreak of WWI.