Expert Performance - What it takes

From a USOC Talk on the topic, the summary...


1. Hard, dedicated, focused work and commitment.

2. Early, consistent instruction.

3. Maximum support = affirm, acknowledge, teach.

4. Focused training with deliberate practices (e.g. making the 
   training activities "elite" oriented.

5. Focused opportunities = design individual's life to optimize being engaged 
   in deliberate practice and finding "growth" experiences.

6. Long period of active, focused learning where skills are refined 
   and improved.

7. Structured learning and effortful adaptation (to new learnings).

8. Restructure former top performance(s) and acquire new methods and skills 
   (doing it better).

9. Present the individual with problems and situations to help them:
     +Perceive and encode the problem/situation
     +systematically cue pertinent knowledge
     +select and execute an action/series of actions rapidly

10. Specialize and engage in the activity full time.


Referenced: Ericsson, K. Anders & Charness, Neil, _Expert Performance, Its 
Structure and Acquisition_, American Psychologist, 1994, pp. 725-747. 
(108 references)                      





John Kessel
USA Volleyball Director of Programs
FIVB Technical Commission Secretary 
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