Aquarium Atlas Vol. 3, Baensch Puffer Fish Lair

Aquarium Atlas, Vol. 3
Dr. Rudiger Riehl, Hans A. Baensch
with the help of Kurt Paffrath, Jurgen Schmidt, Lothar Seegers
Copyright 1996, Mergus®
-Verlag GmbH Hans A. Baensch, 49302 Melle, Germany


(pg. 1040)

Chonerhinos modestus (Bleeker, 1850)
Modest Puffer
Syn.: Tetraodon modestus, Arothron modestus

Hab.: Southeast Asia, southern Thailand,
Malaysia, and Indonesia (Borneo, Sumatra)

F.I.: Apparently in 1959

Soc. B: Loners, quarrelsome towards conspecifics, especially newly introduced specimens. Prone to nipping the fins of larger fishes. Firm plants (Echinodorus, Cryptocorne, etc.) are bitten but not eaten.

M: Clear, oxygen rich water is necessary; water hardness is irrelevant. Hiding places among stones or roots should be created. The animals are active during day and twilight hours. They have to be given items to chew on (e.g. roots) to keep their teeth worn down. If allowed to go unchecked, its overgrown teeth make it impossible for the fish to feed.

B: There is no information concerning successfully breeding this fish in captivity.

F: O; live foods such as mosquito larvae, earthworms, Gammarus, Daphnia, flies and their larvae, and mussel meat; snail shells and tablet foods are particularly appreciated.

S: These animals produce quacking sounds when they are removed from the water.

T: 23-28C, L: 13 cm. A: 120 cm, R: m, t, D: 3

Tetraodon cutcutia, (Hamilton, 1822)
Sea Frog

Syn.: Tetraodon cutcutia, T. caria, T. gularis, Leisomus cutcutia, L. marmoratus, Monotretus cutcutia.

Hab.: Asia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India, in the states of Orissa, Bengal, and Assam.

F.I.: 1903 by STUWE

Sex.: Females are smaller and lighter colored. Males have nuptial coloration.

Soc. B.: Juveniles are peaceful in comparison to the waspish and quarrelsome adults. Single maintenance is best, but if several specimens are kept, then they all must be the same size. Males practice brood care (paternal family).

M: Provide a sand or gravel substrate, edge and background vegetation, and hiding places among stones and roots. Ensure that there is an open area that allows swimming. Water should be medium-hard (from 10 dGH) and neutral (pH 7.0). T. cutcutia is a freshwater fish.
B: This species has been bred in captivity. Use large aquaria. The male acquires breeding coloration and courts the female by dancing. The eggs are laid on carefully cleaned flat stones and guarded by the male. Depending on water temperature, juveniles hatch after 6 to 10 days and remain on the substrate. Rearing is arduous because of their need of very small foods. After the fry hatch, remove the male lest he pursues the spawn.

F; C. O; live foods, preferably snails, but also mosquito larvae, Tubifex, Daphnia, and earthworms. Mussel flesh, tablet foods, and sometimes vegetable supplements are accepted as well.

S: The body lacks thorns. The nasal openings are united into a short tube with but one opening. Animals removed from the water, expand into a sphere and make quacking noises. They are called sea frogs by the inhabitants of Malabar.

T: 24-28 C, L: 8cm, A: 80 cm, R: all. D: 3

Syn. Synonym = additional names for the same species. In the systematics of faunal nomenclature, only the name given by the original describer is valid. Subsequent descriptions of the same species using another name create so-called synonyms.

Hab. = Habitat; the natural region of origin.

F.I. First Import. It is often interesting to know how long a particular species has been known to the hobby.

Sex.: Differences between the sexes.
Soc. B.: = Social behaviour
M.: = Conditions recommended for maintenance. A specific value placed in parenthesis following a range for pH, degrees German total hardness ( dGH), and degrees German carbonate hardness ( dKH) indicates the optimal value within the range for the species.

B.: Breeding. Recommendations under this heading are merely meant to be used as a guideline. Complete breeding accounts should be obtained from fish journals or relevant specialized books.

F.: Feeding, under this heading you will see the abbreviations C, H, L, O. These stand for:
C = carnivore = meat/fish eater
H = Herbivore = plant/vegetable eater
L = Limnovore = aufwuchs/detritus eater
O = Omnivore = eats foods from all above categories

S.: = Special observations
T: = Temperature
L: = Maximal length of the adult fish. A value in parenthesis refers to maximal length achieved in aquaria.
A: Recommended aquarium length.
R: = Water region preferred by the fish in an aquarium: t=top. m=middle, b=bottom.

D: Degree of difficulty. For explanations refer to Vol. 1, p. 203
D: 1 = species for the beginning hobbyist
D: 2 = species for novices with some basic knowledge
D: 3 = species for advanced hobbyists
D: 4 = species for experts and specialists
H = Herbivore, Ch = Water chemistry, C = Carnivore, S = Size.
WC = Wild caught specimen