Hab.: Southeast Asia, southern Thailand,
Malaysia, and Indonesia (Borneo, Sumatra)
F.I.: Apparently in 1959
Soc. B: Loners, quarrelsome towards conspecifics, especially newly introduced
specimens. Prone to nipping the fins of larger fishes. Firm plants (Echinodorus,
Cryptocorne, etc.) are bitten but not eaten.
M: Clear, oxygen rich water is necessary; water hardness is irrelevant. Hiding
places among stones or roots should be created. The animals are active during
day and twilight hours. They have to be given items to chew on (e.g. roots)
to keep their teeth worn down. If allowed to go unchecked, its overgrown teeth
make it impossible for the fish to feed.
B: There is no information concerning successfully breeding this fish in captivity.
F: O; live foods such as mosquito larvae, earthworms, Gammarus, Daphnia, flies
and their larvae, and mussel meat; snail shells and tablet foods are particularly
S: These animals produce quacking sounds when they are removed from the water.
T: 23°-28°C, L: 13 cm. A: 120 cm, R: m, t, D: 3
Tetraodon cutcutia, (Hamilton, 1822)
Syn.: Tetraodon cutcutia, T. caria, T. gularis, Leisomus cutcutia, L. marmoratus,
Hab.: Asia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India, in the states of Orissa, Bengal,
F.I.: 1903 by STUWE
Sex.: Females are smaller and lighter colored. Males have nuptial coloration.
Soc. B.: Juveniles are peaceful in comparison to the waspish and quarrelsome
adults. Single maintenance is best, but if several specimens are kept, then
they all must be the same size. Males practice brood care (paternal family).
M: Provide a sand or gravel substrate, edge and background vegetation, and
hiding places among stones and roots. Ensure that there is an open area that
allows swimming. Water should be medium-hard (from 10° dGH) and neutral (pH
7.0). T. cutcutia is a freshwater fish.
B: This species has been bred in captivity. Use large aquaria. The male acquires
breeding coloration and courts the female by dancing. The eggs are laid on
carefully cleaned flat stones and guarded by the male. Depending on water
temperature, juveniles hatch after 6 to 10 days and remain on the substrate.
Rearing is arduous because of their need of very small foods. After the fry
hatch, remove the male lest he pursues the spawn.
F; C. O; live foods, preferably snails, but also mosquito larvae, Tubifex,
Daphnia, and earthworms. Mussel flesh, tablet foods, and sometimes vegetable
supplements are accepted as well.
S: The body lacks thorns. The nasal openings are united into a short tube
with but one opening. Animals removed from the water, expand into a sphere
and make quacking noises. They are called sea frogs by the inhabitants of
T: 24°-28° C, L: 8cm, A: 80 cm, R: all. D: 3
Syn. Synonym = additional names for the same species. In the systematics of
faunal nomenclature, only the name given by the original describer is valid.
Subsequent descriptions of the same species using another name create so-called
Hab. = Habitat; the natural region of origin.
F.I. First Import. It is often interesting to know how long a particular species
has been known to the hobby.
Sex.: Differences between the sexes.
Soc. B.: = Social behaviour
M.: = Conditions recommended for maintenance. A specific value placed in parenthesis
following a range for pH, degrees German total hardness (° dGH), and degrees
German carbonate hardness (° dKH) indicates the optimal value within the range
for the species.
B.: Breeding. Recommendations under this heading are merely meant to be used
as a guideline. Complete breeding accounts should be obtained from fish journals
or relevant specialized books.
F.: Feeding, under this heading you will see the abbreviations C, H, L, O.
These stand for:
C = carnivore = meat/fish eater
H = Herbivore = plant/vegetable eater
L = Limnovore = aufwuchs/detritus eater
O = Omnivore = eats foods from all above categories
S.: = Special observations
T: = Temperature
L: = Maximal length of the adult fish. A value in parenthesis refers to maximal
length achieved in aquaria.
A: Recommended aquarium length.
R: = Water region preferred by the fish in an aquarium: t=top. m=middle, b=bottom.
D: Degree of difficulty. For explanations refer to Vol. 1, p. 203
D: 1 = species for the beginning hobbyist
D: 2 = species for novices with some basic knowledge
D: 3 = species for advanced hobbyists
D: 4 = species for experts and specialists
H = Herbivore, Ch = Water chemistry, C = Carnivore, S = Size.
WC = Wild caught specimen