INTRODUCTION ENDNOTES

1 Personal interview with Dorothy Kocher Olsen, 43-W-4, 4 June 1979, Tacoma, Washington. All tapes, research and interview notes are now part of the Pateman/WASP Papers of the US Air Force Academy Library and Archives Collections.

2 Dorothy Schaffter, What Comes of Training Women for War (Washington, DC: The American Council on Education, 1948), p. vii.

3 Ibid., p. 51 and "Mrs. Love of the WAFS," Newsweek, 21 September 1942, p. 47.

4 Women Airforce Service Pilots, "Order of Fifinella 1977 Roster" (Hot Springs, Arkansas: J. R. Smith Printing, 1977), p. 94.

5 Ibid.

6 Byrd Howell Granger, "Evidence Supporting Military Service by Women Airforce Service Pilots," (n.p.: n.p.,1977), p.2.

7 Personal interview with W. Bruce Arnold, son of General H. H. "Hap" Arnold, 6 September 1978, Washington, DC. Hereafter cited as Arnold interview.

8 Personal interview with Jacqueline Cochran, 25 January 1978, Indio, California. Hereafter cited as Cochran interview.

9 NBC Nightly News, 21 May 1979.

10 The acronym "WASP" has two accepted versions: "Woman's Air Force Service Pilots" and Women Airforce Service Pilots." The first was the title designation given "WASP by AAF Memorandum 20-8, 5 August 1943. However, when AAF Headquarters in the Fall of 1943 requested subordinate command submit recommendations for a regulation regarding WASPs, three different names were used by various AAF agencies. Eventually AAF Regulation 40-8, Utilization of Women Pilots, published 3 April 1944, used the name "Women Airforce Service Pilots." The organization of former WASPs, the Order of Fifinella, uses this second designation. Given the tradition of the second name, and the unique (actually the original) spelling of "airforce," the latter name will be used throughout this paper.

The aviator WASPs are not to be confused with the "Women's Auxiliary Signal Platoon," a group of 25 women in the Signal Corps Aircraft Warning Service who served under General Russell Smith in the Panama Canal Zone in World War II.


CHAPTER 1 ENDNOTES

1 Jean Adams and Margaret Kimball with Jeanette Eaton, Heroines of the Sky (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc., 1942), pp. 43-44 and 62-62.

2 Ibid., pp. 162-168, 245, and 276-282; Cochran interview.

3 Chief Warrant Officer J. England, et al., "Women Pilots with the AAF, 1941-1944" (Washington, DC: AAF Historical Office, 1946), p. 3; and Sally Van Wagenen Keil, Those Wonderful Women in Their Flying Machines: The Unknown Heroines of Word War II (New York: Rawson, Wade Publishers, 1979). p. 99.

4 Arnold interview; and Cochran interview.

5 Jacqueline Cochran, The Stars at Noon (Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1954), pp. 98 and 111; and Cochran interview.

6 Keil, p. 98; Cochran interview.

7 England, p. 3.

8 Mattie Treadwell, The Women Army Corps, The United States Army in World War II Historical Studies, vol. 7, (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1954, p. 783; Cochran interview.

9 Cochran, pp. 118-119; Cochran interview.

10 Cochran interview, Cochran, pp. 118-119; Keil, pp. 107-108.

11 Adams et al., pp. 245-248, passim; "Women in War, Time Magazine, 2 November 1942, p. 67; Cochran interview.

12 Adams, et al., p. 278; "Women's Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron," Education for Victory, 1 December 1942, p. 27.

13 Dorothy Kocher to Evelyn Way, 19 October 1944 and 11 December 1944. Hereafter letters addressed to Evelyn Way are cited as DK to Sis. These and all other letters of Dorothy Kocher are in the private papers of Dorothy Kocher Olsen, Tacoma, Washington

14 Schaffter, pp. 52-53.

15 "Women Pilot Training 1942-1945,", pp. 49, 50, Air Force Albert Simpson Historical Research Center, Maxwell, AFB, Alabama, Roll A2311, frame 1253-1254. Hereafter microfilms from the Air Force Research Center are designated by AFASHRC, followed by roll number and frame number.

16 Granger, pp. 30-32.

17 "Women Pilot Training 1942-1945," p. 116, AFASHRC A2311, frame 1323.

18 Schaffter, p. 69.

19 Ibid.

20 Captain Nels O. Monesrud, "Medical Considerations of WASPs," 1944, p. 12, AFASHRC A2242, frame 1167.

21 Personal interview with Jane Harris Cunningham, 44-W-5, 30 March 1978, Seattle Washington. Hereafter cited as Cunningham interview.

22 Inspection Report, April 1943, AFASHRC A2254, frames, 1288-1290.

23 Telephone interview with Alta Corbett Thomas, 43-W-4, 6 February 1979.

24 WASP Survey Materials, AFASHRC A2311, frame 1076.

25 England, p. 3.

26 Wasp Survey Materials, AFASHRC A3211, frame 1076.

27 Telegram to Jacqueline Cochran, AFASHRC A2254, frame 863.

28 Cochran interview.

29 Air Inspector's Report, AFASHRC A2253, frame 1271.

30 "Accidents Pertaining to WASP Personnel," November 1943, AFASHRC A2254, frame 1837.

31 Olsen interview; Personal interview with Betty Jane Williams, 44-W-7, 27 January 1978, Woodland Hills, California. Hereafter cited as Williams interview. Personal interview with Jean Landa, 44-W-7, 21 February 1978, Spokane, Washington. Hereafter cited as Landa interview.

32 Schaffter, p. 79.


CHAPTER 2 ENDNOTES

1 Schaffter, p. 64.

2 Cochran interview.

3 Marjorie Kumler, "They've Done It Again!" Ladies Home Journal, 41 (March, 1944): 29; Granger, p.3.

4 Women Airforce Service Pilots, p. 100; Olsen interview.

5 DK to Sis, 27 February 1943.

6 Ibid.

7 DK to Sis, 10 March 1943 and 31 March 1943.

8 Williams interview; DK to Sis, 6 April 1943 and 6 May 1943.

9 Dorothy Kocher to Dr. and Mrs. T. K. Sanderson, 6 April 1943. Hereafter letters addressed to the Sandersons are cited as DK to Mom and Doc; DK to Sis, 26 April 1943.

10 DK to Sis, 6 April 1943.

11 Personal interview with Genevieve Yetter Miller, 30 January 1978, Newport Beach, California. Hereafter cited as Miller interview; Elizabeth L. Gardner, "Fifinellas are Well Fed, " The Avenger Newspaper, 2 September 1943, pp. 1-2.

12 Landa interview; also Olsen interview, Cochran interview, Williams interview and Miller interview.

13 DK to Sis, 3 May 1943 and 9 May 1943; Miller interview.

14 DK to Sis, 3 May 1943; Miller interview.

15 Williams interview.

16 Miller interview.

17 DK to Sis, 10 March 1943.

18 DK to Sis, 19 May 1943.

19 Granger, p. 5.

20 DK to Sis, 24 March 1943.

21 DK to Sis, 24 May 1943; DK to Mom and Doc, 25 May 1943.

22 DK to Sis, 6 May 1943; DK to Mom and Doc, 2 May 1943.

23 DK to Sis, 6 May 1943; DK to Mom and Doc, 26 June 1943.

24 DK to Sis, 26 April 1943.

25 DK to Sis, 6 May 1943; DK to Mom and Doc. 26 June 1943.

26 DK to Sis, 11 June 1943.

27 DK to Sis, 10 March 1943.

28 Schaffter, p. 75; Captain Nels S. Monesrud, "Medical Considerations of WASPs, " pp. 37-38, AFASHRC A2254, frames 1199-1200.

29 Monesrud, p. 38, AFASHRC, A2254, frame 1200.

30 "An Appraisal of AAF Training of Individual Specialists, 1941-1945." p. 2 of Introduction, AFASHRC A2252, frame 57; Personal interview with Elsie Lewis Vance, 44-W-8, 30 March 1978, Seattle Washington. Hereafter cited as Vance interview.

31 Schaffter, p. 53.

32 DK to Sis, 22 May 1943.

33 Vance interview.

34 Women Airforce Service Pilots, p. 93.

35 Schaffter, p. 77.

36 Ibid., p. 79.

37 Cochran interview; Personal interview with Frances Roulstone Reeves, 44-W-4, 28 January 1978, Tustin California. Hereafter cited as Reeves interview.

38 Cochran interview; Keil, pp. 224-225 and 256.

39 Keil, pp. 257-258.

40 Colonel John Bundy to W. Bruce Arnold as quoted in "Bankrupt Morality?" The Stars and Stripes--The National Tribune, 4 August 1977, p. 3.

41 Granger, p. 51.

42 Cochran interview; Arnold interview; Keil, pp. 225-227.

43 "Documentary Evidence of Women Airforce Service Pilots; Qualification for Veterans Benefits," Exhibit 7a, Arnold interview.

44 Granger, pp. 87 and 96.

45 Personal interview with Ruth Anderson Boyea, 43-W-5, 2 September 1978, Malone, New York. Hereafter cited as Boyea interview.

46 Granger, p. 96; Keil, p. 260.

47 Keil, pp. 237-238.

48 Williams interview.

49 Dan B. McCarthy, "Recollections of a WASP," Air Classics, April 1977, p. 68; Reeves interview.

50 Cochran interview.

51 Inspection Trip Report, 22 September 1944, AFASHRC A2243, frames 1514-1515.

52 Inspection Trip Report, 2 October 1944, AFASHRC A2253, frame 1512.

53 "Airports Named for WAFS," WASP Newsletter, April 1979. p. 12.

54 Interview with the author, January 1978. A similar incident, in which a WASP's body was left in an airplane while the base Provost Marshall and the local coroner argued over who should remove her body, is told in Mardo Cranes's (44-W-1) fictionalized account of her WASP experiences, Fly-Down of the WASP (New York: Pageant Press, 1967), pp. 103 and 109. This might be a veiled reference to the death of WASP Hazel Ah Ying Lee.

55 Ellensburg (WA) Daily Record, 11 December 1944, p. 1.

56 DK to Sis, 11 December 1944; Keil, pp. 296-297.

57 DK to Jacqueline Cochran, 26 December 1944.


CHAPTER 3 ENDNOTES

1 Bess Moyer, The Girl Flyers on Adventure Island, The Girl Flyers Series (Chicago: Goldsmith Publishing Company 1932); Margaret Armstrong, Dorothy Dixon Solves the Conway Case (Chicago: Goldsmith Publishing Company, 1933). The staff of Shorey's Book Store, Seattle, Washington was instrumental in researching this material on my behalf.

2 Maurice Horn, Women in the Comics (New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1977), pp. 104, 108 and 117. It is noteworthy that WASP, Nedra Harrison, 43-W-5, was the model for Dragon Lady of the Terry and the Pirates comic strip, having posed for cartoonist Milton Caniff. See Keil, p. 144.

3 John Cromwell, director, Spitfire, with Katharine Hepburn and Robert Young, RKO, 1934.

4 War Department Public Relations Policy for Women Pilots, 21 June 1943, AFASHRC, A2254 frame 163.

5 Unnumbered memorandum, First indorsement, 17 January 1944, AFASHRC A2253 frame 2038.

6 Hazel Taylor to Irresistible, Inc., 9 February 1944, AFASHRC A2253 frame 2040.

7 Hazel Taylor to Colonel Westlake, 25 November 1942, AFASHRC A2253, frame 1679; Hazel Taylor to Major Ennis, 26 October 1942, AFASHRC A2253, frame 1703.

8 Hazel Taylor to Miss Cochran, 14 August 1943, AFASHRC A2254, frame 49.

9 Ibid.

10 Hazel Taylor to Miss Cochran, 13 August, 1943, AFASHRC A2254, frame 50.

11 Hazel Taylor to Colonel Westlake, 25 November 1942, AFASHRC A2253, frame 1679.

12 Hazel Taylor to Major Ennis, 26 October 1942, AFASHRC A2253, frame 1703.

13 Kumler, p. 29.

14 DK to Mom and Doc, February 1943.

15 Hazel Taylor to Major Ennis, 26 October 1942, AFASHRC A2253, frame 1703.

16 Major Elliott to Colonel Westlake, transmittal slip, no specific date, AFASHRC A2254, frame 2008.

17 "Coup for Cochran," Newsweek, 19 July 1943, pp. 41-42.

18 "Girl Pilots," Life, 15 (19 July 1943); 73-81.

19 Cornelia Fort, "At Twilight's Last Gleaming, " Women's Home Companion, July, 1943, p. 19.

20 Barbara Selby, "The Fifinella," Flying Magazine, July 1943, p. 76.

21 Commander Pauline Gower, M.B.F., "The ATA Girls," Flying Magazine, August, 1943, p. 30; John Stuart, "The WASP," Flying Magazine , December, 1943, p. 72.

22 Kumler, p. 29.

23 Fort, p. 19.

24 Treadwell, p. 768; U. S., Congress, House Debate on H.R. 4219 To Provide for Commissioning of Women Pilots, 78th Cong., 2d sess., and 21 June 1944, Congressional Record, pp. 6405 and 6408.

25 "Wanted: Female Impersonators," editorial, Contact, April 1944, p. 5.

26 Arnold interview; Cochran interview; Williams interview.

27 H.R. 4219, 78th Cong., 2d sess., Cong. Rec. 21 June 1944, p. 6411.

28 U. S. Congress, House, Concerning Inquiries Made of Certain Proposals for the Expansion and Change in Civil Service Status of the WASP, by Robert J. Ramspeck, 78th Cong., 2d sess., 1944, H. R. 1600, p. 13.

29 H.R. 4219, 78th Cong., 2d sess., Cong. Rec. 21 June 1944, p. 6413.

30 Ibid., p. 6412.

31 H.R. 4219, 78th Cong., 2d sess., Cong. Rec. 20 June 1944, p. 6330.

32 "Battle of the Sexes, " Time, 8 May 1944, pp. 68-69.

34 H.R. 4219, 78th Cong., 2d sess., Cong. Rec. 21 June 1944, pp. 6416-6417.

35 Central Flying Training Command WASP History, 1944, p. 18, AFASHRC A2311, frame 949. Hereafter cited a CFTC WASP History.

36 Barbara E. Poole, Requiem for the WASP," Flying Magazine, December 1944, p. 55.

37 Ibid., p. 146.

38 R. C. Oberdahn, Director of Industrial Relations to Dorothy Kocher, 1 March 1945; Cunningham interview.

39 DK to Sis, 11 December 1944.

40 Major Chambers, Cover letter for ATC History of WASP Service, May 1945, AFASHRC A2252, frame 2132.

41 Ibid.

42 Fort, p. 19.

43 H.R. 4219, 78th Cong., 2d sess., Cong. Rec. 21 June 1944, p. 6411.


EPILOGUE ENDNOTES

1 Olsen interview.

2 Sweetwater (Texas) Reporter, 23 June 1972.

3 Arnold interview.

4 Ibid.; Williams interview; "WASP newsletter," December 1977, p.3.

5 "WASP Newsletter," December, 1977, p. 7.

6 Ibid., p. 11; "Editor's Notebook," Good Housekeeping, January 1978, p.4.

7 Arnold interview.

8 Ibid.

9 Ibid., Williams interview; Landa interview; Keil, p. 314.

10 Ibid.; "WASP Newsletter" December 1977, p. 1; Cochran interview. It is noteworthy that privately Jacqueline Cochran opposed the effort to gain veteran's status for the WASP.

11 Lillian Connor Roberts to "All WASP Trainees, and Survivors of WASP," March 1979.

12 "WASPs Win War for Vet Status, Or: It Pays to Be Persistent," Army Reserve Magazine, Fall, 1979, p. 6; WASP Newsletter, April 1979, p. 2.

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