Israel renamed to Syria Palaestina
Late Roman Period II 135–220 CE
- Romans join the province of Iudaea (comprising Samaria, Judea proper, and
Idumea) with Galilee to form new province of Syria Palaestina
In 135 CE, the victory in Bar Kokhba's revolt by Hadrian resulted in 580,000 Jews killed (according to Cassius Dio) and destabilization of the region's Jewish population. The Romans renamed the new territory Syria Palaestina to complete
the disassociation with Judaea. Jerusalem is re-established as the Roman military colony of Aelia Capitolina; a largely unsuccessful attempt is made to prevent Jews from living there. Many Jews left the country altogether for the
Diaspora communities, and large numbers of prisoners of war are sold as slaves throughout the Empire.
A number of events with far-reaching consequences took place, including religious schisms, such as Christianity branching off of Judaism.
The Romans destroyed the Jewish community of the Mother Church in Jerusalem, which had existed since the time
of Jesus The line of Jewish bishops in Jerusalem, which is claimed to have started with Jesus's brother James the Righteous as its first bishop, ceased to exist, within the Empire. Hans Kung in "Islam :Past Present and Future", suggests that
the Jewish Christians sought refuge in Arabia and he quotes with approval C. Clemen, T. Andrae and H.H. Schraeder, p. 342 "This produces the
paradox of truly historic significance that while Jewish Christianity was swallowed up in the Christian church, it preserved
itself in Islam, and some of its most powerful impulses extend down to the present day".
Roman Emperor changed the name:
Iudaea Province was the stage of three major rebellions (see Jewish-Roman wars), including the Great Jewish Revolt (66-70 CE) the Kitos War (115-117 CE), and Bar Kokhba's revolt (132-135 CE), after which Hadrian changed the name of the province to Syria Palaestina and Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina in an attempt to erase the historical ties of the Jewish people to the region.
Publius Aelius Hadrianus (24 January 76 – 10 July 138), commonly known as Hadrian
and after his apotheosis Divus Hadrianus, was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. He is best-known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman territory in Britain. In Rome, he built the Pantheon and the Temple of Venus and Roma. In addition to being emperor, Hadrian was a humanist and was philhellene in all his tastes. He was the third of the so-called Five Good Emperors.
In 63 B.C. the Roman general Pompeius ruled in the Near East. He too used the name Palaistine for the land of the Israelites. In 135 A.D. Publius Aelius
Hadrianus (Emperor of Rome from 117 to 138 A.D.) called Judea: Syria Palaestina. It is generaly accepted that Hadrian purposely called Canaan Palaestina to insult the Jews (and their God!). He was determined
to wipe out the identity of Israel-Judah-Judea. So he actually cut them off from their Biblical inheritance and national history.
In the same way Hadrian changed the name of rebuilt Jerusalem in Aelia Capitolina and on the Temple Mount he erected a pagan temple for the Roman god Jupiter Capitolinus!
The Romans have killed many Jews and have sold even more as slaves. Others abandoned Canaan, but never has there been a time
without Jews or Jewish communities in the land.