Added 2/25/04, RA Rydin, modified 5/16/05

The following essay is adapted from the web. Comments have been added in italics.

The Big Bang Never Happened: A Startling Refutation of the Dominate Theory of the Origin of the Universe [1991]

By Eric Lerner



"Tully's supercluster complexes directly contradict the homogeneity assumed by the Big Bang. This homogeneity has always been a problem, since it's clear that the universe is so clumpy: how did it get that way if it started out so smooth? The general Big Bang answer has been that there were very tiny clumps in the early universe; through gravitational attraction those clumps gradually grew bigger and bigger, forming stars, galaxies, and clusters. Of course, the bigger the clump, the longer the time to form."

The argument here is that the universe is much older than 15 billion years.

"For stars, a few million years is enough, for galaxies one or two billion years are needed. Clusters take even longer. By the time superclusters were discovered, there was an obvious difficulty, and in the eighties cosmologists were hard at work trying to overcome them. Tully's objects made the situation impossible - they were just too big to have formed in the twenty billion years since the Big Bang."

"It's not hard to see why. By observing the redshifts of galaxies, astronomers can see not only how far away they are, but roughly how fast they move relative to one another - their true speed, ignoring the Hubble velocities that increase with distance. Remember, redshifts indicate how fast an object is moving away from us. Redshifts increase with distance, but also with an object's own speed, relative to the objects around it. It's possible to sort these two velocities out, using other distance measurements, such as the one Tully and Fischer devised. It turns out that galaxies almost never move much faster than a thousand kilometers per second, about one-three-hundredth as fast as the speed of light."

"Thus, in the (at most) twenty billion years since the Big Bang, a galaxy, or the matter that would make up a galaxy, could have moved only about sixty-five million light-years. But if you start out with matter spread smoothly through space, and if you can move it only sixty-five million light-years, you just can't build up objects as vast and dense as Tully's complexes. For these objects to form, matter must have moved at least 270 million light-years. This would have taken around eighty billion years at one thousand kilometers per second, four or five times longer than the time allowed by the Big Bang theorists."

"The situation is really worse than this, because the matter would first have to accelerate to this speed. Even before this, a seed mass big enough to attract matter over such distances would have to form. So an age of one hundred billion years for such complexes is conservative. Simply put, if Tully's objects exist, the universe cannot have begun twenty billion years ago."

"The initial reaction of most cosmologists to Tully's observations was to reject them altogether. "I think Tully is just connecting the dots in claiming to see these clusters of clusters," Marc Davis, a Berkeley cosmologist, commented dismissively. But that position has become increasingly untenable. During 1987 Tully carefully analyzed his data, proving that it is extremely unlikely that the clustering could have come about as a chance arrangement of random scattered clusters, or as a result of flaws in his calculations."

However, with appropriate external seeds, the age estimate doesn't have to be quite as long as one hundred billion years.

"In 1990, several teams of astronomers confirmed the existence of these huge supercluster objects. The most dramatic work was that of Margaret J. Geller and John P. Huchra of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, who mapped all galaxies within about six hundred million light-years of earth. In November of 1989 they announced their latest results, revealing what they called the "Great Wall," a huge sheet of galaxies stretching in every direction off the region mapped. The sheet, more than two hundred million light-years across and seven hundred million light-years long, but only about twenty million light-years thick, coincides exactly with the supercluster complex mapped by Tully. The difference is that the new results involve over five thousand individual galaxies, and thus are almost impossible to question as statistical flukes."

The Great Wall has the characteristics of having it's primary and possibly only significant spatial variation in 1D, which to us appears in the radial direction!

"Still larger structures were uncovered by an international team of American, British, and Hungarian observers, including David Koo of Lick Observatory and T. J. Broadhurst of the University of Durham, in England. The team looked very deeply into space in two opposing directions, scanning only narrow "wells" in space. To their surprise they found galaxies clustered in thin bands, evenly spaced some four hundred million light-years apart like the rungs of a titanic ladder. The entire pattern stretched across a quarter of a diameter of the observable universe, a distance of over seven billion light-years. The galaxies seemed to be moving very slowly relative to one another-no more than five hundred kilometers per second. At that speed, the gigantic void-and-shell pattern appears to have taken at least 150 billion years to form, which is seven to ten times the number of years since the Big Bang allegedly took place."

However, if pre-existing black hole seeds were involved in the formation of this structure, an age estimate of ten times 15 billion years would be reasonable.