Modified, 3/24/2014 (Change center to 70 MLY)
The Big Wave Model of the Universe
Roger A. Rydin
Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering
University of Virginia
Originally Submitted to:
Gravity Research Foundation, P.O. Box 81389
Wellesley Hills, Massachusetts 02181-0004
In regards to: 1998 Awards for Essays on Gravitation
A new self-consistent spherical Big Wave model of a cycling Big Bang is proposed which assumes a closed, almost flat universe, but otherwise produces a Hubble-like expansion, a uniform Cosmic Microwave Background and a hot plasma phase that generates the primordial light elements. A major distinction is that all motion is real motion in space, rather than an expansion of space itself. The model is based upon the concept of destruction/creation of gravity by dissociation/recombination of gravitons as matter is converted to/from energy. The model produces correlated galactic walls and voids in a damped sinusoid-squared distribution that matches the NORTH-SOUTH and 45 degree deep-redshift pencil survey of galaxy distributions. Furthermore, it explains the similarity of galaxies throughout the universe, the origin of globular clusters and the origin and nature of quasars. A consequence of the entire process is that there is no such thing as "exotic dark matter". The model resolves the conflict about the age of the universe by predicting that the universe is much more than twice as old as we currently think it is.
Introduction to a Repetitive Big Bang
A strong case has been made by Velan  , Mitchell [2,3], Van Flandern  and others that there are a great many inconsistencies in the Conventional Cosmological Model of the Big Bang as described by Silk , so that it can't possibly be a correct representation of the creation and behavior of the universe. Velan argues that it is senseless to begin any model at a mathematical singularity. To this end, his Fireball Model begins from a contraction of a prior closed universe. Indeed, Velan argues that there is no reason to exclude the possible existence of other adjacent universes that will never be observable because of the vast scale of our universe. At a minimum, these surrounding universes would provide a continuity boundary condition of no net flow of matter out of our universe.
Velan's model uses the mass and energy of a spherical collapse of a previous universe to create a very hot but finite-sized new Big Bang at a specific location in space. The temperature is such that everything decomposes somehow into the constituents of the Conventional Big Bang, but he retains the gravity of this mass and postulates a matter expansion from this point.
A flaw in Velan's Fireball model of the Big Bang is that it adopts a shock-bounce mechanism to turn a contraction into an expansion. This is much like the present postulated mechanism for a Type-II supernova, where a fraction of the gravitational-collapse energy of the star's core is supposedly transferred to the outer layers of the star to blow them away. This usually leaves a neutron star ash at the center. Hence, by analogy, Velan's Fireball would probably also leave a very large black hole at the origin, and at a minimum such an artifact would be experimentally observable somewhere in space. This remnant would surely affect the motion of the rest of the universe. It would also leave an observable hot spot in the microwave background. Neither has been observed.
Bottom Line of Velan's Analysis
Velan's model must be invalid as presently stated. But this flaw does not make the balance of Velan's analysis invalid. It is very reasonable to begin with an inward-moving Big Crunch and see what might happen, specifically to see if a repeating cycle is possible. If all matter eventually ended up in a giant black hole singularity at the origin, then it would appear impossible to reverse the process. This is an argument that Hoyle used to eliminate repeating universes from consideration as an alternative to the Big Bang and support his steady-state model. Hoyle was unable to come up with a mechanism that would convert the black holes and heavy elements back to hydrogen for the expansion phase.
So some mechanism has to be postulated to make the black hole evaporate, and when it evaporates into a spherical re-distribution of outgoing high-energy photons its gravitational attraction then simultaneously disappears. Gravity Appears and Disappears in other processes! Then, the photons have to recombine to form neutrons, which decay to make hydrogen again.
Requirements for a New Big Bang Model
According to Dressler , any new model of the Big Bang would have to match the successes of the Cosmological Model. It would have to produce a Hubble expansion. It would have to produce a uniform cosmic microwave background. It would have to have a hot-plasma phase to produce the primordial hydrogen-to-helium ratio. And finally, it would have to produce an age for the universe consistent with the measurement of the oldest objects in the universe.
It would furthermore be desirable for the new model to explain some of the present mysteries of the universe, such as the nature of dark matter, the conditions that made our universe "lumpy and bumpy" with Great Walls and Great Voids, and the origin and nature of galaxy formation, quasars, globular clusters, etc.
New Big Wave Model in Spherical Geometry
Before the Big Bang, t < 0
Assume that the universe is closed, so that it eventually re-collapses. After some tens to hundreds of billions of years from now, the current expansion will stop and existing galaxies will start to collapse towards the origin. Their motion will mirror-image the current Hubble expansion, but with a negative slope. The farthest galaxies will be going fastest as they near the origin.
The Big Wave model of the Big Bang begins during the final stages of the Big Crunch of a previous universe. A gigantic black hole forms at an origin point in space. Approaching matter is processed into black holes. Black holes merge with other black holes as they accelerate towards the origin. Following them is a distribution of billions of black holes of varying sizes, speeds and distances from the origin, plus a lot of gas and dust. The largest of these black holes are formed close to the origin. Some approach with speeds that may be a considerable fraction of the speed of light.
At the Big Bang, t = 0
The central black hole becomes a net zero momentum system. The total mass of the gigantic central black hole finally approaches the point where the gravitational force of attraction matches the quantum-mechanical compression resistance of the packed quarks. This is the situation discussed by Alexander , who argues that the extremely successful quantum-mechanical treatment of quantized states and the Pauli Exclusion Principle must compete with the equally successful General Theory of Relativity "at the Big Bang singularity". Something must give way.
We postulate that all of the mass and gravitons in the central black hole dissociate simultaneously into monoenergetic photons and new leptonic quark entities called graviphotons. These entities proceed together outward from the origin at the speed of light as a correlated symmetric spherical wave. There is no hot matter explosion at all! This traveling wave front of high-energy photons also contains the characteristic wavelength of the graviphoton, postulated to be approximately 800 million light years! It is accepted theoretically that a very long wavelength is associated with essentially massless particles.
At the point of dissociation of the gravitons, the gigantic black hole at the origin evaporates and its well of gravitational force disappears. All the mass and energy of gravitational collapse of the central black hole is transferred to the spherical wave.
After the Big Bang, t > 0
Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Microwave Background
We assume that new matter is created along the radial direction when the photons and graviphotons recombine as the wave recedes from the origin. If the coherent wave is treated as a quantum-mechanical wave function in the form of a spherical jo(wr) Bessel function, then the radial probability of redeposition of matter follows the square of the wave function. It is not possible to convert a gamma ray to a single particle. Production of a charged particle requires production of the corresponding antiparticle to conserve charge. But if it is postulated that a pair of fast neutrons precipitates out of the wave, then it is possible to conserve energy and radial momentum, also preserving the observed charge neutrality of the universe. Then the ~15 minute half-life decay of free neutrons into protons, electrons, and neutrinos produces a moving hot plasma wave front capable of forming deuterium and helium .
In 1946, Gamow suggested that fast neutrons alone would be sufficient to form a hot plasma, and he and his coworkers demonstrated that this process would produce the primordial gasses and eventually lead to a cosmic microwave background. In the present model, the plasma would be created with a density that varied with radial position. We argue that the only difference caused by density variations would be that the mean free path to each collision would be longer as the plasma thinned, but the relative reaction rates would be comparable on a per neutron basis because the mean collision time would be a small fraction of the neutron half life.
Hubble Expansion and Age
The neutrons would have to be formed with velocities that are less than the speed of light in order to conserve energy and momentum, since it takes ~930 MeV to make a neutron. Hence, the wave would rapidly out-distance the new neutrons. Since the furthest-out plasma is hotter and moving faster in the outward radial direction than that near the origin, there is a basis for a spherical Hubble-like expansion as seen from the origin.
Since the deposition of matter is spherically symmetric about the origin, the cosmic microwave background would appear to be uniform from any observational position located near the origin. Matter near the origin would be more than 30 billion years old so that nearby photons have cooled to ~2.7 degrees Kelvin, while matter at the observable edge of the universe would be more than 15 billion years old and the photons only slightly less scattered. We don't actually know what mechanism sets this temperature anyway! The gradual age variation superimposed on the radial density variation might be undetectable unless specifically searched for. And of course, new matter would have been laid down well beyond the distance that we can now see. It's not simply the movement of existing matter to a place further away from us, as in the Cosmological model, but a combination of movement plus deposition of new matter. This is a non-Friedmann expansion that obeys a different mathematical formulation, so the actual age of the universe would be related to the Hubble age in a different way!
As a matter of fact, as reported by Krauss, the Cosmic Microwave Background appears to be stationary with respect to a position in the direction of the Virgo supercluster , which suggests a general location for the origin. There are other data supporting this choice of origin. According to Arp, the only observed blueshift galaxies are in the Virgo Supercluster, and there is a strange measured galactic redshift periodicity in this direction . Finally, the anomaly described by Dressler leading to the Great Attractor is located there .
Walls and Voids
A series of deep redshift galaxy count measurements [10-14] has been underway for more than ten years, conducted by approximately ten astronomers including Koo, Broadhurst, Szalay, Ellis, Kron and Munn. The surveys perpendicular to the plane of the Milky Way and taken at an angle of 45 degrees from the plane exhibit the same periodic behavior, but with some distortion in the 45 degree traverse, indicating that the data are sampling a spherical distribution centered near the Milky Way. The 2D minislice survey is not inconsistent with this picture, but needs further analysis when the remaining redshifts have been measured. The direction effect is illustrated in the figure below, where the N-S trace is along a great diameter and the 45 degree trace is not.
A postulated spherical j0 Bessel function-squared solution with a small initial phase shift, times an exponential that accounts for matter deposition losses (red curve), matches the measured deep red shift N-S galactic pencil surveys when the experimental data are scaled by the inverse of the square of the radial distance to correct for the conical shape of the pencil (blue curve), as seen in the figure below. Note that the basic data illustrate a damped sinusoid, irregardless of any theoretical model. By squaring a sinusoid with a period of 800 million light years we obtain a curve that has maxima separated by 400 million light years with zeros in between. These zeros are responsible for the sharp drops in the red curve as plotted on a semilogarithmic graph, while similar drops in the blue curve are caused by a paucity of data. Of course, subsequent gravitationally-driven motion of matter would round off the peaks and fill in the valleys, thus smoothing the minimum values. Is This Only a Fit?
Both the theoretical matter production probability amplitude and the narrow-cone data are uncertain near the origin, the former affected by Heisenburg uncertainty and the latter affected by a finite integer counting probability. But the theory matches the experimental data very well over most of the range. The slight N-S asymmetry of the data places the origin at about 60 million light years south of the plane of the Milky Way in today's distances. These data were taken out to approximately 5 billion light years in each direction from the Milky Way.
Also note that by taking the origin near the Earth, the model is consistent with the observation that quasars seem to be clumped in a narrow redshift band that is spherically symmetric around us. On the other hand, such an observation is totally inconsistent with the Cosmological Principle.
The new Big Wave model predicts that Great Walls and Voids will form in the universe! The measured distortion at a 45 degree angle off of the N-S poles  places the origin somewhat to the side of the Milky Way.
Galaxies, Quasars and Globular Clusters, are Caused by Pre-existing Black Holes
Once the giant central black hole has vanished, and its gravitational attraction has disappeared, the remaining very large black holes will simply proceed towards the empty origin with constant velocities and come out the other side, although with some possible scattering near the origin. This is a pass-through concept, producing another mirror image of the Hubble collapse, which is a Hubble expansion! Hence, the Hubble expansion we now see may be related more to the motion of pre-existing black holes than to the laydown of new matter by a wave.
Note that Hubble's "Law" is simply a fit to observed galaxy redshifts and positions, and contains a certain amount of scatter. Furthermore, it is only valid over a limited range that is considerably less than the velocity of light. Hubble's law is not derivable from first principles, but is a correlation of the behavior of those bodies that have been measured. As such, even though quasars also exhibit redshift, there is no a priori reason why they should follow the same redshift-distance relationship as galaxies! These possibly very massive bodies may exhibit a gravitational redshift bias.
If we assume that the multitude of pre-existing black holes passed directly through the origin and followed behind the Big Wave of matter creation, then they could each have gathered up some of the newly-made gas in passing by. Black holes moving much faster than their immediate surroundings would probably not have gathered much gas. But when they finally caught up with some faster-moving gas with only a small difference in relative velocities, then they would do most of their gathering. Eventually, the black holes with mostly locally-accreted gas would have joined the motion of the new gasses at some radial distance where their velocities matched. The accreted gasses would be distributed spherically around these black holes by gravity.
There are two new ideas to be considered. First, the pass-through of pre-existing black holes and other debris offers an answer to the question, "where did all the high-Z material in the Earth come from if it is only formed in supernovas?" The debris could contain the extra elements such as Uranium from a prior time, and it could be added to the mix that makes new stars and eventually planets like Earth. Second, the "starless galaxy" discovered in 2005 in Virgo is located where the maximum production of new gasses would have taken place according to the Big Wave model.
We postulate that the largest, fastest-moving black holes were the seeds of the quasars, which are now fairly far away. Because of their great masses, some significant fraction of the observable redshifts of quasars may be intrinsically due to gravitational effects while the rest is due to Doppler shift.
The smaller black holes were the seeds of all the galaxies! And some of the next smaller black holes, which might have been captured to orbit galactic black holes, are the seeds of the globular clusters. Small-angle correlation of the cosmic microwave background fluctuations may simply measure the wakes left by the passage of pre-existing black holes through the gas in the universe. These fluctuations may not have been used to trigger galaxy formation at all!
Note that this assertion is consistent with a cycling universe. Some black holes would have to have had very high initial speeds to get so far away from the origin, but then they would have had to slow down from their initial speeds to the speed they had when observed. This represents a gravitational deceleration with distance, which is the condition for a recollapse. Such a condition is possible, because in this model the density of the universe is not constant but decreases with distance from the origin as supported by the deep redshift pencil data. Hence, the true age of the universe must be several times 15 billion years, consistent with Lerner's arguments about the time it takes to form Superclusters.
Such a mechanism explains why the galaxies follow a discrete Hubble distribution unsmeared by initial gas dynamics. The basic motion is tied to the pre-existing black holes. Another feature of such a pure radial expansion from a non-rotating initial system is that the Earth would be located in a non-rotating field of stars, as confirmed by observation.
Since the pre-existing black holes at any given distance from the origin may have had a distribution of velocities and initial positions, it may happen that, at some later time, galaxies and quasars in a small observational cone may have different redshifts and yet appear to be at the same distance. More likely, if the faster one overtook and passed the slower ones, there may also remain some artifacts of their long-ago passage such as gas trails. This might explain some of the anomalies noted by Arp , which in a two-dimensional view may look like a current connection between these bodies rather than a past connection. The quasars may also be much closer than indicated by their redshifts if a portion of that redshift is based on gravitational effects.
This new model produces a set of conditions at variance with the assumptions in the Friedmann Equation, in the sense that some of the matter is created outside of any given spherical shell and adds to that which is expanding. Thus, the age of the universe is not related to the inverse of the Hubble constant in the same proportion as is now believed. In addition, measurements of the apparent acceleration of the Hubble expansion would be insufficient to determine whether or not the universe is closed.
This also explains why the edge of the observable universe shows galaxies in the process of formation. The wave is now far away, but these galaxies formed after it passed and the light had just left towards us while they were young.
All of the Friedmann models are wrong, and with them the condition of Omega = 1.0 for a flat universe is in fact meaningless using its present definition! This dark matter or energy has been postulated to exist in order to make the Cosmological Model act as if the universe is almost closed. A corresponding Omega-prime for the new model may already have a value close to unity, so here is one potential requirement for exotic dark matter that we don't need to meet at all. The visible disk of stars in a spiral galaxy amounts to only about 10% of the volume of the corresponding sphere of the same radius, so that there is potentially 10 times as much ordinary matter there as we see in the form of dead or dim stars, etc! This would be sufficient to supply the extra gravity needed to explain the virial motion of the visible stars in the galaxies and the other nearby bodies affected by the presence of the galaxy.
Where additional mass is needed, for example to stiffen the arms of spiral galaxies, the local distribution of a small amount of dim or unseen matter near the arms themselves may be sufficient. Sudden failure of this stiffening mechanism may be the reason for the existence of barred spiral galaxies.
A New Energy Production Mechanism
We further propose a new mass-destruction/energy-production mechanism, based upon a variant of Fredriksson's Stockholm Diquark model , that functions by neutrino-induced fission of protons in a chain reaction , as first suggested by Bly. Each neutrino capture leads to three new neutrinos and almost total conversion of 1 AMU of mass to energy. On a per atom basis, this is 1000 times more efficient than Uranium Fission or Deuterium Fusion. The actual mechanism may be a two-step process, whereby a Delta++ is first produced by gravitational excitation heating, and then a neutrino causes fission before de-excitation takes place.
Even though the neutrino cross section is small, of the order of 1E-42 cm2, there are various conditions of size and density in a collapsing star core where the optical thickness for this reaction is unity. The amount of supercriticality above a multiplication factor of Keff = 1.0, and the speed of crossing the critical state, determine the energy pulse width and power produced before the reaction shuts itself off due to depletion of its fuel. We postulate that this process occurs in Type-II supernovae during core collapse, where the process is rapid and the excess delta-Keff is large, leading to the explosion of the outer layers of the star like an atom bomb after the inner core has neutronized to a considerable extent.
This is probably also the nuclear energy source that stabilizes gaseous quasars at their super sizes and slowly makes them pulsate , as also suggested by Bly. The gas slowly contracts by gravitational attraction to make the quasar slowly go slightly supercritical, and the energy released heats the gas, causing it to expand and make the quasar go subcritical again. The power pulsation is due to the cyclic repetition of this process. This action is similar to the operation of the Oklo natural prehistoric nuclear reactor discovered in Gabon.
A corresponding mechanism involving neutron fission may also be responsible for gamma-bursts and hypernovae when neutron stars collide with stars or neutron stars. In these cases, the kinetic energy of collision of these massive bodies supplies the excitation energy to drive the reaction.
The Big Wave model features all of the successes of the Big Bang model by producing hydrogen, a Hubble-like expansion of galaxies, a uniform cosmic microwave background, and a plasma-based nucleosynthesis of deuterium and helium. In addition, it supplies a consistent explanation for some of the other great mysteries of the universe.
The model predicts the existence of periodic correlated galactic walls and voids! Furthermore, it explains the similarity of galaxies throughout the universe and their rapid formation, the origin of globular clusters, and the origin and nature of quasars and why they are spherically distributed in an annulus surrounding the Earth. There is no need to locate and identify exotic dark matter because it doesn't exist! Finally, the model resolves the conflict about the age of the universe by predicting that the universe is many times more than twice as old as we currently think, which makes it consistent with the oldest objects found by other means.
1) A. Karel Velan, The Multi-Universe Cosmos, Plenum Press, 1992.
2) William Mitchell, The Cult of the Big Bang, 1995.
3) William Mitchell, Bye Bye Big Bang - Hello Reality, in press 2001.
4) Tom Van Flandern, Dark Matter, Missing Planets, & New Comets, North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, California, 1998.
5) Joseph Silk, The Big Bang, W.H. Freeman Co., 1989.
6) Alan Dressler, Voyage to the Great Attractor, First Vintage Books, Random House, 1995.
7) T. Alexander, "Science Rediscovers Gravity", Fortune Magazine, December 1969.
8) Lawrence Krauss, Quintessence, the Mystery of Missing Mass in the Universe, Basic Books, Parts II-IV, New York, NY, 2000.
9) Halton Arp, Seeing Red, Aperion Press, 1998.
10) T.J. Broadhurst, R.S. Ellis, D.C. Koo and A.S. Szalay, "Large Scale Distribution of Galaxies at the Galactic Poles", Nature, Vol. 343, 22 Feb, 1990, pp 726-728.
11) J.A. Munn, D.C. Koo, R.G. Kron, S.R. Majewski, M.A. Bershady and J.J. Smetanka, "The Kitt Peak Galaxy Redshift Survey (KPGRS) with Multicolor Photometry; Basic Data", ApJSupp, Vol. 108 (in press), and S.R. Majewski, private communication (class notes), Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, March 1996.
12) C.N.A. Willmer, D.C. Koo, A.S. Szalay and M.J. Kurtz, "A Medium-Deep Redshift Survey of a Minislice at the North Galactic Pole, The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 437, pp 560-563, Dec. 1994
13) D.C. Koo, N. Ellman, R.G. Kron, J.A. Munn, A.S. Szalay, T.J. Broadhurst, and R.S. Ellis, "Deep Pencil-Beam Redshift Surveys as Probes of Large Scale Structures", Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Conference Series, Vol. 51, 1993.
14) C.N.A. Willmer, D.C. Koo, A.S. Szalay and M.J. Kurtz, "A Medium-Deep Redshift Survey of a Minislice at the North Galactic Pole", APJ 437, pp 560-563, 1994.
15) S. Fredriksson, "The Stockholm Diquark Model", Proc. Workshop on Diquarks, World Publishing Company (1989).
16) C.A. Bly, "Neutrino-Driven Nucleon Fission Reactors: Supernovas, Quasars, and the Big Bang", Transactions American Nuclear Society, Vol. 66, pp 529-532, 1992.