Edmund Husserl (1859-1938)
The founder of the movement in literary criticism
known as Phenomenology. Husserl saw phenomenology as a psychology
separated the physical from the
psychical and concentrated its
attention on the psychical. Husserl attempted to shift the focus of philosophy away from
large scale theorization,
towards a more precise study of discrete phenomena,ideas and simple events. He was interested in the essential structure of things, using
eidetic analysis of intensionality to yield apodictic(necessary) truths.
Husserl aided philosophy, breaking the Cartesian trap of dualism with new ideas
Born in the former Czechloslovakia, Husserl studied in Leipzig, Berlin and Vienna, where he also taught. He began his studies as a mathemetician,
but his studies were influencedby Brentano, who moved him to study more psychology and philosophy.
He wrote his first book in 1891, The Philosophy of Arithmetic. This book dealt mostly with mathematical issues, but his interests soon shifted.
Husserl immersed himself in the study of logic from 1890-1900, and he soonafter produced another text: Logical
Some of his major ideas of this era were intentionality, relations, and identity
of things. He came to focus on perceptual experience, and as he began to shed his early Kantian ways, he wrote
Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy(1913).His last three books were Formal and Transcendental Logic(1929), Cartesian
Meditations(1931), and Lectures on the Phenomenology of Inner Time-Consciousness
(1928), a groupof lectures he compiled and edited. His lectures and essays comprise a large amount
of his works.
- The Philosophy of Arithmetic (1891).
- Logical Investigations(1901).
- Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy(1913).
- Formal and Transcendental Logic(1929)
- Cartesian Meditations(1931).
- Lectures on the Phenomenology of Inner Time-Consciousness
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