TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE, PURPOSE & INTENT
KNOWLEDGE IS MPG POWER:
ME, MY HYBRID AND THE HYBRID "WATERFRONT":
RECENT HISTORY OVERVIEW:
1. TOYOTA HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE (HSD)/FORD HYBRID DRIVE:
2. HONDA INTEGRATED MOTOR ASSIST (IMA) HYBRID DRIVE:
3. GM-CHEVROLET VOLT E-REV/REEV SERIAL HYBRID DRIVE:
4. GM/DAIMLER-CHRYSLER/BMW TWO-MODE/DIRECT HYBRID DRIVE:
5. SATURN/CHEVROLET “GREEN LINE” MILD-HYBRID
THE BAD NEWS:
BIT MORE NOT SO GOOD NEWS:
THE GOOD NEWS:
TO DRIVE "GREEN" TO $AVE "GREEN BACK" PETROLBUCK$...$$$$:
151-PLU$ MORE REA$ON$ FOR "MAMA TO BE HAPPY":
HEAR THIS! I HAVE MUCHO PSEUDO-GOOD NEWS:
KAMMBACK DESIGN & REARWARD BLIND SPOT ZONE:
*HYBRID $MART*: HYBRID BASICS FOR IMPROVED "$MILE$" PER GALLON [10 “Best Practices” To Achieve “Stellar”
Fuel Economy In An OEM Instrumented Prius]
A. LOOSE OLD-BAD, DEVELOP NEW HYBRIDIZED DRIVING HABITS
B. MPG VS. MPH "SWEET SPOT" RANGES
C. ROLLING FRICTION AND TIRE SELECTION
D. ICE FRICTION AND MOTOR OIL SELECTION
E. HEATING/VENTILATION/AIR CONDITIONING (HVAC) OPERATION
F. CONTROLLING THE HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE (HSD)
G. "ICE" COLD START/RESTART
H. "INFINITE" INSTANTANEOUS MPG-FE
I. "ELECTRO-GLIDING"/FULL-TRACTION BATTERY ARRAY "EV" MODE
J. "OPEN ROAD" CRUISE "SWEET SPOT"/ECC USE - DASH (pULSE) & COAST (gLIDE)
PSEUDO-HYPERMILING/ECODRIVING CONTRIBUTIONS TO AVERAGE MPG
>> Pseudo-Hypermiling/EcoDriving Pre-Operative Set-Ups:
>> Pseudo-Hypermiling/EcoDriving Operating-Driving Techniques:
ADDED INCREMENTAL MPG-FE CONTRIBUTIONS AVAILABLE ~ 8.5 TO 21.5 MPG
FUEL ECONOMY FROM DRIVING *HYBRID $MART* ~ 54.5 TO 67.5 AVG. MPG
News: CADDY IN A KIMONO - Prius v Station Wagon New In 2012
PURPOSE & INTENT: This 10 Hybrid Basics
& Best Practices Tips Guide To Prius Ultra High MPG web page was designed to be a One-Stop Shop where fuel economy conscious
Prius hybrid drivers can quickly get Up On The Fuel Economy Step
regarding learning how to Drive Hybrid $mart as well as learn a
bit about hybrid history. It attempts to collect and lay out in one place, the basic information-knowledge-techniques
needed for Prius hybrid drivers to quickly start achieving day-to-day, real-world fuel economies that regularly meet or beat
the Official EPA Fuel Economy Rating of their particular hybrid vehicle.
for it was I got tired of forum moderators and their favored insider associates on the hypermiling and Prius gasoline-electric
hybrid sites scolding and admonishing bright-eyed, innocent "Newbies," and
other "Enquiring Minds Who Wanted To Know" when they asked questions. Imagine
a Newbie having the audacity and daring to ask honest, basic questions about the Prius on their forums only to be admonished
and told to USE THE SEARCH FUNCTION (ON THE SITE), DUMMIE!
As the saying
goes, "Information Is Power," and too many of those knowledgeable Prius and
hypermiling site members want Newbies to "Kiss Their Ring." These less than friendly and helpful knowledgeable site
members want to make sure they exercise questioning "Newbies" by making them jump
through information hoops and pay some kind of deferential homage to them.
IS MPG POWER: This Ten Tips Guide of mine is my attempt at helping get Newbies and others with MPG
Fuel Economy (MPG-FE) questions to quickly "Cut To The Fuel Economy Chase" and
get HYBRID KNOWLEDGE. By investing a little time reading my Ten Tips Guide, those who seriously want to lower their consumption
of gasoline can get themselves pointed onto the path leading towards "$tellar MPG"
Nirvana and gain MPG POWER.
who wander onto this 10 Hybrid Basics & Best Practices Tips Guide To Prius Ultra
High MPG e-article from out in the wild and wooly WWW hinterlands, can, at their leisure, probably find the
basic answers to their questions here, and find them without having to be beat about the head and shoulders
by a forum moderator or forum insider when they have a New-To-Newbies-Old-Stuff-To-Gurus MPG-FE related question.
can learn a few simple tips on things they might do, and new driving behaviors they might adopt, which can help them work
towards maximizing the Miles-Per-Gallon Fuel Economy (MPG-FE) on their Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) Powered "Fuel-Sipper" ― Whether it be a Classic 1st Generation (GEN I/1G) 2000-2003, Iconic
2nd Generation (GEN II/2G) 2004-2009, Next Generation 3rd Generation (GEN III/3G) 2009½ (2010)-2013,
new in 2012 with follow-on in 2013 Maximus-"V"ersatilius Prius v ("vee" for versatile) hybrid station
wagon or the recently put on the road subcompact Prius c and Prius Plug-In
This 10 Tips
Guide had a modest start and small size at its inception ---- But, alas, it has grown into a fuel miser's tome. I shall offer
no apologies as to its gargantuan size. It is what it is because it is stuffed chock full of golden nuggets of MPG-FE
information. To dig and drill down for golden nuggets of Ultra-High MPG Fuel Economy, you have to carve out a serious-size
segment of time to set a spell in front of your computer monitor to read through all the 24kt Nuggets of MPG-FE wisdom
listed and discussed here. After that it is all up to you. You have to make the effort to internalize them and start putting
them to practice. Do so, and you will start seeing "$tellar" fuel economy numbers.
BE FOREWARNED!!! The first 2/5ths or so of this article defines, discusses, and presents an overview
of Hybrid Hypermiling / Pseudo-Hypermiling
/ Ecodriving, along with presenting a few summary snippets of background, history, and commentary about gasoline-electric
hybrid vehicles, fuel-efficient driving, and the Prius. If you have no interest in this kind of hybrid vehicle driving
philosophy, history, background information, and commentary, you can skip past it all by scrolling down to just a bit short
of the half way point on this web page, to where you see the section entitled DRIVING
*HYBRID $MART*: HYBRID BASICS FOR IMPROVED MILES & "$MILE$" PER GALLON (10 “Best Practices” For Achieving
“Stellar” Fuel Economy In An OEM Instrumented Prius). This follows
just after the Kammback
Design & Rearward Blind Spot Zone discussion and graphics. Once there, you can begin reading
and digesting the “Ten Tips Guide” items in earnest.
much information, and many details to chew on and digest in this 10 Tips Hybrid Basics/"Best Practices" Guide buffet of Prius Hybrid material. The best way to implement and integrate the different
Ultra High-MPG Fuel Economy tips and techniques into your personal driving to keep from being overwhelmed by it all, is to
work on implementing and mastering each tip or technique, one at a time.
Word Readability Statistics Assessment of the Ten Tips Guide is: Flesch-Kinkaid Grade Level Score of 17.4 and Flesch
Reading Ease Score (FRES) of 26.7. Therefore, I recommend charging up your favorite mega-ounce drinking vessel with coffee,
tea or other beverage of your choice, prior to digging in, commencing, and proceeding with a studied read of its 16,000+
Dig in and
spend the time necessary to work you way through it, and I am confident you will be rewarded with a golden nugget of information
or two or three or…???, which will help you bump up the Per Tank-Full Fuel Economy numbers of your hybrid fuel-sipper
beginning with your next fill-up.
HYPERMILING/PSEUDO-HYPERMILING/ECODRIVING DEFINED: The grand goal, and purpose of Hybrid Hypermiling/Pseudo-Hypermiling/EcoDriving is to achieve ultra-high fuel use efficiency by incrementally squeezing
the greatest travel distance out of every drop of fuel drawn from a hybrid vehicle's fuel tank. That is, Hybrid Hypermiling/Pseudo-Hypermiling/EcoDriving is manipulating
and minimizing your vehicle's fuel consumption as you manage its inertia and momentum to have it deliver maximum fuel economy
per mile/kilometer traveled.
Pseudo-Hypermilers or EcoDrivers operate hybrid vehicles using an overall strategy that combines pre-operative set-ups with intelligent
incremental fuel-efficiency focused driving techniques. These set-ups and techniques permit these hybrid drivers to minimize
instantaneous fuel consumption and gasoline engine operation when traveling from Point
"A"-To-Point "B"-...-To-Point "N," thereby, causing the vehicle to significantly surpass its official EPA fuel
some drivers who practice a "Strict or Extreme" type of Hybrid Hypermiling/EcoDriving.
These drivers usually have
special add-on "after market" non-OEM performance monitoring instrumentation
installed in their vehicles, and employ driving techniques that most drivers would consider to be "extreme." I am not
one of those drivers.
I am an ultra-high
fuel economy "Purest," who operates my hybrid car using only its OEM (Original
Equipment Manufacturer), factory "stock" instrumentation while driving it
at a level just below this "strict-extreme" level of Hybrid Hypermiling/EcoDriving. I call myself, and other drivers like me who
practice this safe, lawful and unobtrusive level of fuel efficient driving,
True Pseudo-Hypermiler/EcoDrivers stealthily and inconspicuously apply fuel-saving techniques,
and would never drive breaking traffic laws or to impede or obstruct traffic flow on the highways and byways they travel.
They have learned how to Hide In Plain Sight And Stay Below-The-Radar of other drivers on the road with them as they drive down the highways and byways
in pursuit of Ultra High MPG Fuel Economy. That is, they have mastered how to "Hide In
Plain Sight" midst the surrounding, milling gas guzzling herd, as they fuel efficiently flow down the road easily
logging Ultra High MPG numbers at 125% of the Official EPA MPF-FE Rating, which can extend to upwards of 130% to 140+%
Let me emphasis
that, unlike extreme Hypermilers, Pseudo-Hypermilers
drive unobtrusively, inconspicuously, safely, responsibly, and courteously. They adher to traffic laws as they employ fuel
saving driving strategies, considerations and techniques to the Day-To-Day Travel/Daily Commuting operation of their OEM equipped
and instrumented hybrid vehicles. Their stealthy, "Hybrid $mart" fuel economy
focused driving works to optimize and maximize gasoline mileage and fuel efficiency, without impinging on other drivers on
the road. They extract the greatest distance out of every drop of fuel they purchase and put into their hybrid vehicle's fuel
tank, while driving safely and lawfully in the process of doing of it.
If you should
happen see a hybrid driver exhibiting out-of-norm driving behaviors, in an
apparent effort to save fuel, they likely are an "Extreme" Hybrid Hypermiler,
not a Pseudo-Hypermiler/EcoDriver. Driving actions and behaviors such as,
high-speed wheeling of corners without braking, rolling through stop signs, driving too slow for traffic flow conditions,
impeding or hindering normal traffic flow so as to cause a line of traffic to form behind them or motoring down the road with
their Hazard Warning Lights on and flashing or signaling drivers following directly behind them by "Brake Check" tapping their brake lights are all indicative of an "Extreme"
become an Ultra High MPG Pseudo-Hypermiler/EcoDriver,
understanding the hybrid vehicle's factory installed performance monitoring instrumentation, and then safely and lawfully
applying basic knowledge about gas-electric hybrid-powered vehicles to their personal vehicle to their best fuel economy advantage.
novice or "I Just Drive It" Hybrid Owner-Driver who decides to incorporate
basic hybrid car knowledge and Hybrid Pseudo-Hypermiling/EcoDriving Techniques into
their Day-To-Day/Real-World driving-commuting, can significantly improve
the miles-per-gallon/liters-per-100 kilometers fuel economy delivered to them by their hybrid vehicle.
MY HYBRID AND THE HYBRID "WATERFRONT": I have owned and driven the first Prius, an iconic
2G, since 2006. It was replaced with a new 2012 Prius v Station Wagon by
Santa on December 25, 2011.
Prius was what is commonly referred to as the iconic Second Generation (GENII/2G) Prius Hybrid Sedan Hatchback. By the Christmas Gifting beneficence of my beauteous wife, that
Prius 2G Sedan was traded in on a new, 2012 Prius v Station Wagon during the 2011-2012 Holidays, two months after the Euber
Versatile "vee" was introduced in the Fall of 2011.
road and weather conditions permit, I employ safe, lawful and an unobtrusive Ultra-High
Fuel Economy Hybrid Hypermiling/EcoDriving Techniques in driving the iconic GEN II/2G, and now the Caddy In
A Kimono "vee." The "reward" from
my Pseudo Hypermiling / EcoDriving effort is EPA beating,
"Stellar" MPG-FE. The discussion in this e-article is centered around my personal
experience in applying Hybrid Pseudo-Hypermiling/EcoDriving Techniques to
my OEM instrumented, and Toyota Hybrid Synergy
Drive (HSD) System powered and controlled Prius hybrid vehicles.
Per Tank-Full average MPG-FE for my tank fulls of gas over the last nearly five (5) years, as read-out and logged from the
Multi-Function Display (MFD) of my Prius 2G, ranged over the low-to-mid 50s to low-to-high 60s MPG. These MPG-FE numbers
were/are dependent on seasonal temperature variations over the year, along with the amount of HVAC heat/air conditioner
Stellar Miles-Per-Gallon Fuel Economy Performance numbers include a ~2± MPG
"Hit" leveed on me by the State Of Florida and Federal Goverment when Florida
implemented the federally mandated use of petroleum-based gasoline motor-fuel "water-down"
with 10% Ethanol, as called out in the U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.
with its new 2007 federal law, and the associated implementing state-level law mandating ethanol blended fuel use in motor
vehicles, robbed MPGs and $$$s from all drivers, whether they are driving a hybrid and conventionally-powered vehicle. This
government mandate forced me to begin burning the less energy dense E10 "CONTAINS
UP TO 10% ETHANOL" 90:10 Gasohol in May 2008, when my state implemented it. I have been burning this less
energy dense, ten-percent ethanol diluted E10 Gasohol ever since May 2008 when Florida
mandated it be dispensed and sold in my area.
I conducted, and
continue to carry out my personal War On Petrol Terrorism --- One Gallon Of Gasoline Not Consumed-Purchased At A Time, as per barrel crude oil prices fluctuated,
and have fluculated between $40± to $140±, with gasoline prices at the pump ranging between $1.40± and $4.00± per
gallon. Through it all, my application of Hybrid Pseudo-Hypermiling/EcoDriving
delivered "Stellar," 120-150% of the EPA Fuel Economy Estimate fuel economy numbers to me, which has made for fabulous five-plus (5+) "fuel sipping" years.
PERSONAL FUEL ECONOMY NOTE: My Prius 'Petrol Warfighters' have propelled me and my
family 60,000+ miles down life's road in our pursuit of liberty and happiness. My lifetime, cumulative average fuel economy
driving over those miles is running at 60± MPG. Total Savings In Fuel Consumption Avoidance --- 4,000± Gallons Of Gallons Of "Black Liquid Arabian Gold" Saved. The Family CFO, my wife, loves the $-$-$-$avings.
currently using versions and technical elements of Toyota's "Full Hybrid" Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) system are the Prius
Hybrid family and the hybrid versions of the Camry, Highlander and Lexus as well as Ford
Escape/Fusion & Mercury
Mariner/Milan and Nissan Altima
hybrids. The Ford Escape/Fusion//Mercury Mariner/Milan
licenses key elements of Toyota's Hybrid System (THS) and the Nissan Altima licenses the complete Hybrid Synergy Drive
(HSD) system from Toyota.
the concepts and contents in this guide article also have general application to vehicles powered by Honda's Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) Hybrid Gas-Electric
Drive used in the Hybrid Civic, Insight I/II, and new CR-Z as well as to General Motor's Saturn Vue/Aura and
Chevrolet Malibu Green Line "Mild Hybrids" and GMC/Chevrolet/Saturn Tahoe/Yukon/Vue Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrids as well as other Two-Mode hybrid Chrysler-Dodge Aspen/Durango, BMW and the Mercedes Direct
GAS-ELECTRIC HYBRID-DRIVE RECENT HISTORY OVERVIEW: Let me share some recent gas-electric hybrid vehicle history with you here. Hybrid cars started
being offered by Toyota
and Honda and used on the streets of Japan
in the late 1990s. The Honda Insight chassis with its Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) and the Toyota Prius with
its First Generation (1G/GEN I/NHW10[Japan]NHW11[U.S.]) Toyota Hybrid System
(THS) hybrid gas-electric drive propulsion systems were designed and engineered as gas-electric hybrid cars from the ground
up. Honda’s IMA-Powered aluminum-bodied Insight was first offered
for sale in the U.S. in 1999. Toyota’s THS-Powered Prius started being sold
in the U.S. in 2000 (MY 2001).
aluminum-bodied 61/65/70 MPG 2-Door/2-Passenger w/ Hatchback Honda Insight
is no longer in production (since 2006), but its Integrated Motor Assist
(IMA) Hybrid-drive solution has been bolted into a standard Honda Civic 4-Door/5-Passenger
sedan chassis to form what is today’s 49/50/51 MPG Honda Civic Hybrid
(HCH). A new 2010 model, 40/41/43 MPH 5-Passenger/5-Door Hatchback Honda Hybrid, was introduced bearing the Insight II
nameplate with a 2011 CR-Z Hybrid offered for sale in the USA beginning in August 2010.
Until and through
2003, Toyota offered the earlier First Generation (1G/GEN
I) 52/48/45 MPG NHW11 Prius in the U.S. with its gas-electric hybrid-drive
solution called the Toyota Hybrid System (THS). This First Generation (1G/GEN I) Prius came in a conventional, 5-passenger compact sedan sized chassis
design with a conventional, non-hatchback/liftback trunk.
In 2004, the
First Generation (1G/GEN I/NHW11) Prius THS hybrid-drive was upgraded, and
its chassis replaced. It was replaced by a new Pre-2008 EPA Test Mode 51/55/60 MPG Second Generation (2G/GEN II) NHW20 Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) powered vehicle delivering improved fuel economy along with
more electric power in a new, unique low coefficient of aerodynamic drag (Cd = 0.26) 5-passenger 4-Door Sedan Liftback/Hatchback
chassis. This 2G/GEN II/NHW20 HSD replaced the 1G/GEN I/NWH11 THS system and has been sold in the U.S. from Model year 2004 through 2009. In the Spring of 2009, the 2G/GEN II/NHW20
was replaced by the 3G/GEN III, 2009½/2010 to today version ZVW30 Third
Generation Prius model, including the new "Caddy In A Kimono" Prius v Station Wagon, introduced in
Model Year 2012.
2009 is the
last year the EPA 45/46/48 MPG (Pre-2008 EPA Method: 51/55/60 MPG) 2G/GEN II Prius was sold. The 2010 3G Prius came out in Model Year 2010. Toyota replaced 2G/GEN II with their
battery and hybrid technology upgraded Third Generation (3G/GEN III) ZVW30 Model Prius. The 2010 3G Prius is the “100 MPG” Prius that written about in the news. Its best-case fuel economy per Japan's 10.15 Mode Fuel Cycle
was touted as 100± MPG, with a nominal MPG of 75-85. The 2010 3G Prius garnered an Official EPA Fuel Economy Rating of 48/50/51
MPG (using the Pre-2008 EPA Test Method, this 48/50/51 MPG would likely translate into something like 54/60/64 MPG
Real-World expectations were that this Next Generation of Prius would deliver a modest 10%-13% improvement
in "City" MPG, raising its EPA fuel efficiency rating up from 48 to 51 EPA MPG (Up to 64-68 MPG using Pre-2008
EPA Test Method). These expectations were met.
There are many
cars being offered and touted as “Eco-Friendly, Green” Hybrids,
but, in my opinion, the only technologically “elegant” gas-electric
hybrid solution on the market today is Toyota’s Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD). Here a listing of the current gasoline-electric hybrid
car drive system solutions, versions which are being offered/marketed by Toyota, Honda, Nissan, Ford/Mercury, General Motors
(Chevrolet/GMC/Saturn), Chrysler-Dodge, BMW, Mercedes. I will list them next in rank order along with some comments.
1. TOYOTA HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE (HSD)/FORD HYBRID DRIVE: Toyota’s
Hybrid Synergy Drive
(HSD) tops the list. Its architecture is a full “Serial/Parallel Hybrid,” and is the only truly “Full-Time” Hybrid System. The Generation II (GEN II/2G) HSD is
used in all the 2004-2009 Prius cars as well as the Hybrid Camry, Hybrid Highlander, Lexus LS600hL/LS/GS/RX/HS/CT
Hybrids and Nissan Altima Hybrid Platforms. The
GEN II/2G HSD was followed by the improved GENERATION III (GEN III/3G) HSD used in the 2010-2013 Sedan Hatchback, and newly
launched 1st Generation "vee" Prius v Station Wagon.
each uses an ICE displacent size and set of control parameters tailored specifically to each platform. Prius is different from the Camry, which is different
from the Highlander, which is different from the LS600hL/LS/GS/RX/HS/CT, which are all different
from the Altima.
mentioned, a licensed version of the 2G/GEN II HSD is used in the Hybrid Nissan Altima
with 21 licensed hybrid patents from Toyota’s older 1G/GEN I THS used, and incorporated into the Ford Escape/Fusion - Mercury Mariner/Milan Hybrid Drive design
gas-electric hybrid solution combines the characteristics of a pure electric vehicle (EV) drive and a continuously variable
transmission (CVT) and uses electricity and control electronics and software in place of toothed gears. The Hybrid Synergy Drive is a drive-by-wire system with no direct mechanical connection between the engine
and the driver-operated engine controls. Both the gas throttle pedal and the gearshift lever in an HSD equipped car merely
send electrical signals to a control computer, which manages and handles operation.
The 2G/GEN II
HSD hybrid system as installed in the 2004-2009 Prius, delivers an approximately
71% increase in CITY DRIVING fuel economy over what the 1.5 Liter I-4 ICE in the Prius
would deliver were it to be utilized to power and drive the Prius chassis
in a non-hybrid, conventional "Otto Cycle" gasoline-powered application.
The new 3G/GEN III 2010 Prius replaced the 1.5 Liter I-4 ICE with a 1.8 Liter I-4 along with adding some new fuel saving
technologies. This change resulted in an ~6% increase in Official EPA CITY fuel economy.
2. HONDA INTEGRATED MOTOR ASSIST (IMA) HYBRID DRIVE:
The architecture of Honda’s Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) is more a
“Serial Hybrid” or Power Assist Parallel gas-electric propulsion system. It comes in second on my list,
a close second, but still second. As the “Assist” in the IMA
name implies, it is not a “Full-Time,” hybrid drive, whereas,
Toyota’s HSD is “Full-Time.”
The basic IMA Hybrid System and follow-on -2, -3 and -4 generations of added technical enhancements, is used to power the
original Honda Insight, Accord and Civic Hybrid (HCH) cars as well
as follow-on versions of the HCH. The new 2009½/2010 Global
Small Honda Hybrid (GSHH), Insight II, was introduced in the Spring of 2009. The 2011 CR-Z Hybrid,
which hit showrooms in August 2010, has the most recently updated iteration of the H-IMA solution.
IMA hybrid car technology uses an electric motor mounted between the engine and transmission to act as a starter motor, engine
balancer, and traction-assist motor. In its first generation, IMA did not function to power the car on electricity alone,
and could only use the electric motor to assist or start the ICE. Beginning with the 2006 Civic
Hybrid model, control software changes facilitated activation of the IMA electric motor in the EV (Electric Vehicle)
mode while the vehicle is coasting without activating the ICE.
to Toyota’s Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) or the GM/Daimler-Chrysler/BMW
Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrid, the IMA Hybrid has a less powerful motor-generator. The smaller motor-generator permits the IMA Hybrid
to slow or stop its rate of deceleration by a lesser extent compared to the HSD and 2Mode hybrids equipped with larger motor-generators.
Additionally, the IMA-Powered Hybrid cannot operate without mechanically turning over the ICE, which is directly mechanically
coupled in series with the electric motor-generator.
The IMA Hybrid
system as installed in the Honda Civic Hybrid (HCH), Insight II,
and CR-Z delivers an approximately 63% increase in CITY DRIVING fuel economy over what the 1.3 Liter I-4 HCH
ICE [1.5 Liter version in CR-Z] would deliver were it utilized to drive the Honda Civic/Insight
II/CR-Z chassis in a non-hybrid, conventional gasoline-powered application.
3. GENERAL MOTORS CHEVROLET VOLT E-REV/REEV
SERIAL HYBRID DRIVE: The Volt's Voltec drivetrain has
a single planetary gear set, a pair of electric motors and gasoline-powered engine. Unlike
the Generation I, II and III Toyota Prius, and its plug-in, PHEV version
due out in 2012, all which are parallel gas-electric hybrid
cars whose electric battery, gasoline engine or both in combination can propel them, the Chevrolet Volt is essentially a plug-in, gasoline-electric serial
hybrid car. At
speeds below 70 MPH, electric drive motors on its wheels propel the Volt 100% electrically
from power supplied from the battery and main electric bus. These drive motors receive electric power from a common, shared
Direct Current (DC) Bus. Electric power to the DC Bus is supplied by the Volt’s traction battery or its onboard, gas-fueled engine-generator.
The Volt's power-train design is centered
on it being an Electric Vehicle (EV), meaning it is designed to be powered primarily by its 400-pounds of onboard Li-Ion
Traction Battery, which must be charged up by being plugged into the public power grid or other suitable electric power source
external to the Volt vehicle. It has
a secondary, battery backup power mode, which is provided by an onboard, auxiliary conventional gasoline-fueled internal combustion
engine (ICE) that turns an electric generator whose electric output is switched online to power the drive wheels when the
traction battery charge is depleted.
When operating in the Charge Sustaining (CS) Mode at speeds of 70 MPH and above, the ICE
is switched from powering and driving the wheels via connection to electric generators that electrically drive the wheels,
to having the ICE powering, driving, and providing motive force to the wheels via direct mechanical coupling. This is done
to gain an additional 10 to 15 percent of operating efficiency at higher Interstate-Freeway-Highway cruise speeds.
GM calls this
backup, auxiliary gasoline engine a “Range Extender” engine.
This 1.4 Liter I4 "Range Extender" auxiliary engine used in the Volt is the
premium gasoline burning, non-Turbo (LUU) version of the DOHC Ecotec 1.4L I-4 VVT
Turbo (LUJ) engine currently used in the Chevy Cruze. The range-extender engine is married to an electric generator. The primary function of this range
extending engine-generator combination is to serve as a fallback, secondary electromotive power source to backup the Li-Ion
traction battery array when it can no longer power the drive motors due to lack of an electric charge.
In the course of normal operation, the engine-generator will automatically start up and kick
in to supply electric power to the Volt when its battery no longer can. When in this "Normal Mode" of
operation, this "Range Extender" engine-generator does not automatically charge the traction battery
with excess energy scavenged from the ICE, as the parallel hybrid design used in the Prius does. However, the "Range Extender" engine-generator can be manually switched on to operate in a traction battery charge sustaining and assisting mode,
CS-Mode (battery depleted,
gasoline engine on and driving a generator to provide electric power to the batteries), by use of the “Drive Mode” button.
Depressing this “Drive Mode” button will switch the Volt out of its default, regular “Normal” operating mode
(Range Extender Engine-Generator not normally on), and put it into either the “Sport” or the “Mountain” mode. Switching the Volt into these enhanced performance "Sport" or "Mountain" modes causes the
Range-Extender Engine-Generator to be switched on, and connect into the E-REV/REEV system full-time to provide supplemental
electrical power to sustain the charge of the traction battery along with supplying additional electric power to the drive
wheels. As their "Sport" and "Mountain" names imply, these performance-boosting modes are used
to provide added zip, acceleration ("Sport") or added electric power for climbing hills, mountains or inclines ("Mountain"),
but at the expense of burning Premium Unleaded priced gasoline and lowering fuel economy.
The E-REV acronym used by GM-Chevrolet to describe the Volt design stands for Electric-powered with Range Extender gasoline
engine-generator Vehicle. Another term commonly used to describe the Volt is Ranged Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV). When the Volt is operating in the pure battery-driven EV mode, it uses
no gasoline. When the Range Extender gasoline
engine-generator is caused to fire up and kick in, the Volt’s incremental, instantaneous miles-per-gallon of gasoline fuel economy becomes, essentially, the inherent fuel
economy of the onboard Ecotec
1.4L I-4 VVT Turbo engine that
turns the electric generator less any power transfer losses.
Depending on traffic
and weather conditions, terrain, air conditioning and heater usage, operation of electrical features-accessories, driving
style, and how heavy a foot one uses on the throttle pedal, the Volt can
travel up to 40± miles on a single, full charge of its Li-Ion Traction
Battery. Per the GM/Chevrolet performance specifications listed on their official Volt website, the backup, auxiliary
gas-powered engine-generator will kick in at the point the onboard Li-Ion traction battery becomes drained, depleted. In this
secondary, backup power mode, the gas-powered range-extending engine-generator will then supply electricity to propel the
Volt another "several hundred additional
miles” or up to 300± miles. The 300± miles extended-range
distance is "best-case," and assumes the Volt has a topped off, full tank of gasoline when switched into this
secondary power mode that backups up the traction battery when it becomes depleted.
The 40-miles powered
by battery alone added to the 300-miles powered by the gasoline engine alone gives the Volt a 340-mile range or a best-case maximum usable circumscribed radius of action travel distance from Point "A" – To – Point "B" & Return
of 170-miles, without being recharged and refueled.
FWIW, Prior to the date of this revision to my 10-Tips article, GM/Chevrolet was keeping
the size of the gas tank a closely held secret. Back in November 2009, Edmunds-INSIDE LINE reported the gas tank size would be 8-gallons, and went on to speculate that the Volt
would get 38± MPG in the Battery Backup, Charge Sustaining Mode. The size of the Volt’s fuel tank has now been confirmed
to be 9.3 gallons, and the official EPA Combined City-Highway Fuel Economy displayed on the new EPA "Monroney Sticker"
is 37 MPG.
As a point of reference, the official EPA MPG Fuel Economy numbers of the 2011 Chevrolet Cruze powered by the 4-cylinder,
1.4 Liter engine w/ Automatic (S6) transmission burning Regular Unleaded is 24 City/28 Combined/36 Highway. Taking this 9.3 gallon tank size, and assuming
1.3 gallon emergency reserve, leaves 8.0 gallons of fuel. Using a 34 MPG number, which is closer to what the average driver
might see, and doing the math, results in [8.0 gal + 1.3 gal] x 34 miles/gal = 272.0 miles (base) + 44.2 miles (reserve) =
316.2 miles range at "dry tank." This 316-miles range number is within the
“…make sure we get over 300 miles of fuel range,” Volt Chief Engineer, Andrew Farah, is targeting.
Using the new, recently published EPA sticker numbers for the 2011 Volt, we see EPA promising 35-miles running "All
Electric" on EV-Battery drive, and 344-miles more running on "Gas Alone," with the "Range Extender"
auxiliary engine operating in the “Normal”
Battery Backup, Charge Sustaining (CS) Mode. Combining these numbers yields 35 + 344 = 379 miles as a maximum
range number at “Dry Gas Tank.”
We will just have to wait and see exactly what the MPG-FE for the Volt is in the CS-Mode with the 1.4 Liter I4 "Range
Extender" auxiliary engine operating in the “Normal”
Battery Backup, Charge Sustaining (CS) Mode.
I estimate that the average driver, operating in average driving and all-season weather conditions, will probably
see "Range Extender" auxiliary engine gasoline-powered operating fuel economies in the High 20s-To-Low/Mid 30s MPG
Considering the above, I guesstimate the maximum driving ranges in the Battery-EV Plus Range Extender Mode for the average “Just
Drive It” John or Jane Q. Volt-Driver will likely be something
less than the 35 miles + 344 miles = 379 miles advertised by GM/Chevrolet and EPA. I think it will probably fall closer to
something like 285-325 miles Max Range
running the Volt to ““Dry Gas Tank.” More practically, it will be 250-285 miles until the
Low Fuel Warning light illuminates telling you are running on your emergency reserve fuel, and better find a gas station ASAP.
Bottom-line, if you get invited to Mom’s, Grandma’s or Aunt Martha’s house for Thanksgiving or Christmas
Dinner, and the dear darlings live less then 300-miles away, you should be able to make the motor trip there in a Volt nonstop. This assumes you roll out of your driveway with a full battery charge,
a topped-off tank of gas, and drive EV-Hybrid $mart all the way there.
4. GM/DAIMLER-CHRYSLER/BMW TWO-MODE/DIRECT HYBRID DRIVE: The Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrid
Solution was jointly developed by General Motors/Daimler-Chrysler/BMW to power heavy curb-weight, large mass-transit
“city bus” sized vehicles. Its Two-Mode design means it is not
a “Full-Time” hybrid drive system. It was developmental test and evaluated and “Pilot
Tested with Limited Field Deployment” in the 1990s. As part of this Pilot-Limited Field Deployment, a few
hundred city mass-transit buses were put into service in selected cities, mostly in Europe,
but otherwise it was shelved without broader follow-on deployment and expanded application into private passenger vehicles
Although it had
been shelved by General Motors Corporation prior to the New Millennium, when $100-per-barrel oil approached and $3.00+ per
gallon gas happened, GM quickly resurrected and re-embraced the “Mass-Transit Bus-Sized”
Two-Mode gas-electric hybrid power solution. They quickly brought it down off the shelf, dusted it off and down-sized and
tamped it into and under the hoods of their Full-Sized 2008 GMC Yukon/Chevrolet
Tahoe "Family Bus-Sized"
SUV Trucks to power these mega-tonnage Gas-Guzzling “Beasts.”
In addition, at the Washington Auto Show in January 2008, General Motors Corp. announced it had received orders for 1,732
Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrid buses from transit agencies in Washington,
Philadelphia and Minneapolis/St. Paul.
The Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrid System employs a special electronically variable transmission
(EVT) with two integrated motor-generators along with using special fuel saving ICE technologies that include cam phasing,
variable valve timing (VVT) and Active Fuel Management™ cylinder deactivation
technologies. These elements working together, deliver an overall improvement in fuel economy over the equivalent non-hybrid
Yukon/Tahoe versions of 40% to 50% City MPG/25% Highway MPG. Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrid
Yukons/Tahoes are now being offered in limited availability qualities for
Model Year 2008 with a Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrid version of the Saturn Aura/Vue and Chevrolet Malibu offered in 2009.
40% to 50% City MPG/25% Highway MPG improvement is a good improvement in fuel economy on a percentage basis, the Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrid Solution comes in a distant third compared to the HSD and ISA
enabled gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles on total delivered miles per gallon fuel economy. The HSD and IMA used in the 51/55/60
MPG Prius and 46/48/51 MPG Civic
deliver twice to three times the MPG-FE that is delivered by heavy curb-weight Two-Mode Hybrid enabled truck-sized 21/21/22
MPG Yukon/Tahoe vehicles.
designation comes from the hybrid’s two operating modes that can function singularly or in parallel. One mode is optimized
for city driving and the other for highway driving. Under light loads and at low speeds (City Mode), the Two-Mode system can
operate either on its electric motors and battery pack or on internal combustion engine (ICE) power alone, or using a combination
of the two modes. At higher speeds and with heavier loads (Highway Mode), The Two-Mode
(2Mode) Hybrid System switches to the second mode that runs mainly on the gasoline engine with electric motor-battery
available and assisting as and if needed for added power to climb steep grades, tow a trailer, or for added acceleration oomph during passing.
Any and all “hybrids”
you may see being offered/planned to be offered by General Motors/Chrysler-Dodge/Mercedes/BMW in the upcoming model years,
will be based around and incorporate this Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrid System
that was jointly developed by GM/Daimler-Chrysler/BMW to power heavy curb weight SUVs and "bus-sized" heavy-vehicles.
CHEVROLET/SATURN “GREEN LINE/ECO eASSIST” MILD-HYBRID DRIVE: This hybrid solution is a “Mild Hybrid”
[Belt Alternator Starter (BAS) system with Auto-Stop]. It was originally called “Green
Line” by Chevrolet/GM, but now is being called "ECO eAssist." When compared to the Hybrid
Synergy Drive, Integrated Motor Assist, 2Mode/Direct, and E-REV/REEV gas-electric hybrid solutions discussed above, this
fuel conserving solution comes in last and resides at the bottom of the hybrid technology barrel.
The Battery Alternater Starter solution is what I call a marketing solution that was
cobbled together by General Motors for the Chevrolet Malibu and old Saturn Aura/Vue
when they were scrambling to become “Eco-Green” and “Fuel-Efficient” overnight. GM had their engineers throw together a quick
and dirty "Battery-Alternator" motor-generator “techno-kludge.” This "Mild Hybrid" solution
is essentially using an over-sized car-battery to power an electric motor-generator permitting the “Hybrid” Chevrolet Malibu
and old Saturn Aura/Vue to run off battery power for short periods.
The original "Green Line" BAS solution has been tweaked and refined into the
"ECO eAssist" mild hybrid BAS system that debuted at the 2011 New York Auto Show. This next generation BAS mild hybrid
system show car was an EPA 26 MPG City/38 MPG Highway 2013 Chevrolet Malibu ECO model powered GM/Chevy's 2.4-liter
Ecotec four-cylinder aided by the aforementioned ECO eAssist BAS solution. This
revised BAS ECO eAssist system is the same one used in the new "mild hybrid" "eAssisted" Buick
LaCrosse and Regal cars introduced in CY2012.
The new ECO
eAssist [revised old Green Line "Mild-Hybrid"
Belt Alternator Starter (BAS) w/ Auto-Stop] system basically functions like a battery-alternator powered turbo-charger, which
gives an extra bit of "e-Assist" propulsion oomph to the
gasoline engine through a large "starter motor." This Belt Alternator
Starter (BAS) system employs a special oversized "starter motor" in combination
with an oversized, up-voltaged 36 Volt car battery (i.e. essentially electrically equivalent to three (3) standard 12 V car
batteries connected in electrical series, 12V + 12V + 12V = 36V). The battery in this new ECO eAssist offering has
been upgraded to use lithium ion (Li-Ion) battery technology.
The Battery-powered Alternator-Starter assists and mechanically turns over the non-operating internal
combustion gasoline engine (ICE) to power the vehicle from a dead-stop until a certain speed (i.e. "Gasoiline Engine Start-Up" RPM level is reached) or to provide a quick boost in acceleration while moving
down the road. Once "Start-Up" RPM is reached when starting from a dead-stop or
a foot throttle request for an added spurt of acceleration occurs while already moving, the gasoline engine "fires-up"
to provide increased power as it operates using the "Otto Cycle" of
the car's conventional gasoline engine.
As with a typical
starter motor, the electric motor in the "Mild-Hybrid" BAS is not connected
directly to the main driveline power train. The gasoline engine starts operating after being spun-up by the BAS eAssist.
The BAS eAssist electric motor overcomes the initial starting inertia and propels the vehicle using electric
power, not gasoline-power, which is how "Mild-Hybrid" BAS System works to
incrementally save fuel. In addition, fuel to the gasoline engine is automatically shut off when the vehicle is
coasting, braking or stopped.
The ECO eAssist
(old Green Line) Mild-Hybrid
BAS installed in the new Chevrolet Malibu, Buick
LaCrosse and Regal, and old Saturn Vue/Aura
does seem to provide some small improvement in fuel economy (approximately 10%), while keeping complexity to a minimum.
There, I have
given you a brief overview tutorial on and about gas-electric hybrid vehicles offered/being offered here in the U.S.
FIRST, THE BAD NEWS: If you choose to drive your new hybrid car using the same Gas-To-Go/Brake-To-Stop driving techniques you used
to drive the conventionally powered car it replaced, your miles-per-gallon fuel economy numbers will not be remarkable. The
MPG-FE numbers probably will be much like it was being solely powered by the conventional gasoline powered Internal Combustion
Engine (ICE) installed in it to power the ICE portion of the hybrid gasoline-electric propulsion system.
I once owned a 1992 Honda Civic CX. It was conventionally
powered by a standard "lean-burn" 70 hp gasoline-powered Honda In-Line 4-Cylinder
"Otto Cycle" ICE, which delivered an EPA 42 City/45 Combined/48 Highway Estimated
MPG and 41 "Around Town"/48 "Open-Road,"
as measured by me using the Multiple-Tank-Refill Method.
The gasoline-powered portion
of the Prius Hybrid Synergy Drive system is powered by 76 hp Toyota
In-Line 4-Cylinder ICE, operated on the "Atkinson Cycle." Toyota's 76 hp In-Line 4-Cylinder ICE is similar in size, weight
and power to 70 hp Honda Civic CX ICE. This means that the inherent, nominal
gas mileage of the Prius In-Line 4-Cylinder ICE is probably
the same as the 41/48± MPG delivered by the ICE of my old Honda Civic CX.
Therefore, if your Prius
is delivering less than or equal to 41-48 MPG-FE, you probably are driving your gasoline-electric Prius hybrid using the same fuel consumption inefficient driving techniques you use to operate 100%
conventionally powered cars, and causing the gasoline engine to run more than it needs to run. The consequences of your "Hybrid Unfriendly" driving habits and operating techniques are that you are effectively
"bypassing/overriding" the fuel economy contribution benefits available from the
electrical energy regenerating, recovering and storage portions of the gas-electric hybrid system.
Continuing to use such old,
“hybrid unfriendly” driving techniques, and not driving “Hybrid Smart,” will prevent you from “reaping”
the incremental fuel economy “harvest” that is available
from the battery and regenerative motor-generator and braking elements of the hybrid gasoline-electric system design.
A BIT MORE NOT SO GOOD NEWS: Unfortunately, most drivers lack the inclination, dedicated driving discipline and frugality required
to “work” at learning to optimally drive their hybrid car, as a hybrid car must be driven to facilitate
it delivering its maximum fuel economy benefits and truly stellar real-world MPG.
Most first-time hybrid car
owner-operators lack prior knowledge on the optimal operation of a hybrid vehicle. As a result, when they pick their
new hybrid up at the dealer, and drive it off the lot, they do so using the same Gas-To Go/Brake-To-Stop operating
manner they used driving the old 100% conventionally powered autos their new hybrid car replaced. These conventional foot
throttle pedal punching and brake stomping Gas-To-Go/Brake-To-Stop driving techniques, used to operate “conventionally
powered” vehicles, are the same ones most drivers have used ever since they got their driver’s license back
in high school and first started driving.
--- Driving hybrid cars with a heavy gas throttle and brake pedal foot will result in poorer miles-per-gallon/liters-per-100
kilometers fuel economy as compared to if they are driven in a “Hybrid Friendly - Hybrid $mart” manner.
NOW, THE GOOD NEWS: The good news in driving any car is that, according to testing by Edmunds.com, aggressive drivers who moderate their
aggressive Gas-To-Go/Brake-To-Stop driving habits can improve their overall gas mileage by as much as 37-percent. Additionally,
an aggressive driver can glean a 14-percent gain in fuel economy by simply staying below the Posted Maximum Legal Speed Limit
and ratcheting back on their travel cruise speed.
EPA estimates that every
5 MPH incremental increase in travel speed above 60 MPH is like having to pay an extra 25-cents per gallon of gasoline at
The rest of the good news…even
if a driver operates a hybrid car like he or she is still driving their old conventional, 100% Internal Combustion Engine
(ICE) powered car, it will still deliver “GOOD,” EPA Matching
MPG-FE, just not "STELLAR” MPG-FE, as defined by driving to surpass
the EPA MPG-FE estimates. This is because Toyota, Honda and General Motors engineers have optimized the design of the Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD), Integrated Motor Assist (IMA), "Green Line” Belt Alternator Starter
(BAS) "Mild-Hybrid" and Two-Mode (2Mode) gas-electric drive-system control hardware and software of their hybrid vehicles around the driving behaviors
and expectations of a "typical driver.” Of course, their assumed "typical driver” is one who only knows how to drive and is experienced in driving
an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), 100% conventionally-powered vehicle.
To cause your hybrid vehicle
to regularly meet or surpass the EPA MPG-FE estimates, you have to "learn"
to let the HSD, IMA or other hybrid system do the job it was designed to do by "staying
out of its way" and stop using old "energy robbing" driving behaviors
and techniques. You will find that adding, integrating and unobtrusively applying new hybrid-focused driving behaviors and
top-level, elemental Hybrid Hypermiling Driving Techniques into driving your
gasoline-electric hybrid car is a reasonably painless process.
Your efforts will be rewarded
with delivery of "stellar" MPG-FE and not having to "pay at the pump" as much or as often as you did before you started driving your hybrid vehicle.
The more you learn to "Drive Hybrid Smart," and work as an integral part of the HSD, IMA, "Green Line" BAS, Two-Mode (2Mode) or other hybrid system
solution and their various features, the more you will converge on meeting or surpassing the EPA Miles Per Gallon (MPG) Fuel
Economy (FE) Rating numbers promised on your hybrid "fuel-sipper" of choice's window
LEARNING TO DRIVE "GREEN" TO $AVE "GREEN BACK"
PETROLBUCK$...$$$$: Face it, gas prices will likely never be going down for very long. They never have in the past and will probably not
Gas is selling for $3+ per
gallon on its way to $4 and beyond, not 25¢ as it was when the fuel wasting on-road driving behavior norms of today
were formed. Whether we realize it or not, we all are now driving under a new fuel consumption and energy use paradigm.
Where a car once used to
be a mechanized, gasoline-powered personal and family transportation work of art that functioned as one's personal noble steed,
it has since become a heavily government controlled and regulated transportation appliance whose fuel use generates tax revenue
for the government.
I recognized this paradigm shift back a few years back, when gasoline was still
selling for well under $1.499 per gallon. At that point, I purchased the hybrid Prius, and changed the driving and fuel consumption
behaviors and techniques under which I operate my personal vehicle, successfully transforming myself into a Hybrid
Pseudo-Hypermiling / EcoDriving Zen Master.
With the expectation that
$140± per barrel oil and $4.00± per gallon gasoline in pursuit of $5, $6, $8, $10+ and beyond returning, most "$mart Folks" out here in the Yankee Doodle hinterlands have started driving to save
"Green" and will do anything "legal"
to save a "Green Back" PetrolBuck.
I have transformed my previous Porsche Throttle-Pedal Honed driving habits and behaviors,
and learned how to "Drive Hybrid Smart" by becoming an "intelligent" part of the Gas-Electric Hybrid Man-Machine
Interface. I now drive with a feather-light, deft touch on the foot throttle. In Zen-like fashion, I have Become One With
Prius Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD), thereby, permitting it to regularly deliver "$tellar" MPG-FE, and Green Back $avings to me.
I employed a combination
of fuel economy enhancing "in-garage" pre-operative set ups along with "on-road" operative Hybrid Pseudo-Hypermiling
/ EcoDriving Techniques to pre-operatively set up and operate my 2G, Generation II Prius, and now to my new, 2012
Prius v fuel-sippered that replaced it. Using these techniques permits me to achieve money saving MPG-FE performance,
and decrease the frequency and amount of making my Gas Tax "donations" to money hungry Big Government.
My Hybrid Pseudo-Hypermiling / EcoDriving assured that I regularly meet or beat the old Pre-2008 EPA 51 Highway/55
Combined/60 City Estimated MPG-FE numbers for my 2G Prius, and now facilitates me surpassing the 2008 EPA 44
City/42 Combined/40 Highway Estimated MPG-FE numbers for my new in 2012 Prius v.
Yes, it does require a bit
of "Hybrid Driving Work," which for me has become second-nature "Hybrid Driving Play"... or should that be "Hybrid
Driving Pay"... as in "Pay Day."
My Hybrid Hypermiling enhanced EcoDriving is saving and "Paying"
my family and me "Big PetrolBucks" by minimizing our family’s monthly
"fuel burn rate" and total annual gasoline fuel expenses. Hybrid Pseudo-Hypermiling / EcoDriving has reduced the monthly auto fuel expenses for my family's primary
transportation vehicle by ~80%. At the mid-year peak to $4.00± per gallon for gasoline prices in 2008, this reduced the projected
annual fuel expense for our primary transportation vehicle from $4310± down to $890±. The 80%, $3420, annual savings rate
made the Family CFO, my wife, "Hybrid Happy."
MORE REA$ON$ FOR "MAMA TO BE HAPPY": We recently returned from a Gran Turismo *Multi-Mille Miglia* open-road family motor trip *Fuel
Economy Run* from my teepee located on Florida’s Space Coast to Chicagoland and return, via I-95/I-10/I-75/I-24/I-65/I-94/I-57/I-24/I-65/I-10/I-95.
99.9% of the time I drove our Prius 2G with the ECC Cruise Control set on the Maximum Posted Legal Speed Limit (i.e. 70 MPH
in FL, AL, GA, TN, KY, IN, and 65 in IL). ~99% of the trip was driven with the HVAC set on AUTO, and TEMP set at 75 degrees.
The Per-Tank-Full MPG Measurement Method was used.
Total My Garage-Return-To-My
Garage/Chocks-To-Chocks Distance: 3153.3 miles. Trip MPG-FE: 54.9 MPG. Trip Fuel Cost: $151.90.
1, Only OEM/Stock Prius 2G Instrumentation Was Used (No ScanGauge, Tach, etc.).
2. Tire Pressure: OEM Goodyear *Integrity* Tires Up-Pressured To 48F/46R.
3. Motor Oil In Crankcase: 3.5 Qts 0W30 Mobil 1 Full-Synthetic, Adv. Fuel Economy.
4. Motor Fuel Used: Standard “Gas Station Issue” 90:10, E10 “Gasohol.”
5. Drive-Train/Running Gear Well-Broken In @60,000-miles
1. Ran HVAC
From Fresh Air Vent Only Mode Through To Full-Time A/C AUTO Mode
2. When Accelerating
From Dead Stop, Employed Acceleration Technique of iMPG ≈ iMPH/2 Transitioning To iMPG ≈ 1.1 To 1.2 Times iMPH
While Passing Thru 40 To 50 MPH As Target Travel/Cruise Speed Was Approached.
Smart* Use of Freewheeling & Regenerative Coasting, and Regenerative Braking.
& Anticipatory Use of Advanced Fuel Conserving Warp-Stealth, Pulse & Glide, Dash & Coast, Driving With Load (DWL),
Super *Atkinson* Highway Mode [SAHM/SHM], and Traffic Light Change Timing-Anticipation Techniques.
5. Drove at
or below 66 MPH Fuel Economy “Sweet Spot” ECC Set Speed when travel conditions dictated, and where such
fuel-efficient speeds were compatible with trip schedule.
NOW HEAR THIS! I HAVE MUCHO PSEUDO-GOOD NEWS: Even
without applying full, Hybrid Zen Mastery when operating your hybrid car,
you can become what I call a Pseudo-Hybrid Hypermiler / EcoDriver.
The focus of the discussion
that follows is on the Second Generation (2G/GEN II/NHW20) 2004-2009 and Third Generation (3G/GEN III/ZVW30) 2010-2013 Prius Sedan Hatchback and the new in 2012 Prius v Station Wagon models
with their Hybrid Synergy Drive System. Therefore, Prius owner-drivers who read, heed and directly apply the information that follows can immediately learn
how to start converging on "Stellar" Miles Per Gallon - Fuel Economy (MPG-FE)
numbers to consume even less fuel on their very next drive.
The discussion also has
general applicability to any hybrid vehicles that employ Toyota's Hybrid Snergy Drive (HSD) or licensed key elements of the
T-HSD design to propel them. These other vehicles are:
Drivers of the Honda, Saturn
and GM hybrids who read it can gain some overall conceptual insight into "hybrid friendly"
MPG-FE enhancing operating and driving considerations, as well as learn operating techniques they can adapt and apply to squeezing
out more MPG-FE from their particular hybrid vehicles.
The key to doing this is
to understand the top-level operating quirks, idiosyncrasies and characteristics of the Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive (T-HSD)system or the other hybrid drive systems, and then using this knowledge
to your best fuel economy advantage when driving, coasting and stopping.
|Toddler "Kill Zone" Danger With Rearward View Into Blind Spot From "Granny Cam"
DESIGN & REARWARD BLIND SPOT ZONE: The Kammback design of the 2004-2009 2G
and 2009½ (2010)―2013 3G Prius cars gives them poor visibility directly rearward,
particularly in the prime “Toddler Kill Zone” area close to the
ground. This rearward Blind Spot Zone poses a danger to errant, sprinting toddlers, lounging cats and driveway sleeping dogs
of yours and/or your neighbors as well shopping cart pushing Grannies in grocery store and mall parking lots who tend to pop
into view just as a Prius’ back-up lights illuminate and its reverse warning beeper starts beeping.
SPOT DANGER ZONE FACTOID: One-third
(⅓) of all auto related
child deaths are from a child being backed over by a motor vehicle.
Toyota, in their questionable wisdom,
elected to not offer the *Toddler/Granny Cam* in their "austerely equipped," base 2009½ (2010)―2013 Prius I (One) or the "nicely equipped" Prius II (Two). Nope, auto safety fans, you cannot get
one in a Prius (One) or II (Two). To get the *Toddler/Granny Cam* the Prius buyer must pony up extra bucks to purchase buy
the "well equipped" base Prius III (Three), but only with the added cost Navigation Package Option. This Prius III (Three)
w/ NAV Option includes a Multi-Color LED Display Monitor with the "Safety Must-Have" Back-Up Video *Toddler/Granny
Cam* Camera. The LED Display & Back-Up Camera Combo permits viewing into the ~100 cu. ft. Blind Spot "Toddler Kill
Zone" Volumetric Region that lurks directly rearward, below the rear window of the 2009½ (2010)―2013 3G Prius.
The new, 2013 Prius Sedan
Hatchback is addressing this problem somewhat by providing Back-Up Camera functionality as standard for the Prius 3G
Three trim level. However, the new in 2012 Prius v "Land Yacht" Station Wagon delivers maximum safety by having Back-Up
Video Camera functionality standard in all of its trim levels to handle and resolve this rearward Blind Spot "Toddler
Kill Zone" problem.
I decided to pass on the 2009½ (2010)―2013 3G offering from Toyota, because I consider the Driver-User
Interface with the Hybrid Synergy Drive of the 3G
to be too small, hard to read, and inferior to the large, full-color one I have in my 2G. Additionally, the price of a 3G
sedan hatchback, suitably equipped to meet my safety requirements, is over-priced at a $30,000-plus price level for what you
get, and do not get for that price.
The good news for me is the 2007 2G (NHW20) I had been using to Fight The War Against Petrol Terrori$m,
which was delivering mid-to-high 50s MPG with the ”Must-Have” safety features I require, has been
replaced by the new 2012 "Caddy In A Kimono" Prius v Station Wagon.
I am still "learning" the idiosyncracies of the Prius v, but I am currently running my
new "vee" to get it to deliver Per Tank-Full MPG fuel economies in the low-to-mid 50s.
I had thought I would eventually replace my 2G with the Ultra High-MPG Prius c that Toyota "whispers-leaks" say will be priced
in the $20,000 range rather than the $30,000 range. The production Prius c will be priced well below the standard
Prius 3G, as well as sporting Official EPA Fuel Economy numbers that are well above the current 48 Highway/50 Combined/51
City MPG Fuel Economy numbers of the standard 3G (per Toyota, "...the c will achieve
the highest efficiency of any non-plug-in hybrid").
The "smart money" guess-timate for the Official EPA "City"
MPG Fuel Economy of the 2013 Prius c is somewhere around a 2.5% to 3.5% increase to the Official EPA "City" 51
MPG number for the 2009½ (2010)―2012 3G, which would put it somewhere between
54 to 55 MPG.
Following NAIAS 2011, the new Prius c was offered for sale beginning in mid-2012 (as in Calender Year 2012/Model
The Prius c will
also have a Kammback design, so it will share the poor rearward visibility and Blind Spot Danger Zone of all cars in the Prius
line. Therefore, of safety necessity, the new 2013 Prius c I purchase would have had to come equipped with a "Safety Must-Have" Back-Up Video Camera as Standard, unfortunately, it
However, a Prius c was not in the cards for me. Once I test drove
the new in 2012 Prius v Station Wagon, I was "blown away" by it. I thought I would like it, but I loved
it. I can critically and honestly say, "The Prius v Station Wagon is the optimal 'High-Low Mix' of fuel economy performance,
driver-vehicle interface instrumentation, driver-passenger ergonomics and comfort, crash safety, and capital 'Vee', VERSATILTY."
If the 2009½ (2010)―2013 Prius II (Two) offered the Back-Up Video Camera Safety Option, I would recommend
buying a 2010-2013Prius II (Two) to those buying a 3G Prius. Unfortunately, the Prius II (Two) does not offer it. The
base 2010-2013 Prius III (Three) does not have a Back-Up Camera Safety Feature either. However, you can get factory installed
"Safety Must-Have," OEM Back-Up Video Camera (i.e. "Granny Cam")
functionality as an option when buying the Prius III (Three), but you must purchase the added cost Navigation System
Option. Buying a Prius III (Three) w/ NAV Option is the only way to get a Back-Up Camera without spending many $1,000s more
and going thousands above the $30,000 mark to buy a “Bells, Whistles & Spinning
Red Wheels” laden Prius IV (Four) or V (Five)
with factory OEM Navigation. Beginning in MY2012, all Model Three and above 3G Priuses were fitted with Back-Up
Video Cameras as standard equipment.
This is why, In my humble opinion,
for those buying the 3G sedan hatchback the 2010-2012 Prius III (Three) w/ NAV (NVAT) Option is the 2009½ (2010)―2011, and 2012 Three Prius are the buyer's safety and value buying "$weet $pot” for those electing to purchase a 3G Prius.
PRIUS "CONE OF SILENCE" REPLACED WITH "CONE OF NOISE":
Apparantly "Quiet Ain't
Better Or Safer Than Noisy." Thanks to pandering politician and lurking lawyers, the "U.S. Gummit" lays
another "mandatory" safety requirement on automobile manufacturers.
The Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act of 2010, sponsored by Sen. John Kerry [D-MA], was passed
by the Senate 12/9/2010, passed the House 12/16/2010, and was signed into law by President Obama Jan 4, 2011. The new law
requires the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to be the “Noise Cop” for new, quiet
EVs (Electric Vehicles). All 2012 model year and beyond Prius hybrids and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) sold in
the U.S. have OEM, factory–installed Vehicle Proximity Notification System (VPNS) “noise makers,”
and are and will be NHTSA compliant.
|2012 Prius Vehicle Proximity Notification System Description
DRIVING *HYBRID $MART*
HYBRID BASICS FOR IMPROVED MILES & "$MILE$" PER GALLON
(10 “Best Practices” For Achieving “$tellar” Fuel Economy In An OEM Instrumented
LOOSE OLD-BAD, DEVELOP NEW HYBRIDIZED DRIVING HABITS
MPG VS. MPH "SWEET SPOT" RANGES
ROLLING FRICTION AND TIRE SELECTION
ICE FRICTION AND MOTOR OIL SELECTION
CONTROLLING THE HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE (HSD)
"ICE" COLD START/RESTART
"INFINITE" INSTANTANEOUS MPG-FE
"ELECTRO-GLIDING"/FULL-TRACTION BATTERY ARRAY "EV"
J. "OPEN ROAD" CRUISE "SWEET
SPOT"/ECC USE - DASH (pULSE) & COAST (gLIDE)
A. LOOSE OLD-BAD, DEVELOP NEW "HYBRIDIZED" DRIVING HABITS-BEHAVIORS: Unless you are "miraculously"
already driving "Hybrid Smart," you need to "loose" and "hybridize" the old, bad "Gas-To-Go/Brake-To-Stop" driving habits and behaviors you are using when you drive.
driving attitude and practices by accelerating moderately, avoiding Jack-Rabbit starts, doing more "Free-Wheeling"
Coasting and staying away from last minute hard brake pedal stomping stops. Try to smooth out your travel profile by
minimizing application of your friction brakes and gas throttle in Stop & Go traffic. Anticipate GREEN-to-RED and RED-To-GREEN
traffic light changes, the ebb and flow of traffic and drive to maintain minimum fuel consumption at a steady and safe speed.
Adopting a ripe tomato/eggshell-under-the-pedal
style, feather light touch for operating both your foot-throttle and brake pedals will pay off with greater gas mileage numbers
by minimizing fuel wasting behavior and gaining velocity-sourced energy reclamation from the energy regeneration subsystem
of your hybrid vehicle.
The Fuel Economy points here are:
1. Gas-To-Go "Smarts": The "Beating-Everyone-Off-The-Line"
when the "Red" Traffic Light changes to "Green"
only to race them to the next "Green" traffic signal turning
"Yellow-To-Red" is a common "around
town," in-traffic "gas guzzling" driving behavior that incrementally
"robs" fuel economy from you. This is true whether you are driving in a conventionally-powered
vehicle or a hybrid-powered one. Most people use this "Gas-To-Go" driving
behavior because they are mirroring the lemming-like behavior of the rest of the "traffic
This stomp the "Gas-To-Go" driving behavior norm was born and established when a gallon of automobile
fuel cost 25¢ a gallon. Through the intervening decades, it has persisted, flourished and been accepted as "normal and mainstream" in-traffic group driving behavior. In today's "Brave New World" where crude oil can sell for $140+ per barrel oil, gasoline for $4.00+ per gallon, and
you now driving a gas-electric hybrid, such "Gas-To-Go" stomping the foot
throttle pedal DOES NOT COMPUTE for you on your 21st Century "Green" Commute.
I have not driven all the
hybrids, but all those I have seen are instrumented much like the Prius Hybrid
Synergy Drive (HSD). The difference with the Prius and other Hybrid instrumentation,
as compared to that in a conventionally-powered car, is its Multi-Function Display (MFD), Multi-Information Display (MID) or
a Hybrid System Information (HSI) "Smart Eco-Gauge" that graphically or numerically
displays and instantaneously feeds back the effects of any latent "bad, gas guzzling
traffic herd" driving behaviors a hybrid driver may have retained in real-time.
If a newbie, novice, new
hybrid owner-driver complains "The displayed MPG is below Official EPA Fuel Economy. There is something wrong with my
car." --- It is likely that the source of this low MPG fuel economy is located behind the steering wheel and not
anywhere in the hybrid system.
If the driver uses this MPG-FE
and ICE/Battery operating state feedback constructively, their instantaneous incremental MPG-FE will start to ratchet up and
improve markedly. If, on the other hand, they choose a "No One Is Going To Tell Me How
To Drive, I'll Drive Like I Always Have" behavior, and ignore the displayed feedback, attainment of "Stellar" Ultra-High MPG-FE numbers will continue to allude them.
Try this technique to optimize and maximize
MPG-FE in an OEM instrumented Prius Hybrid when accelerating from a dead
stop to speeds up to 55± MPH (88± KPH). First, depress the foot throttle pedal around 1/3 to 2/5 (30% to 40%), as required
to get and keep the instantaneous Miles-Per-Gallon (iMPG) number displayed on the MFD/MID reading about and at least one-half (½)
that of the instantaneous Miles-Per-Hour (iMPH) reading shown on the speedometer display. With practice, you will find
the "feels right to your foot" pedal depression amount by refining and fine-tuning
the actual amount of throttle pedal "push" needed that to achieve the "½" value
until you can hit it every time.
Using the "½"
Value Rule-Of-Thumb makes doing the iMPG = iMPH/2 math in your head easy as you accelerate from a dead stop in the traffic "herd" to your desired steady state speed while conserving fuel.
For example, if your desired
steady-state travel cruise speed is in the range 45-55 MPH, hold an instantaneous Miles-Per-Gallon reading of at least one-half
(½) the instantaneous Miles-Per-Hour (iMPH), iMPG = iMPH/2, on the accelerator position until you reach approximately 35-45±
MPH or approximately 20%± less than your intended steady-state travel cruise speed below 60 MPH. As you reach that transition
speed point, start "feathering" back on the throttle pedal from reading iMPG = iMPH/2 on the MFD to produce an instantaneous reading
of iMPG ≤ 1.2 x iMPH on the MFD display as you are passing through 40-50 MPH speed range on your way to economical
fuel use-cruise speed, MPG vs. MPH value.
After the 35-45±
MPH point is reached, begin lightly easing up on and "feathering" slightly
back on the throttle pedal with your foot to get and keep the instantaneous Miles-Per-Gallon (iMPG) fuel consumption displayed
on the MFD reading to a number equal to or slightly less than 1.2 times the instantaneous Miles-Per-Hour (iMPH) displayed
on the speedometer. Do this as you "seamlessly" ease into and converge on
your desired steady-state 45-55 travel speed while gaining postive incremental fuel economy.
When and if
road conditions, terrain and traffic patterns permit it, strive to maintain iMPG ≤
1.1 To 1.2 MPH during steady-state for cruise speeds between 45 to 55 MPH. Doing this either manually
or by using the Electronic Cruise Control, will keep the ICE operating in or around the "Sweet
Spot" RPM range that delivers optimal miles-per-gallon fuel efficiency in that range of speed. The MPG vs. MPH
cross-over point is around 55 MPH. Typically, cruising at 55 MPH on a level road with HVAC OFF, and Outside Air Temperatures
of 75°F± will deliver around or about 55 iMPG fuel economy [Refer
to the Fuel Economy Expectations Graph to get an idea of the typical MPG
vs. MPH for constant travel speeds above 55 MPH].
If you are
an owner-driver of the new 2010-2013 3G sedan hatchback Prius, you can use the Hybrid System Indicator (HSI) screen of the
Multi-Information Display to select and maintain the optimal foot throttle pedal depression amount that will minimize Per-Tank-Full
fuel consumption, thereby, maximizing your overall MPG-FE.
of an annotated screen shot of the 3G HSI that follows, shows the driving-operation zone that will deliver Optimal Acceleration
While Minimizing Overall Per-Tank-Full Fuel Consumed. This portion on the right end of the bar, marked with "GREEN BRACKET LINES,"
is the zone on the bar where a driver should keep the energy, fuel consumption operating point at during acceleration.
For the new
in 2012 Prius v Station Wagon, this iMPG = iMPH/2 operating point is conveniently reached and observed by keeping the
top GREEN LINE, #12, on the HSI illuminated. This 12th, top "GREEN LINE"
is just before the "RED LINE" POWER ZONE on the HSI Power Zone.
"Purest" OEM Prius owner-operators like me apply the Foot Throttle Pedal Depression and "Feathering" iMPG
= iMPH/2 - Transitioning To - iMPG ≤ 1.2 x iMPH Acceleration-To-Cruise Speed Technique Rule-Of-Thumb or skillfully
manage Hybrid System Indicator Energy-Power Bar to aid them in keeping their Prius 2G, 3G or "vee" ICE running in the Fuel-Economy
"Sweet Spot" RPM zone of the engines's operating "Power" band during acceleration, and to fuel-efficiently converge on a steady-state
travel cruise speed.
This permits driving fuel efficiently without having to use an added-on, non-OEM tachometer or other special
external instrumentation like ScanGauge II™ or CAN-View™.
Regular use and mastery of
the foot throttle pedal depression and "feathering" control technique, in
the 2G, or controlling energy, fuel consumption point on the bar of the HSI, in the 3G, or top "GREEN LINE"
of the Prius "vee" HSI by the "purest" OEM Prius Hybrid driver
will pay them fuel economy dividends.
Prius Hybrid drivers who
accelerate from a dead-stop keeping at
iMPG = iMPH/2 and in the
BRACKETED ZONE" followed by efficiently transitioning to their selected steady-state travel
cruise speed using these "Hybrid Smart" techniques will consume
and waste less fuel on an overall Per-Tank-Full fuel economy basis.
INCREMENTAL FUEL ECONOMY NOTE: Anecdotal reports from Prius 2G hybrid drivers are that regular, skillful
application of this Start-Up-To-Cruise iMPG =
iMPH/2 - To - iMPG ≤ 1.2 x iMPH throttle pedal control technique can increase
incremental Overall Per Tank-Full Average Fuel Economy by 2± MPG.
2010-2013 3G drivers who regularly keep the bar on the HSI screen in the Optimal Accelaration "GREEN BRACKETED ZONE" or
2012-2013 "vee" drivers the top "GREEN LINE" when accelerating from dead stops, are reporting similar gains in overall fuel economy.
|3G Hybrid System Indicator (HSI) Bar Showing Optimal Gliding & Optimal Acceleration Zones
2. Brake-To-Stop"Smarts": The "Beating-Everyone-To-The-Next-Red Light"
only to execute a "Brake-To-Stop" maneuver or not anticipating ahead of time the
need to slightly ease back on the throttle to decelerate and coast to an upcoming "Red Light" you expect will be changing to "Green" before
you get there will cost you "Gold & Green" --- Black Liquid Arabian Gold & Green
Backs. This mindless, habitual accelerating and racing from one "Red"
stop-light after it changes to "Green," to the next "Green" traffic light getting ready to turn "Yellow" and then "Red" is an all
too common in-traffic, "gas guzzling, fuel wasting" City-Driving behavior
that "steals" incremental fuel economy. This fuel economy "theft" occurs whether you are driving in a conventionally powered vehicle or in a hybrid-powered one.
Not anticipating a "Red" turning traffic signal, a stop sign, coasting and slowing to pull in to a shopping
center or just slowing to pull into your driveway will "rob" you of chances
to conserve energy you already expended to get you up to travel-cruise speed as well as opportunities to reclaim-regenerate
"MPG-FE" by converting that velocity energy into electrical energy stored
into the hybrid's traction battery array.
As with the "Gas-To-Go" driving behavior, most people habitually use this "Brake-To-Stop"
behavior because they are mirroring the behavior of or being "pressured"
by the I-Got-Places-To-Go...You-Are-In-My-Way...Gotta-Get-To-The-Gas-Station-Ahead-Of-You-Before-The-Prices-Go-Up-Again
"Flow-Of-Traffic Traffic Herd" who are beeping, bleeping and looming up in their rearview and side view mirrors
to get them waste fuel to speed to an upcoming "Red" Traffic Light only
to then rapidly "Brake-To-Stop" once again.
TECH NOTE: In a Prius NWH20/2G/GEN II Hybrid, "free-wheel coasting,"
displayed as no arrows flowing on the MFD/MID, is the best use of velocity energy. In this hybrid discussion, "free-wheel coasting" can be considered to be an operating state where velocity energy is being directly
converted to "miles" (distance) traveled at a "100% Level of Energy Conversion Efficiency." Staying in "no-arrows
free-wheel coasting" for as long as is possible and out of the HSD's energy reclamation-regeneration arrows flowing
from the electric motor-generators mode is the best way to optimize and maximize MPG-FE.
in the Prius Hybrid entails conversion of kinetic, Velocity Energy into electrical
energy by the motor-generators. This converted kinetic energy is then stored it as chemical energy in the hybrid's NiMH
Traction Battery Array. There is an energy conversion loss-penalty at each step of the Kinetic/Velocity
Energy-To-Electrical Energy-To-Chemical Energy Conversion Process. The reversal of the Chemical-To-Electrical-To-Kinetic/Velocity Energy Conversion Process to propel the vehicle also has a conversion
loss-penalty associated with each step.
Therefore, it is MPG-FE beneficial
to "free-wheel coast" using the vehicle's kinetic, Velocity Energy to your
best advantage by extending the amount of time you are in "no-arrow free-wheel coasting"
while reducing the amount of time you are in one of the other energy reclamation-regeneration modes.
When "no-arrow free-wheel coasting" is not possible or practical, then the next most fuel economy enhancing
thing to do to decelerate from a given travel speed is to use "Regenerative Coasting-Braking."
The most efficient energy reclamation-regenerative coasting-braking mode is "free-wheel
coasting with arrows" displayed on the MFD/MID, while not depressing
the brake pedal. In this "Free-Wheeling With Arrows" Regenerative Coasting Mode, reclamation of Velocity Energy-To-Battery-Stored Electrical Energy occurs at an approximately
50% level of Reclamation Efficiency.
When you finally must leave
the "Free-Wheeling With Arrows" Regenerative Coasting Mode, and enter the
"Brake Pedal Depressed With Arrows" Regenerative
Braking Mode to brake, slow down or stop, do so by very lightly depressing the brake pedal a "smidgen." The optimum amount of "smidgen" brake pedal
depression is no more than approximately one-quarter inch (¼”) of brake pedal travel. Lightly depressing the brake pedal, by one-quarter inch
(¼”±) or less will only engage the "Brake Pedal Depressed With Arrows" Regenerative Braking Mode energy
reclamation-regeneration system function, without activating the velocity energy wasting non-regenerative conventional hydraulic
friction braking system. Activating the non-regenerative conventional hydraulic friction braking system recovers Zero Energy
because it "dumps off" 100% of your kinetic, Velocity Energy as Friction-Heat
Energy, which is lost into the air as radiated heat.
By slightly and lightly depressing
the brake pedal to where you just "feel" the Motor-Generator (MG) kick in
to provide "Brake Pedal Depressed With Arrows" Regenerative Braking, but short of the point that will cause the conventional hydraulic friction brakes
to engage, you assure that only the Motor Generator Regenerative Braking System Mode
MG Regenerative Braking will function to reclaim velocity
energy at a ~50±% efficiency until the vehicle finally slows down to a speed of 7 MPH. When the 7 MPH point is reached, the
HSD computer automatically engages the regular, conventional non-regenerative hydraulic friction brakes to bring the car to
zero speed, and a full stop halt.
By using this tiered, hierarchical approach
to coasting, you are becoming "At One With" the Hybrid Synergy Drive's
energy use and reclamation system. By slowing down and braking "Hybrid Smart," you aid the Prius energy reclamation Motor-Generator Regenerative Coasting-Braking
System in using and converting vehicle velocity kinetic energy into stored electrical energy at the maximum
level of conversion efficiency permitted by the HSD System. This reclaimed-stored energy is then available to be used later
to propel your vehicle when it goes into the Electric Vehicle (EV-Full Traction Battery
Array) Mode, without having to run the gasoline consuming ICE to supply energy to move you down the road.
FUEL ECONOMY NOTE: Regular, skillful application of "Hybrid Smart" free-wheel coasting, regenerative coasting and regenerative
braking in City, Mixed City-Highway and Highway driving can contribute upwards of an incremental increase of 2± MPG to your
Overall Per-Tank-Full Average Fuel Economy .
B. MPG VS. MPH "SWEET SPOT" RANGES: There are
three Miles Per Gallon (MPG) vs. Miles Per Hour (MPH) "Sweet Spot" driving speed ranges for the Prius.
One is a Low Speed (City) "Sweet Spot" range for
"Around Town" City driving.
The second is a Mid Speed (City-Highway) "Sweet Spot" range for "Mixed" City-Highway driving. The third is a High Speed (Highway) "Sweet Spot" range
for "Open-Road" Interstate/Freeway driving.
"Sweet Spot" MPG-FE Driving Ranges Summary:
- "Around Town" City "Sweet Spot" Range: 29-40 MPH (29-45 In
2010-2013 3G Sedan & 2012/13 Prius v).
- "Mixed" City-Highway "Sweet Spot" Range: 41-54 MPH (46-59 in
2010-2013 3G & 2012/13 Prius v).
- "Open-Road" Interstate/Freeway "Sweet Spot" Range: 55-66 MPH (60-70 In 2010-2013 3G & 2012/13 Prius v).
The Fuel Economy points here are:
These "Sweet Spot" driving speed ranges are "Rule Of Thumb" recommendations. They are based upon trading off tolerable travel and commute time versus
optimal fuel economy attainment when having to travel from Point "A" to Point "B"
in real-world traffic without impeding or obstructing traffic flow during the transit.
1. Everything else being equal, operating
in the Low Speed (City) "Sweet Spot" driving range, between 29 to 40 MPH (29 to 45 in
2010-2013 3G Sedan & 2012/13 Prius v), will facilitate you regularly attaining fuel economies in the low
to mid 60s MPG range. This is because, in this speed range, the
Hybrid HSD permits you to operate your car in the Electric Vehicle (EV) - Full Battery Array
Electric Mode as well as it being the speed range where you can successfully employ the "Pulse and Glide" hypermiling driving technique to further increase incremental instantaneous MPG-FE.
2. Operating in the Mid-Speed (City-Highway) "Sweet Spot"
driving range, between 41 and 54 MPH (46 to 59 in 2010-2013 3G Sedan & 2012/13 Prius v), will facilitate
getting fuel econmies in the mid to high 50s MPG range, with excursions into the 60s MPG, depending on travel speeds, traffic
densities and weather conditions.
3. Operating in the High Speed (Highway) "Sweet Spot"
driving range, between 55 and 66 MPH (60 to 70 in 2010-2013 3G Sedan & 2012/13 Prius v), will facilitate you
getting low to mid 50s MPG and some times a bit more. High Speed (Highway) Fuel
Economy is sensitive to and dependent upon the Target Speed you choose to travel at and whether
you employ Electronic Cruise Control (ECC) to control, manage and maintain that Target Travel Speed.
TUTORIAL TECH NOTE:
Beginning at around 45-MPH, Aerodynamic Drag starts becoming a noticeable negative contributor to eroding your MPG-FE.
The Aerodynamic Drag - Air Resistance Equation:
R = ½ Cd ρAv2
R = Drag, Cd = Coefficient of Drag, ρ = Density of Air (fluid), A = Area, v = Velocity
[FYI: Prius Cd = 0.26, Blimp Cd = 0.020~0.025, SUV/Hummer, Cd = 0.45~0.57
Per the equation, Drag, R increases
as the square of the Velocity,
your car through the air (the fluid). Let me try to give you a magnitude kind of feel for the effect of the Velocity-Squared,
"Speed-Squared," term on increasing the Drag, R.
Consider that increasing
your travel velocity, vt from an "Around Town"
45 MPH speed to an "Open-Road" 65 MPH travel speed causes Drag
Resistance, R to essentially double. That is,
increasing a 45 MPH travel speed by some 40%, to 65± MPH, increases Drag Resistance, R by
approximately 210%, or more than double what the Drag Resistance
is at 45 MPH.
Tech Note/Pseudo-Hypermiling Fuel Economy Point:
If your travel schedule, traffic densities, road conditions and the minimum allowed speed limit permit
it, opting to travel at speeds of 45 MPH or less will make the negative contribution from Aerodynamic
Drag Resistance to eroding your MPG-FE negligible compared to driving a speeds greater than 45 MPH.
C. ROLLING FRICTION
AND TIRE SELECTION: Minimizing rolling friction of tires will
improve fuel economy. According to testing, switching from regular tires to Low Rolling Resistance (LRR) tires can add
1-2 miles per gallon to your fuel economy. Additionally, keeping regular and LRR tires inflated to or near the maximum allowable
"Cold-Ambient" tire pressures specified on their sidewalls will further minimize rolling friction and add even more
to fuel economy.
tires in combination with Up-Pressuring your tires can contribute an additional 2-7 MPG to your fuel economy. The added fuel
economy will depend on the particular rolling resistance friction rating of the tires you have installed on your hybrid, and
the "Cold-Ambient" air pressure level to which they were inflated prior to Up-Pressuring them to at or near the maximum
allowable "Cold-Ambient" pressure embossed on the tire.
The Fuel Economy point here is:
The specific rolling
friction of your tires affects your fuel economy.
Higher Rolling Friction, Lower MPG-FE.
Rolling Friction, Higher MPG-FE.
Inflating the tires on your hybrid to the maximum allowable "Cold-Ambient" air pressure specified on their sidewalls by the tire manufacturer
will cut down on their over-the-road rolling friction and, thereby, work to improve overall fuel economy.
As an example,
the sidewalls on OEM Goodyear "Integrity" tires mounted on my iconic 2G Prius specify
that the tires may be pressurized up to a maximum "Cold-Ambient" air pressure of
44 PSI. I keep my tires inflated to 44 PSI-Front/42 PSI-Rear and reap Higher MPG-FE benefits for every Lower Rolling Friction
mile my wheels turn.
I saw an incremental gain of 3± MPG in my Running Average Per-Tank-Full MPG-FE after "Up-Pressuring" the "Cold-Ambient" air pressures of my
OEM tires from Toyota recommended 35 PSI-Front/33 PSI-Rear posted on the door post to 44 PSI-Front/42 PSI-Rear. The 3± MPG
incremental gain I saw was predicted by, and is in keeping with, the EPA Rule-Of-Thumb that every 1-PSI increase in "Cold" tire air pressure will deliver an incremental gain of from 0.3 to 0.4 MPG in
Using this rule-of-thumb, "Up-Pressuring" the tires
on my Prius by 9-PSI should have yielded from 2.7 to 3.6 MPG more in fuel economy. I experienced a gain in fuel
economy of ~3 MPG.
OPERATING TECH NOTE: The OEM 185/65-15 Goodyear "Integrity" tires that are "Standard" on the Base and
Standard 2G 2004-2009 Prius have a Low Rolling Resistance/Rolling Resistance Coefficient (LRR/RRC) friction rating. The lower
the Rolling Resistance Coefficent (RRC), the more efficient of a contributor to high fuel economy is the tire.
use the Greek letter μ (“Mu”) as the symbol for tire friction to the road surface.
A lower μ supports delivery of better fuel economy. Great care should taken when selecting
a replacement tire for the OEM Goodyear "Integrity" tire as well as to the preoperative “Cold”
tire pressure PSI preloads you use if you want to keep from taking a multiple-MPG "hit" in your fuel economy. Selecting
a replacement tire with high LRR/RRC numbers and using low PSI tire inflation levels can result in a loss of 4-12% (2-7 MPG)
in your fuel economy.
INCREMENTAL FUEL ECONOMY NOTE:
In my case, if I were to select the wrong replacement tire for my
LRR/RRC OEM Goodyear "Integrity" tires, my Overall Per-Tank-Full Average Fuel Economy could
drop by 2-7± MPG and bring it down from of 60± MPG to 53-58 MPG-FE.
D. ICE FRICTION AND MOTOR OIL SELECTION:
Minimizing the internal friction of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)
in your hybrid car will work to improve its fuel economy. Toyota specifies 5W30 conventional "Dino" oil in the 2004-2009 2G
Prius. Switching from this conventional "Dino" engine motor oil
to a 100% Full-Synthetic motor oil will work to lower the internal friction of your Prius hybrid's ICE. The new 2010-2013
3G Prius and 2012/13 Prius v come from the factory with 0W20 Full-Synthetic oil from the factory, so there is no
need to switch from "Dino" to Synthetic oil in them to gain this advantage.
conventional "100% Dino" motor oil in the ICE of you hybrid with 100% Full
Synthetic oil can contribute up to an additional 2%-4% (1 - 2 MPG) to the fuel economy of your hybrid, depending
on the particular oil viscosity, brand of Full-Synthetic motor oil you select and the ambient outside air temperatures of
the climate in which you are operating (i.e. cool-cold-frigid versus warm-moderate-hot).
Use of Full-Synthetic
motor oil with the following viscosity/weights are suggested:
0W20 or 0W30: For operation in cold, frigid Temperature
Zone “Sweater/Coat Weather” climate areas where Fall, Winter, Spring temperature lows reach or drop below 41°F/5°C Ambient Outside Air Temperatures [OAT].
5W20 or 5W30: For operation in warmer, moderate Temperature
Zone “Room Temperature” climate areas where Fall, Winter, Spring temperature lows normally do not reach or drop below 41°F/5°C Ambient Outside Air
5W40 or 5W50: For operation in warm to hot Temperature
Zone “Desert/Tropical Type” climate areas where
outside ambient air temperatures can regularly exceed 100°F.
Oil & Conventional "Dino" Oil SAE Grade Coverage -vs- Ambient Operating Temperatures above.
Note: The Toyota Approved and Warranty Compliant motor oil grade and viscosity called out in the Owners Manual for U.S. Prius
Hybrid Vehicles over the full -40°F/-40°C to 104°F/+40°C Ambient Outside Air Temperature [OAT] operating range is ILSAC/SAE
OPERATING TECH NOTE: This note applying no matter what kind of oil you choose to use. "Overfilling" the motor oil level in the crank case of the ICE above the "Maximum Fill Level" line (top dot) indicated on the oil dipstick works to cause oil "foaming & sloshing" that adds to rotational load resistance. This added "sloshing" resistance loading on its operation lowers overall fuel efficiency. "Overfilling" can and regularly tends to happen when your car is serviced by dealers and auto service companies
who use bulk motor oil dispensing systems. Therefore, even after switching to Full-Synthetic, if you are still operating in
a motor oil level "overfilled" condition you likely will see no noticeable
Avid Prius Hypermilers/EcoDrivers claim that the optimum total Full-Synthetic motor oil fill amount is 3.5 quarts of
oil. The 3.5 quarts of oil fill level is indicated as approximately 1/8" below the "Full Mark" on the oil dipstick.
Because of warranty considerations and because I live in a climate that is warm all year around, I operated with 5W30
Full-Synthetic motor oil in the crankcase of my Prius 2G/GEN II. I run with the oil level right "On The Money" at and on the "Full" level, top dot mark
on the Prius oil dipstick not 1/8" below the "Full Level Mark" as some hypermilers
do. I find that 3.7± quarts (3.5 Liters) is required to bring the oil level back to the "Full
Level Mark" when replacing-changing both the oil and the standard size Prius oil filter.
The Fuel Economy point here
The internal friction
of your ICE affects your fuel economy.
Higher Internal Engine Friction, Lower MPG-FE.
Lower Internal Engine Friction, Higher MPG-FE.
Running your hybrid ICE with Full-Synthetic motor oil at the proper fill level will
cut down on its internal operating friction and, thereby, work to improve overall fuel economy during operation.
FUEL ECONOMY NOTE: After I replaced the conventional "Dino" motor oil in the ICE of my hybrid with 5w30 100% Full-Synthetic
motor oil, I saw an incremental increase in Overall Per-Tank-Full Average Fuel Economy of 1.5± MPG.
Running on "Up-Pressured" Low Rolling Resistance tires
and using low friction, Full-Synthetic motor oil in you ICE crankcase are two simple, low-cost pre-operative tire and engine
friction reducing measures you can take before you even fire up your hybrid fuel-sipper
and electro-glide it out of the garage and down your driveway. If you take these tips and apply them, you will
see an enhancement of the overall On-The-Road fuel economy delivered to you
by your hybrid.
E. HEATING/VENTILATION/AIR CONDITIONING (HVAC) OPERATION: Operating the Heating Ventilation/Air Conditioning (HVAC) system in the Cooling-Heating Mode will erode your MPG-FE. Minimizing operation in the Cooling-Heating
Mode will improve fuel economy.
The most fuel efficient HVAC ventilation mode is "Natural Air Conditioning" ---
i.e. Fresh Outside Air Ventilation Only. The fuel efficiency "pecking order" preference when using "Natural Air
Conditioning" is as follows:
Outside Air Ventilation On - All Windows Up.
Air Ventilation On - Driver's Window slightly lowered ("cracked") and the diagonal opposing right rear back seat
passenger window slightly lowered ("cracked") or Front Passenger Window slightly lowered ("cracked") and
opposing left rear back seat passenger window slightly lowered ("cracked").
Outside Air Ventilation On -
Windows Down In any amount or combination (limit use of this to only when you are traveling at speeds not exceeding 40-45
air conditioning system used in the Prius is electric-powered from the Traction
Battery Array rather than being mechanically powered as a belt-driven accessory off the ICE, as is the standard practice in
conventionally powered vehicles. So using it “steals” energy
directly from the vehicle’s Traction Battery Array that could otherwise be used to propel you down the road for improved
I observed an approximately 4 to 6± MPG “hit” to my overall
average MPG-FE when operating HVAC full-time, compared to when I do not operate it full-time.
Fuel Economy point here is:
operation of the HVAC and associated windshield and rear window defrost functions will help improve your MPG-FE.
TECH NOTE: I do not run with the air conditioner
set to the "AUTO (ON)” automatic mode. When I do run the A/C, I run
it in the “A/C (ON)” manual mode. When driving alone, I function
as “my own thermostat” for the cabin temperature. When chauffeuring
my June-Bride-For-Life wife around in the Prius
"Family Limo," Her Highness “rules” the cabin air
temperature by "estrogen edict."
Beside my true
love "liking" cool, chilled passenger cabin air to keep her happy and
comfy, the Prius Traction Battery Array also "likes" cool cabin
air too keep it "happy." The Traction Battery Array in the Prius bleeds air
from the passenger cabin through a special air vent located in the area of the rear passenger seat to maintain the battery
compartment, which is behind-under the rear seat, in a cool, safe and battery-life-extending thermal operating temperature.
CAUTION: Impeded air flow to the High Voltage (H.V.)Traction Batterty can contribute to and bring about a premature, thermally
induced Traction Battery Array failure.Take care to never block
or obstruct the Battery Compartment Air Intake Ventilation Grille or Venting OPening in the
rear passenger area of the GEN II (2G), GEN III (3G), Prius v, or Prius c with objects, plastic bags, accumulation
of pet hair or the like. In the iconic 2G and Next-Gen 3G, this Battery Compartment
Air Intake Vent is located on the right side of the rear passenger seat by the door jamb. The Prius v ("vee") and
c (cee) does not use this same venting design, and so does not have a grille covered vent associated with the rearseat
periphery that can be easily obstructed to block airflow into ventilation ports for the H.V. Traction Battery.
When I do run
the HVAC in the cooling mode, I manually cycle the A/C On & Off, as determined by the aforementioned, "Joe, it is getting hot now, turn the A/C ‘ON’ or Joe, I am getting cold, turn the A/C ‘OFF’”
bio-thermostat, my beautiful wife. By using this driver-controlled “Manual A/C
ON” practice of mine as much as possible, I only run/turn on the A/C when the ICE is running or is caused
to run by the HSD. I try never to run the A/C when I am running in the Electric Vehicle (EV) Mode to keep from “robbing” energy from the Traction Battery Array that would otherwise be used to propel the
car down the road for increased MPG-FE.
I call my practice
of manually operating the A/C only when the ICE is running, my “Free Energy Cooling
Mode.” I use the term “Free Energy” because
since the HSD is causing the ICE to run and consume fuel, any way, I feel I might as well have the A/C turned on to scavenge
a bit of energy-power off the ICE-HSD and produce cold air to cool the cabin and traction battery, thereby, giving me a “Free Energy Cooling Ride.”
there is no such thing as “Free Energy Lunch,” but I consider
it a “Free Energy ‘Lunch’ Cooling Ride” because the
ICE is already being caused by the HSD to run and consume fuel to generate electrical energy, and I am just "Freely" bleeding
some of it off to cool the cabin.
INCREMENTAL FUEL ECONOMY NOTE: I find that by utilizing my particular driver-controlled Manual A/C ON-OFF Free
Energy ‘Lunch’ Cooling Mode Cycling practice to run the A/C, rather than running the A/C running in AUTO A/C Mode
Full-Time, my Overall Per-Tank-Full Average Fuel Economy A/C “Energy Hit” is reduced from a minus 4± MPG [With
Full-Time AUTO A/C Use] down to a minus 3± MPG [With Free Energy A/C Cycling].
F. CONTROLLING THE HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE (HSD):
The foot throttle pedal on
the Prius is the driver-operator's primary control of the Prius Hybrid Synergy
Drive system. Learning how to use the throttle pedal to keep the Prius in its lowest available
fuel consumption mode for a given driving condition will pay big incremental fuel economy dividends.
The Fuel Economy
point here is:
To control your Hybrid for
maximum fuel economy you must learn how to intelligently, and deftly use your foot to control the foot throttle in combination
with observing the Hybrid Operating Mode on the Multi-Function Display (MFD) LED Monitor, in the 2004-2009 Prius, only the
Multi-Information Display (MID) Panel in the 2009½
(2010)―2013 Prius, and both a Multi-Function
Display (MFD) LED Monitor and Multi-Function Instrument Display (MID) panel in the 2012/13 Prius v ("Vee").
NOTE: The 2009½ (2010)―2013 3G
Prius Sedan Hatchback did away with using a large, easy-to-read, full-color, high resolution Multi-Function Display (MFD)
LED Monitor to display ENERGY and CONSUMPTION. Whereas, the new, 3G HSD-based 2012 Prius v Station Wagon incorporated
using a large, easy-to-read, full-color, high resolution Multi-Function Display (MFD) LED Monitor like is used in
the iconic GEN II 2G Sedan Hatchback to display ENERGY and CONSUMPTION information, supplemented by a specialty fuel economy
consumption Hybrid System Indicator display on the left side (U.S./North America) Multi-Information Display (MID) Panel.
Only for the
3G Sedan Hatchback, has the Energy and Consumption readouts been moved up to a smaller, less-easy-to-read, mono-colored, blue-green
plus red Liquid Crystal instrument panel cluster display strip call the Multi-Information Display (MID).
As a result,
color references to the ORANGE-RED [Gasoline Being Consumed/Used By ICE], BLUE-GREEN [Energy Being Regenerated/Recovered],
YELLOW [Stored Traction Battery
Charge-Energy Being Consumed To Propel Vehicle], colored arrows and BLACK
[Zero Energy Being Consumed/Generated] color lines in the discussions that follow, only apply to the
2004-2009 2G Prius hybrids, and not the 2010-2013 sedan hatchback model. However, the functions of the Zero
Energy Being Consumed/Generated lines and Energy Being Regenerated/Recovered, Stored
Traction Battery Charge-Energy Being Consumed To Propel Vehicle and Gasoline Being Consumed/Used By ICE energy flow arrows displayed on the 2010-2013’s MID remains the same.
The Prius v Station Wagon displays different colored ENERGY SCREEN arrows-lines on
its MFD LED Monitor Screen, compared to the colors used on iconic Prius 2G. The "Vee" also provides instantaneous
fuel consumption and running average fuel economy on the MID along with a Full-Color unique ECO/EV/POWER display on the left
side of the MID to aid the driver in driving "Hybrid $mart - In The Zone."
The Human Factors Engineers at Toyota get an A+ from me on the wonderful job they did with the MFD/MID
design solution installed on the Prius v Station Wagon.
Zero Energy Being Consumed/Generated Lines [BLACK In 2G] or Energy Being
Regenerated/Recovered Arrows [BLUE-GREEN In 2G]
or Stored Traction Battery Energy-Charge
Being Consumed To Propel Vehicle Arrows [YELLOW In 2G] energy flowing on the MFD are "GOOD" FOR FUEL ECONOMY. Whereas, Gasoline Being Consumed/Used By ICE Arrows
[ORANGE-RED In 2G] flowing on the MFD/MID
are "BAD" FOR FUEL ECONOMY.
Simply put, to maximize MPG-FE
it is best to keep to operating on the zero energy being consumed end of the energy use hierarchy.
Here is the
Prius Hybrid Vehicle Minimum Energy Use/Max Fuel Economy Mode Hierarchy:
"Free-Wheeling" Pure Coasting Mode: 2G – All Black Lines on MFD. 3G – Glide Zone
on HSI. "Vee" - ECO Leaf Symbol & ECO Light Illuminated on HSI with No "Green or White"
Lines or flickering between "Green & White" Lines on the HSI MID. No Arrows on MFD Energy Screen, No Lines on ECO/EV/PWR
HSI & 99.9 iMPG on MID. No Motor Fuel Being Burned or Traction Battery Electricity
Being Used. No Electricity Being Generated. THIS
IS THE MOST FUEL EFFICIENT, MISERLY "FUEL-SIPPING," ENERGY CONSUMING MODE!
"Free-Wheeling" Regenerative Coasting Mode: 2G – Blue-Green Arrows on MFD. 3G – CHG Zone
On HSI. "Vee" – ECO Leaf Symbol & ECO Light Illuminated on HSI & MID. "Regeneration"
Arrows Flowing on MFD, One (1) White Line Illuminated in CHG Zone on HSI & 99.9 iMPG on MID. Reclaiming Energy
Via MGen1. Traction Battery Being Charged.
Regenerative Braking Mode: Brake Pedal Lightly-Slightly Depressed. 2G – Blue-Green Arrows on MFD. 3G – CHG
Zone on HSI. "Vee" – ECO Leaf
Symbol & ECO Light Illuminated on HSI & MID. "Regeneration" Arrows Flowing on MFD, Two (2) or Three (3) White Lines
Illuminated in CHG Zone on HSI & 99.9 iMPG on MID. Reclaiming Energy Via Both MGen1/MGen2. Traction
Battery Being Charged.
4. EV-Electric Vehicle Mode: 2G – All Yellow Arrows. 3G – ECO Zone n HSI. "Vee" – Both EV Car & ECO Leaf Symbols on HSI Display With
ECO Light Illuminated on MID. Lower-Half "GREEN LINES"
Illuminated In EV Zone on HSI & 99.9 on iMPG on MID. Arrows
From Battery To Wheels on MFD Monitor. Running Only On Electricity & Discharging Traction Battery.
ON Consuming Fuel & Charging Traction Battery Mode: 2G – Orange-Red Arrows To Wheels With Steady Yellow Arrows Into Battery. 3G – Operating in Right Half of Bar On HSI. "Vee" – ECO LIght
OFF. Operating at or Around the "GREEN LINES"
Mid-To-High Point of the ECO/EV/PWR Display on HSI & Less Then 99.9 iMPG Displayed on MID. Propulsion Energy From
Gasoline Engine To Wheels Along With Steady Arrows Showing on MFD Monitor Going Into & Charging Traction Battery.
ICE ON Consuming Fuel & EV-Electric Vehicle
Boost Mode: 2G –
Orange-Red Arrows Going From Engine To Wheels Along With Occasional Yellow Arrow "Spurts-Flashes" of Battery-To-Wheels Power
Boost Shown by Discharging Yellow Arrows Flowing From Traction Battery Into MGen/Wheels. 3G –
Operating on Far Right Half Of HSI with Some Amount
Of "RED BAR" Extending into "PWR ZONE."
Engine-Powered Electric Charging Arrows Flowing Into & Charging Traction Battery. "Vee" – ECO & EV Symbols on HSI NOT Illuminated. ECO Light On MID OFF. Operating On Upper "RED LINES"
PWR Section of ECO/EV/PWR MID HSI Display --- The "RED
LINE AREA IN POWER ZONE ILLUMINATED," Engine-Powered Electric Charging Arrows Flowing Into & Charging
Traction Battery on MFD & Much Less Then 99.9 iMPG Displayed on MID. THIS IS THE MOST INEFFICIENT, "FUEL THIRSTY" ENERGY CONSUMPTION
THERE IS NO “FREE ENERGY LUNCH.”
|Prius v Hybrid System Indicator In Multi-Information Display (MID) Helps One Drive *Hybrid $mart*
|Example Of The *Stellar* MPG-FE Per Tank-Full Numbers My Prius v5ATP Is Delivering To Me
The more you
drive on the 1, 2, 3 end of the Energy Use/Max Fuel Economy Mode Hierarchy, rather than on the 4, 5, 6 end of it, the
less gasoline you will consume and more “FREE
ENERGY” Traction Battery charging you will reclaim-regenerate. Less fuel used and more “FREE REGENERATIVE ENERGY” reclaimed, equates to BETTER
The more you
drive on the 4, 5, 6 end end of the Energy Use/Max Fuel Economy Mode Hierarchy, rather than on the 1, 2, 3 end of it,
the more gasoline you will consume and more stored Traction Battery “ENERGY” you will use. More fuel burned and more Traction Battery “ENERGY” used, equates to WORSE FUEL ECONOMY.
focus on the braking, brake pedal application functions, the first preference is to anticipate having to come to a “Full
Stop” well ahead of the stopping point, and go into and stay in the "Free-Wheeling" Regenerative Coasting
Mode for as long as you can. This mode delivers regenerative braking via the MGen 1 charging the Traction Battery without
touching the brake pedal.
When you want
or need to get more braking-slowing than this "Free-Wheeling" Regenerative Mode gives you, just lightly depress
the brake pedal. This will put you into the Regenerative Braking Mode switching in MGen 2 to assist in Regenerative
Braking-Slowing as MGen 2 also works to charge the Traction Battery. Ideally, you can stay in this Regenerative Braking
Mode until you slow to 7 MPH (11 KPH) where the friction brakes (zero energy reclaimed) are automatically engaged by the
Synergy Drive controller.
brake pedal beyond just a light pedal application, puts you in Friction Braking, which reclaims, captures ZERO ENERGY
because the velocity energy is lost and dumped off as friction heat from using the Friction Brakes.
A "HYBRID $MART" ENERGY USE EXAMPLE FOR CLIMBING HILLS: Using
foot throttle pedal position and Multi-Function Display to keep the Prius operating on its Minimum Fuel Consumption “$weet
$pot” when negotiating inclines and hills.
Uphill: Throttle pedal positioned to keep iMPG = iMPH.
Moderate Uphill: Throttle pedal positioned
to keep iMPG = 0.8 times iMPH.
Significant Uphill: Maintain iMPG as close as possible to 0.8 times iMPH
Moderate Downhill: Feather back on throttle to keep iMPG = 1.3 to 1.5 times iMPH.
Downhill: Use/Enter “Warp Stealth” Mode by feathering throttle pedal to achieve, and keep an
All Yellow Arrows (Battery Only) condition on CONSUMPTION Display.
G. "ICE" COLD START/RESTART: The following discussion on the Cold Start/Restart characteristics and behavior of the HSD & ICE assumes
a nominal Operating Temperature Range (OTR) environment for the hybrid car that runs from 41°F/5°C-To-104°F/40°C.
In the 2004-2009 2G Prius,
the first five (5) or so minutes on Initial Cold Start-Up, and for a minimum
of a minute (57-seconds minimum) or so after each Restart after being warmed up, the HSD Computer causes the ICE to run
in a Rich-Burn Fuel Mode (i.e. Choke-On/Throttle-On Mode) rather than in a Lean-Burn Fuel Mode (Choke-Off, Economy Mode). [NOTE: In the 2009½
(2010)-2013 3G Sedan and 2012/13 v (“vee”) Station Wagon this five minute warm-up time is shortened somewhat because of
the new exhaust heat exchange-recovery system in the 2009½ (2010)-2013 3G
Sedan Hatchback and 2012/13 v (“vee”) Station Wagon].
The gasoline engine (ICE) will run in this “Rich
Burn, Choke-On/Throttle-On Mode” until the ICE and Catalytic Converter warm/re-warm up to their specified “normal” operating temperatures. This Initial Cold Start-Up/Restart,
Rich-Burn period, which can run from 57-seconds on a "warm" engine to five
(5) or more minutes on a "cold" engine, is one of the most inefficient fuel consumption
times for Gas-Electric Hybrid system operation.
Fuel economy focused Prius
and other hybrid owner-operators, especially those operating in colder, Temperate Zone climates,
install after-market Engine Block Heaters (EBH) into the ICEs of their cars so their Initial
Cold Start-Ups begin with the ICE block, motor oil and engine coolant fluid already in a pre-warmed state.
As an additional aid to accelerating
engine compartment warm-up and keeping and running the ICE in the "Sweet Spot"
temperature range that delivers Max-MPG-FE, some drivers operating in frigid Northern Temperate Zone environments (≤
41°F/5°C Ambient Outside Air Temperatures [OAT]) partially block some of the space in part of the Prius front grille air intake
louvers with cylindrical foam insulation like that used to insulate hot water pipes in your home.
OF CAUTION: Operating the ICE with
the front air intake grille louvers partially or completely blocked off with foam insulation when Ambient Outside Air Temperatures
(O.A.T.) exceed 41°F/5°C may result in harmful and damaging overheating of the ICE and propulsion components. Grille Louver
Blocking should only be done when outside ambient temperatures will remain at or below 41°F/5°C throughout the day. Leaving
engine compartment ventilation louver blocking material in the grille when O.A.T. temperatures rise above 41°F/5°C may result
in damage to the engine, inverter and transmission.
People who venture to use
grille louver blocking above 41°F/5°C usually have after-market ScanGauge II or similar add-on instrumentation installed so
they can monitor the temperatures of the ICE and key propulsion components to keep them from overheating and being damaged.
Using EBH and foam insulation
can shorten the length of the five (5) minutes warm-up period by the last approximately 4-minutes and 3-seconds of the Initial Cold Start-Up nominal 5± minute warm-up period that would normally extend
past the HSD software mandated 57-seconds minimum warm-up period if the engine had not already been pre-warmed. The positive
incremental MPG-FE benefits of EBH pre-warming of the ICE comes, in best-case, from only needing to run the ICE in the Rich-Burn, Choke-On/Throttle-On Mode for the HSD mandated 57-seconds minimum instead
of the mandated 57-seconds plus the additional approximately 4-minutes and 3-seconds or more of the typical Initial Cold Start-Up nominal 5± minute warm-up period without EBH pre-heating.
The Fuel Economy
points here are:
1. Learning to operate the foot throttle pedal with a deft, feather-light touch
during the first few minutes of operation after Start-Up, until the gasoline
engine warms/re-warms up to normal operating temperatures, and transitions into the more economical Lean-Burn, High-MPG Mode, will deliver big fuel economy benefits.
During Start-Up/Warm-Up, until the ICE warms/re-warms up, the gasoline powered ICE operates in a "thirsty," high fuel consuming Rich-Burn, "Choke On" Mode.
Therefore, delicate and judicious operation of the foot throttle pedal during this critical warming/re-warming period
will aid in minimizing unnecessary consumption of additional fuel economy "robbing" fuel.
Using a "Heavy Gas Throttle Pedal Foot" during this initial Start-Up/Warm-Up period, only injects unneeded and unusable fuel into the ICE. This “dumped in” added fuel ends up exiting as unburned, raw gasoline out through your exhaust pipe without
adding any propulsion power. A driver "Horsing" the gas throttle during this
Start-Up/Warm-Up, Rich-Burn "Choke On" period, only "adds insult to injury" regarding fuel economy. The unusable, additional fuel injected into the ICE only serves to erode fuel economy further because the ICE is already running in a "thirsty," high fuel consuming Rich-Burn Mode.
SAVING "TRICK": Here is a "Trick" to minimize having the ICE consume a wasteful additional amount of fuel during its Start-Up/Warm-Up
period of operation. During Start-Up/Warm-Up, it is best to get up to and keep your travel speed at no less the 15 MPH, preferably
at or around 25 MPH, by using only the automatic “Idle Speed” fuel metering “Choke On” setting selected
by the Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) Control System. That is, let the Prius move along at the throttle setting automatically
set by the HSD while you refrain from using any additional application-depression of the foot throttle pedal during this “fuel
thirsty” warm-up/re-warm up period. If you do this, you will be rewarded with even greater incremental fuel savings,
thereby, enabling your Prius to deliver improved overall Per-Tank-Full EPA MPG Fuel Economy to you.
FWIW FYI: When this sailor-technologist
"weighs anchor," and shoves off from his residential "slip" in his Prius hybrid, I do my best to "steam" down the "channel"
in my neighborhood at a “NO WAKE” Minimum Fuel Consumption High-MPG Idle Speed. This “Idle Speed”
is the nominal speed that results from the automatic Rich-Burn Mode Warm-Up/“Choke" fuel consumption metering throttle
setting selected by the HSD control software during the few minutes of ICE Warm-Up operation.
Depending on the Ambient Outside Air
Temperature, this “NO WAKE” High-MPG, HSD-Selected Idle Speed usually moves me along at or about 15-25± MPH with
the MFD (2G)/HSI-MID (for 3G, "vee," c) initially displaying a ~10-30± instantaneous miles per gallon (iMPG) reading.
The iMPG reading at “Idle The incremental fuel savings bonus from utilizing this "NO WAKE" High-MPG Idle Speed practice are reflected
in the improved, overall Per-Tank-Full MPG averages I log, which significantly exceed the Official EPA Fuel Economy Estimate
numbers. Speed” gradually increases as the ICE warms up to and through the nominal 158°F/70°C operating temperature
Toyota has Spec'ed for the Prius HSD before it can go into the desired high fuel efficiency Stage 4 (S4) hybrid operating
2. Making one Grand Tour Shopping-Errand Running Trip rather than separate, multiple
individual shopping trips will help improve overall fuel economy because it diminishes the fuel-consumption inefficiency effect
of the ICE having to cycle through the Cold Start/Restart Rich-Burn Mode multiple
ERRAND RUNNING TIP: MPG-FE conscious Psuedo-Hypermiler owner-drivers running quick ≤ 2-minute Errands
or brief duration stops push the PARK BUTTON and engage the PARKING BRAKE, but leave the HSD/ICE powered up rather than hitting
the POWER BUTTON to power them down. This keeps their Prius Hybrid operating in the “Warmed Up/In Lean-Burn Mode”
running stops of ≤ 2-minutes or so in duration, like stopping to run into check your post office box, drop-off/pick-up
at the cleaners, quick Fast-Food drive-through pick-up, etcetera, the ICE will consume less gasoline if left with the
“PARKING BRAKE ENGAGED,” transmission in “PARK”
and “Powered Up & Idling In Lean-Burn Mode S4-Mode" rather than “Shutting
It Off/Powering It Down.”
“Shutting It Off/Powering It Down” and then quickly
restarting causes the HSD/ICE to go through the mandatory 57-second “Rich-Burn/Throttle-On Start-Up/Restart Mode”
and S1, S2, S3 to S4 modes sequence Toyota has imposed. This forces the engine to run and consume fuel even if the car has
a fully charged traction battery and is already warmed up and at operating temperatures.
“Leave It Running” incremental saving in fuel consumption can be most conveniently and safely accomplished
when a spouse, friend, significant other or other licensed driver is with you in the car as either a driver or passenger.
That way one of you can dash off to run quick, ≤ 2-minutes errands while the other person stays in the vehicle with
the Smart Key to “baby sit” the Prius Hybrid Synergy Drive System
while it is operating in the“Powered Up/Idling In Lean-Burn Mode.”
3. This temperature sensing, computer controlled Rich-Burn-To-Lean-Burn
operating characteristic is why the Prius Hybrid delivers the best fuel economy in warmer climates, like Deep-South Dixieland,
Florida, Hawaii, AZ, NM, NV, SoCal and TX, where the daytime outside ambient air temperatures (OATs) are in the 60s to 80s
(Fahrenheit) range most of the time. Warm outside ambient air temperatures serve to shorten the duration of the warm-up period
and length of the "thirsty" Initial Start/Restart Rich-Burn Mode of fuel
INCREMENTAL FUEL ECONOMY NOTES: 1. By consolidating Shopping Trips/Errand Running [0.5± MPG gain] and employing
the Quick - Less Than Equal To - 2-Minute Errand Running MPG-FE Enhancing Technique of leaving the ICE/HSD Powered Up &
Idling rather than Shutting It Off/Powering It Down to run ≤ 2-Minute Errands [0.5± MPG gain] can deliver upwards of
a combined total gain of 1± MPG in OverallPer-Tank-Full Average MPG-FE. 2. In frigid operating climates, pre-warming the ICE
block using an EBH in combination with partially blocking some or most of the space in part of the Prius front grille louvers
with cylindrical foam pipe insulation has been reported to add 4-10 MPG-FE to Overall Per-Tank-Full Average Fuel Economy compared
to Cold Weather Operation without using EBH & Grille Louver Blocking.
CAUTION: Grille Blocking
can be safely used only if maximum daytime ambient O.A.T.s are less than or equal to 41°F/5°C.
|2004-2009 2G PRIUS GRILLE BLOCKING IMPLEMENTATION
|GRILLE BLOCKING USED ONLY WHEN OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURES ARE BELOW 41°F/5°C
"INFINITE" INSTANTANEOUS MPG-FE: Whenever the Gasoline Engine (ICE) IS NOT RUNNING and you
are moving down the road, you are getting over 99.9+ MPG (i.e. "Infinite" Instantaneous MPG). When the ICE IS RUNNING and
you are moving, you are getting ~30-35 MPG.
The Fuel Economy points here are:
1. Anytime the internal combustion gasoline engine
is not running and you are moving down the road, you are getting "Infinite"
Instantaneous Miles Per Gallon Fuel Economy. This "Infinite" Miles Per Gallon
is displayed as 99.9 MPG on the Multi-Function Display (MFD) or Multi-Information Display (MID), as applicable. Conversely,
if the ICE is running constantly, as the HSD may cause it to do in extremely cold, frigid winter weather operating conditions,
the Instantaneous Miles Per Gallon Fuel Economy will converge on the 30-35 MPG fuel economy inherent to the ICE itself.
30-35 MPG (WORST) ---- YOU ARE DRIVING SOMEWHERE IN
HERE ---- 99.9+ MPG (BEST)
2. Learn to use a feather-light touch on the foot
throttle pedal to keep your hybrid automobile running down the road with the ICE off, and in the Electric
Vehicle (EV) Full-Traction Battery Mode [YELLOW >>>>> ARROWS On 2G] or Regeneratively Coasting-Recharging Traction Battery Array Mode [BLUE-GREEN
>>>> ARROWS On 2G] or with
Zero Energy Being Consumed Mode [BLACK >>>>> ARROWS/LINES On 2G].
Your challenge, if achieving "Stellar," Ultra-High Fuel Economy Per-Tank-Full numbers
is your goal, is to control the Hybrid Synergy Drive to have your Prius operating at the 99.9+ "Infinite" Instantaneous
Miles Per Gallon Fuel Economy "Fuel Sipping" end of the fuel-energy consumption spectrum much more than it does at
the 30-35 MPG "Fuel Thirsty" end of it.
"ELECTRO-GLIDING"/FULL-TRACTION BATTERY ARRAY "EV" MODE: In practical day-to-day
driving-commuting application, the most fuel effeicient "Around Town" City
Driving speeds that will yield the largest fuel economy dividends for the Prius 2G/"Cee") are over the speed range
between 29 and 40 miles per hour, and between 30 and 44 miles per hour for the 3G/"Vee." Over this 29-40 MPH (2G/"Cee")/30-44
MPH (3G/"Vee") speed range, running in the "Electric Only" Full
Hybrid Traction Battery Array, Electric Vehicle (EV) Mode whenever the battery is charged at or above the 60% Charge
"Six (6) Blue Bars" Point on the 2G MFD (6 "Plain" Bars on 3G/"Vee") supplemented
with "Pulse and Glide" driving techniques will assist you in your pursuit
of "stellar" MPG-FE numbers. In my personal driving experience, operation
between 29 and 40
and 30 and 44 (3G/"Vee") MPH, usually will deliver fuel economy numbers at, on or around the old 60 MPG-FE Pre-2008
EPA "CITY" estimate numbers for the iconic 2G Prius and in the 50s for the 3G/"Vee."
The Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) system, as installed in the Prius, has an idiosyncratic technical "quirk." When
operating solely off traction battery power, this "techno-quirk" causes instantaneous
miles per gallon (iMPG) to drop by ~8% as the speed of the car transitions from 40+ miles per hour through 41 to
42 miles per hour for the 2G, and 43+ miles per hour through 44 to 45 miles per hour for the 3G/"Vee."
Full-Traction Battery Array (EV) Mode, at a point just over 40+ MPH
(approximately 40.5 MPH or so, i.e. 41± MPH) for the 2G, and 43+ MPH (approximately 43.5 MPH or so, i.e. 44± MPH) for the
3G/"Vee," the HSD control system causes the ICE to begin transitioning into full mechanical engagement with the HSD drive
system. The HSD causes the ICE to begin to proportionally "freewheel" at
≤ 960 RPM to protect Motor Generator 1 (MG1), thereby, ensuring it does not over-speed. During this protective "freewheeling" mode the ICE is not running, consuming fuel or providing any propulsion
power, but adds a mechanical "drag" on the HSD propulsion system.
official ICE "freewheeling" transition point speed for the 2G is 42 MPH (67.6
kmPH), and 45 MPH (72.4 kmPH) for the 3G/"Vee." However, in practice, anytime the indicated speed on my Prius speedometer
starts to creep above 40 MPH (2G)/44 MPH (3G/"Vee"), I will usually "feel"
a slight "lunge/flump" as the ICE comes into full engagement with the HSD
drive system and starts "freewheeling."
when driving in the "Electric Only," Electric
Vehicle (EV) - Full Traction Battery Array Mode at or above 41 MPH (2G)/44 MPH (3G/"Vee"), you have the
added "Dead Weight" load mechanical burden of the freewheeling, rotating
non-functioning ICE loading down the hybrid propulsion drive system that cuts into and degrades fuel economy.
The Fuel Economy point here is:
are traveling "Around Town" on streets or roads with speed zones in the Low Speed (City) "Sweet Spot" range and choose to run in the "Electric Only" Full-Traction Battery (EV) Mode, be sure to keep your speed at or below the "magic" 40 MPH (2G)/43 MPH (3G/"Vee") transition point whenever you can. Doing so will keep
the ICE from engaging and start "freewheeling" to put a rotational "Dead Weight" mechanical drag on the HSD drive system to degrade your MPG-FE.
to the instantaneous MPG delivered for the iconic 2G driving at 40 MPH in the "Electric
Only" Full-Traction Battery (EV) Mode without the added load of a "freewheeling"
non-functioning ICE, instantaneous MPG will be lowered by upwards of 8% when driving in the "Electric Only" EV-Battery Mode at speeds of 41 MPH and
above because the added load of an engaged, freewheeling and non-functioning ICE is dragging on the HSD drive system. The
same thing applies for the 3G/"Vee" at 43 MPH and 44 MPH points.
TECH NOTE: Consider this typical "Around Town" driving scenario with you motoring down the road in a 2004-2009 Model
Year 2G in a 45 MPH speed zone with 6-Bars or more showing on the MFD as your SOC (State Of Charge - Traction Battery). In
this situation, do not cruise at the 45 MPH speed limit if you want to improve incremental instananeous MPG-FE. Why, you ask?
Because just by choosing to travel with your speed at or below the "magic" 40
MPH point and running in the EV-Full Battery Mode rather than going
1-4 MPH faster at 41-45 MPH will serve to improve your instantaneous fuel economy by some 8±% or 5± MPG. This is
because when running in the EV-Mode at ≤ 40 MPH the ICE will stay
off, stationary and disengaged from the propulsion drive system.
Smart" 2G drivers try to operate in this "Around Town" EV-Mode at ≤ 40 MPH whenever they can because it works to
maximize their incremental iMPG as compared to when they drive in the same "Electric
Only" EV-Mode at or above 41 MPH where the HSD forces the ICE
to be engaged and "freewheel."
INCREMENTAL FUEL ECONOMY NOTE: The added rotational "Dead-Weight" mechanical load of the "Freewheeling" ICE
degrades Incremental Instantaneous Fuel Economy by some 6-8% or approximately 3.5-5 MPG.
USE ON "OPEN ROAD" AND DASH (pULSE) & COAST (gLIDE) "SWEET SPOT": When working to optimize
highway travel speed against fuel consumption, the best and most reasonable recommended "Open Road-Interstate/Freeway" Highway Driving speed range is over the range 55-66 (71 3G/"Vee") MPH.
"Open Road" highway terrain, weather, traffic densities and highway driving
conditions permit it and are favorable, I employ a high-speed ( ≥41 MPH) version of the low-speed (< 41 MPH/<
45 MPH) "Pulse and Glide" driving technique. I call this high-speed version
of "Pulse and Glide" driving the "Dash
(pULSE) and Coast (gLIDE)" technique. I generally use this fuel saving "Dash
and Coast" technique over the range 55 (Lower End) to 66 (Target Speed) to 70 (Top Of Range) MPH for 2G/"Cee"),
and 60 (Lower End) to 66 (Target Speed) to 75 (Top Of Range) for 3G/"Vee."
highway driving that integrates intermittent use of "Dash and Coast" with
ECC (Cruise Speed set to 66 MPH on 2G/"Cee") and 71 on 3G/"Vee") and running with Outside Air - ON
and Air-Conditioner/Heater - OFF usually delivers fuel economy numbers to me over a range of 52-58 miles per gallon with occasional
MPG-FE excursions into the low to mid 60s. Using "Dash and Coast" to help
deliver such "stellar" MPG-FE numbers does require a bit of "Dash and Coast Driving Work."
INCREMENTAL FUEL ECONOMY NOTE: Opportunistic use of the Low-Speed ( < 41 MPH) Pulse & Glide and High-Speed
( ≥41 MPH) Dash and Coast driving techniques in Mixed City/Highway byway and highway driving can deliver an incremental
increase in Overall Per-Tank-Full Average Fuel Economy of 2± MPG.
If you would rather do some "Easy
Rider" cruising rather than having to "Work At Driving" to
squeeze out a few extra incremental MPGs of fuel economy from your "fuel-sipper,"
try using 66 MPH as your "Interstate/Freeway" travel cruise speed. Just set
the Electronic Cruise Control (ECC) at 66 MPH (2G/"Cee") )/71 3G/"Vee"), which is the top-end of the "Open Road"
Interstate/Freeway Driving MPG-FE "Sweet Spot" Range, and then let Toyota's Software "Troops"
and their Hybrid Synergy Drive fuel economy control
subsystem do the fuel saving "Work" for you.
HSD set at an ECC controlled 66 MPH for 2G/"Cee") (71 MPH for 3G/"Vee") cruise set-speed,
and depending on the weather, wind and whether your "Hot Mama" Prius-Borg
Queen has issued a "Prius-Borg Drone, Turn On The Air Conditioner" edict
to keep Her Highness Cool, Comfortable & Happy, the Prius 2G/GEN II, 3G GEN III, "Vee" and "Cee" will
regularly deliver 50+ MPG-FE to you as you roll over-the-road on your Up-Pressured,
Low Rolling Resistance OEM tires at more than a mile-per-minute.
When The Prius-Borg Queen Is Happy
Her Prius-Drone "Chauffeur" Is Happy
and recommend using a 66 MPH Electronic Cruise Control (ECC) Set-Speed for driving the GEN II/2G because 66 MPH is the top-end
of the "Open Road" MPG-FE "$weet $pot"
range for "Interstate/Freeway" travel in a 2G & "Cee.", and
use the 71 MPG-FE "$weet $pot" for the 3G & "Vee." I overlay
this ECC controlled travel cruise speed with use of anticipatory manual foot throttle pedal override of the ECC to accelerate
the Prius in anticipation of approaching hills or crossroad pass over ramp inclines (i.e. I use Driving With Load (DWL)).
that using this anticipatory "smart" manual throttle override for hills,
up-slopes and overpasses incrementally adds to average overall trip fuel economy by preventing wasteful "dumb" ECC induced fuel surges that would occur at the foot of hills/inclines because the "dumb" ECC is not "smart" enough to anticipate the throttle
settings required to increase the speed-power needed to climb hills/inclines ahead of time.
of Electronic Cruise Control (ECC) in this way in driving the iconic Second Generation (2G/GEN II) Prius on long distance
over-the-road trips, has been shown to regularly deliver 53 to 56 MPG for
me (measured by both the multiple-tank-refill method and the MFD MPG calculation display).
The Fuel Economy points here are:
1. When traveling at "Interstate/Freeway" Highway Driving speeds, remember that the High-Speed Fuel Economy "$weet $pot" Range of Interstate
driving speeds versus fuel consumption is over the range 55 to 66 for the GEN II/2G. As the above "Fuel Economy Expectations For Pseudo-Hypermilers" graph shows, traveling at cruise speeds below 55 MPH
in the 2G will give incrementally better gas mileage, but will cause you to arrive at your destination somewhat later.
Whereas, cruise speeds above 66 MPH (2G/"Cee") 71 MPH (3G/"Vee") "$weet $pot" cruise speed will
start to consume an inordinate amount of fuel for the extra incremental speed-time gained, and drop you below the EPA "Highway" MPG-FE Estimate for each particular Prius type.
2. Driving using an Electronic Cruise Control (ECC)
Set-Speed of 66 MPH (for 2G/"Cee") with time efficient stops for fuel, food and comfort breaks, like I
do, usually delivers an average total trip travel speed of at least 60± MPH, which is a mile-per-minute. Interspersing "Dash (pULSE) and Coast (gLIDE)" around a 66 MPH Target Speed, into such "Open-Road" driving, will regularly deliver 51± MPG "actuals" or more with
a respectable mile-per-minute, 60± MPH, average Point "A" to Point "B" trip
example, let us assume $3.00 per gallon gasoline, a 360 mile "Open Road" Trip in a GEN II/2G, 99.5% which is Interstate/Freeway driving.
50 MPH/55.5 MPG >>> 360 Miles >>>
7.2 Hours/6.5 Gallons/$26.00
55 MPH/54.0 MPG >>> 360 Miles >>>
6.6 Hours/6.6 Gallons/$26.40
60 MPH/53.0 MPG >>> 360 Miles >>>
6.0 Hours/6.8 Gallons/$27.20
66 MPH/51.0 MPG >>>
360 Miles >>> 5.5 Hours/7.0 Gallons/$28.00
70 MPH/47.5 MPG >>> 360 Miles >>>
5.1 Hours/7.6 Gallons/$30.40
75 MPH/44.2 MPG >>> 360 Miles >>>
4.8 Hours/8.1 Gallons/$32.40
80 MPH/40.0 MPG >>>
360 Miles >>> 4.5 Hours/9.0 Gallons/$36.00
then traveling at my recommended let us assume
you decide to travel the 360 miles at a cruise set-speed of 80 MPH. 80 MPH is the 70-75 MPH maximum legal speed on most Interstate,
limited access type highways in the U.S. 66 MPH "$weet $pot" Electronic Cruise Control Set-Speed,
with the 5-10 MPH "Grace Speed" many drivers claim "the cops will give you" over the maximum speed limit added to it (I am not sure this "the cops will
give you" is true anymore). Traveling at 80 MPH over 360-miles would cost you $6.00 (~2-gallons) more in gasoline and
take 60 minutes less in on-highway travel time compared to traveling at my recommended 66
MPH "$weet $pot" Electronic Cruise Control Set-Speed.
If you have money to
burn and do not mind breaking the law, go ahead and spend the extra $6.00 on gas to save an hour while chancing getting
an expensive speeding ticket. On the other hand, if
you want to save "Green" Petrol Bucks,
conserve gasoline and would be happy getting to your destination at a mile-per-minute average travel speed, try
ECC-Controlled cruising at my ---
66 MPH (2G/"cee") )/71 MPH (3G/"vee") "$weet $pot"
ECC Cruise Set-Speed.
next long "Open Road" trip, record your over-the-road highway speeds, trip fuel use and cost, distance traveled and "Chocks-To-Chocks" travel time actuals to see how your personal actual MPG vs. MPH results track against
the results track against the Official EPA Miles Per Gallon Fuel Economy numbers.
"HYBRID $MART" DRIVING CONTRIBUTIONS TO AVERAGE MPG
Pseudo-Hypermiling/EcoDriving Pre-Operative Set-Ups:
"Up-Pressuring" Tire Air Pressure [Plus: 3+/- MPG Gain going from 35F/33R to 44F/42R PSI running on the OEM Low Rolling Resistance
(LRR) tires for 2G/3G, and from 33F/32R to 51F/50R PSI running on the OEM LLR OEM tires for Prius v (vee) ].
Replacing Conventional “Dino” Oil with 100% Full-Synthetic
Oil [Plus: 1.5+/- MPG Gain going from 5w30 “Dino” to 100% Full-Synthetic 5w30
[Plus: 2+/- MPG Gain after 10,000+ miles].
EBH and Grille Louver Blocking
Insulation Foam (Very Cold Climate Ops Only) [Plus: 3 to 8+/- MPG
Use of Federal and State mandated 90:10 E10 "10% Ethanol Added" Gasohol [Minus: 1 to 3+/- MPG Loss]
Pseudo-Hypermiling/EcoDriving Operating-Driving Techniques:
- Running HVAC From Fresh Air Vent Only Mode Through To Full-Time A/C AUTO Mode [Minus: 0 to 4-8+/-
- Employing Acceleration Technique of iMPG ≈ iMPH/2 When Accelerating From Dead Stop Then Seamlessly Transitioning To iMPG
≈ 1.1 To 1.2 Times iMPH
As Travel/Cruise Target Speed Is Approached [Plus: 2+/- MPG
Gain in Around-Town/Mixed
- Skillful Application of "Hybrid $mart"
Freewheeling Coasting, Regenerative Coasting, and Regenerative Braking [Plus: 2+/- MPG
Gain in Per-Full-Tank-Average
MPG-FE for Around-Town/Mixed City-Highway Driving].
- Consolidating Shopping Trips/≤ 2-Minute Errand
Running [Plus: 0.5+/- MPG Gain in Per-Full-Tank-Average MPG-FE for
Around-Town/Mixed City-Highway Driving].
- Opportunistic Use of Advanced Fuel Conserving Warp-Stealth, Pulse & Glide, Dash & Coast
and Super "Atkinson" Highway Mode [SAHM/SHM], Driving With Load (DWL) Techniques [Plus:
2+/- MPG Gain].
- Driving at 66 MPH (2G & "cee") )/71 MPH (3G & "vee") Fuel Economy “Sweet
Spot” ECC CRuise Set Speed, rather than 70-75± MPH for 2G, and
75-80± MPH for 3G and "vee," during Open-Road/Interstate travel that
is 99.5% Freeway/Interstate [Plus: 3.5+/- MPG
Gain For High-Speed Open-Road/Freeway/Interstate
TOTAL ADDED INCREMENTAL MPG CONTRIBUTIONS AVAILABLE FROM "HYBRID $MART" DRIVING
3 + 1.5 + 2 + (3 to 8) – (1 to 3) – (0
to 8) +
2 + 2 + 0.5+ 2 +3.5 = 8.5 to 21.5 MPG
PER-TANK-FULL FUEL ECONOMY FROM DRIVING "HYBRID $MART":
GEN II/2G: EPA 46 MPG [Combined] + (8.5 to 21.5 MPG) =
A "$MART" 54.5 to 67.5 Average MPG Possible
EPA 50 MPG [Combined] + (8.5 to 21.5 MPG) =
A "$MART" 58.5 to 71.5 Average MPG Possible
2012 C (cee):
EPA 50 MPG [Combined] + (8.5 to 21.5 MPG) =
A "$MART" 58.5 to 71.5 Average MPG Possible
2012 v (vee): EPA 42 MPG [Combined] + (8.5 to 21.5 MPG) =
A "$MART" 50.5 to 63.5 Average MPG Possible
DECLARE YOUR INDEPENDENCE
FROM FOREIGN OIL!
|New In Model Year 2012 Prius v: "Caddy In A Kimono" Station Wagon
CADDY IN A KIMOMO: The New In 2012 Toyota Prius v Station Wagon
The new in
"star," the Prius v (lower
case "vee” for "v"ersatility), has hit the automotive
Red Carpet…er-r-r…the roads. Is it a minivan? No, better. Is it a sport utility vehicle? No, mo’ betta.
Is it a crossover? No, maximusly mo’ betta than a CV. It is rated by the government as a station wagon, but the best
term to describe the new Prius v is it is a "Caddy In A Kimono.”
stellar "Wonder Wagon" is a Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD), gasoline-electric
hybrid powered by 98 hp 1798cc (1.8 liter) ZVW30 (Toyota 2ZR-FXE, "Atkinson-Cycle")
Aluminum DOHC 16-Valve VVT-I, EFI with ETCS-I, Toyota TDI, EV/ECO/POWER modes; and is Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV).
[98 hp (from gas) + 60 kW (from electricity) = 134hp (total)].
EPA MPG Fuel
Economy Rating is 44/42/40 MPG. While it has the same HSD running gear as Generation Three (GEN III/3G) Prius Sedan Hatchback,
the Prius v ("vee") gets slightly less fuel economy due
to its increased size, weight, and slight increase the aerodynamic cross-section (i.e. Coefficient of Drag increased from
0.25 Cd to 0.29 Cd). However, in the process, the v ("vee") gained added horsepower, Entune "Bells, Whistles & Spinning Red Wheels," premium interior appointments, more driver and passenger seating
space, comfort and additional interior quietness, and a 50% increase in cargo-hauling volume
for more "v"ersatility. Roger that…but also…"v"ery good driver road positional perspective "v"iew
"v"isibility, "v"oluminous interior
passenger and cargo space, and "v"ery, "v"ery
good fuel economy. Driving my iconic GEN II/2G Prius Sedan that the Prius v replaced,
"Hybrid $mart," I was typically running 55-58 MPG Per Tank-Full Fuel Economy Averages
(about 120-125%± of EPA), which saved my family ~$15,000 over the 5-years we owned-operated it because of fuel purchases we
did not have to make.
So far, driving
my "vee," in Florida's
“Hybrid Friendly” winter season, I am logging Per Tank-Full MPG numbers
in the low-to-mid 50s which is about 125% to 130%± of EPA. I am “v”ery, “v”ery, “Hybrid
Happy” with these fuel economy numbers
As a lifelong
car aficionado with a Porsche throttle-pedal honed and polished right foot, I have both a car lover’s and engineer’s
critical eye for cars, and their associated “Techno Bells, Whistles & Spinning
Red Wheels.” I am loving the designed-in-perfection I have found in this new in 2012 with follow-on in 2013 Prius
v. Toyota has created a fuel-sipping
Grand Prii Winner --- the Euber-Prius v.
This article contributed by Joseph A. Poliakon.