RENAISSANCE PRINCES

CHRONOLOGY

Turn 1: 1300-1350

1262: Visconti family comes to power in Milan. 1268: Angevins conquer Naples and Sicily, financed by Florentine banks. 1282-1302: Sicilian Vespers. Sicily goes to Aragon. Naples stays Angevin. 1284: Genoa defeats Pisa at Meloria and gains Corsica, Elba and part of Sardinia. 1309-1377: Avignon Papacy. 1310-1313: Emperor Henry VII's expedition to Italy. Milan and Verona ally with him. Florence and Naples oppose him. 1311: Aragonese adventurers seize Athens. 1315: Florence vs. Pisa and Lucca. 1325: Florence against Pisa and Lucca again. 1326: Aragon takes Sardinia from Pisa and Genoa. 1327-1330: Emperor Louis IV's expedition to Italy. Helps Sicily against Naples. 1330-1333: King John of Bohemia invades Italy and occupies Milan for the Empire. 1337-1453: Hundred Years War. 1341-1342: Pisa occupies Lucca. 1343: Robert of Naples dies. Joanna I succeeds him but has internal opposition. 1340s: Bardi, Frescobaldi, Peruzzi, and Riccardi Houses in Florence go bankrupt. 1346: Rome takes over Ferrara. Venice defeats Louis I of Hungary at Zara to hold Dalmatia. 1347: Black Plague reaches Sicily. 1347-1348: Louis I of Hungary invades Naples but fails to dislodge Joanna.

Turn 2: 1350-1400

1350-1353: Milan occupies Genoa. 1350-1360: Milan seizes Bologna, causing a war with Florence. 1351: Boccaccio finishes Decameron. 1358: Hungary, helped by Genoa, the Empire and the Hapsburgs, wins Dalmatia. 1360: Petrarch's Canzoniere. 1364: John Hawkwood leads the White Company. Pisa-Florence war. 1368: Perugia vs. Arezzo. 1369: Milan-Florence war. 1372-1374: Milan-Papacy conflict. 1372-1375: Milan war with Savoy. 1375-1378: Papal-Florentine War. 1376-1381: War of Chioggia. Venice defeats Genoa. 1378: Joannna recognizes the Avignon Pope, spurning Rome. Rome and Hungary depose her in 1381. Civil strife continues into the 1400s. Ciompi Revolt in Florence. Milan-Papacy war. 1378-1381: 3rd Venetian-Hungarian war over Dalmatia. 1378-1417: Great Schism. 1384: Florence absorbs Arezzo. 1387: Padua-Verona war. Milan invades Verona and Padua to pick up the pieces. 1389: Ottomans defeat Serbia in Kosovo at the Field of the Blackbirds. 1389-1392: Milan vs. Florence. 1391: Ottomans subjugate Bosnia. 1396: Ottomans take Bulgaria. Nicopolis Crusade fails. Genoa accepts French protection. 1397: Milan vs. Florence. 1399-1400: Milan seizes Perugia, Pisa, and Siena.

Turn 3: 1400-1450

1400s: Italian cities establish first permanent embassies. 1402: Venice subdues Verona. Milan takes Bologna, but fails to capture Florence. 1405: Venice seizes Padua. 1406: Florence annexes Pisa. Venice takes the rest of the Terra Ferma (Eastern Lombardy). 1407: Casa di San Giorgio, the first public bank, opens in Genoa. 1408: Naples invades Rome and Tuscany. 1409: Genoa repudiates French protection. Aragon unites formally with Sicily. 1413: Naples invades Tuscany. 1419-1420: Venice invades Friuli and recovers Dalmatia. 1421: Milan occupies Genoa. Florence buys Livorno from Genoa. 1421-1519: Borgia power in Italy. 1422-1423: Milan invades Romagna and Switzerland. 1423: Milan-Florence war starts. 1425-1430: Venice-Ottoman war. 1426: Milan-Venice war begins. Venice takes Bergamo, Brescia and Cremona. 1429-1433: Florence-Lucca war. 1430: Ottomans invade Albania. 1433-1447: Milan and Rome duel over Ancona. 1434-1737: Medici rule in Florence. 1439: Union of Florence between the Eastern and Western churches. Eastern church quickly repudiates it. Ottomans conquer Serbia. 1442: Alphonso V of Aragon becomes King of Naples also. 1444: Varna Crusade fails.

Turn 4: 1450-1500

1450: Sforza family rules Milan. 1453: Constantinople falls to Sultan Mohammed. 1454: Milan signs peace treaties with Venice and Florence. 1454-1455: Florence, Milan, Naples, Papacy, and Venice form the Italian League. 1456-1458: Ottomans seize Greece. 1458: Naples independent of Aragon. Sicily stays with Aragon. 1463: Ottomans annex Bosnia. 1470s: Mona Lisa. 1472: Urbino defeats Volterra. 1475: Ottomans take Wallachia. 1477: Ottoman forces get close to Venice. 1479: Aragon seizes Sicily. Urbino-Florence war. 1480: Ottomans take Otranto. 1482: Venice and Rome fight Ferrara. Bologna, Florence, Mantua, Milan, Naples and Urbino back Ferrara. 1489: Venice annexes Cyprus. 1490s: da Vinci finishes The Last Supper. 1492: Columbus reaches America. Italian economic decline begins. 1494-1495: Charles VIII of France invades to claim Naples. The Holy League (Papacy, the Emperor, Aragon, Venice, Milan and some other cities) opposes him. Fornovo ends invasion. Pisa rebels against Florence. Venice takes Apulia. 1494-1498: Savonarola assumes power in Florence and aligns with France. 1499: Louis XII of France invades Italy, allied to Rome and Venice. He occupies Savoy and Milan. 1499-1503: Cesare Borgia campaigns in central Italy. Machiavelli admires him and da Vinci works for him. Venice takes Romagna and Bologna after his fall.

Turn 5: 1500-1550

1500: Louis defeats Milan at Novara, then occupies the city. Divides Naples with Aragon. 1503: Switzerland takes Bellinzona. Aragon drives France out of Naples and Sicily, then grabs both. 1503-1508: Rome occupies Urbino. 1504: Treaty of Blois. France renounces Naples. Michelangelo's David. 1506: Rome annexes Bologna. 1508: Pope Julius II forms the League of Cambrai with Ferrara, France and the Hapsburgs. Defeats Venice and recovers Romagna for Rome. 1509: Florence retakes Pisa. 1510-1527: Rome controls Modena. 1511: Julius II forms the Holy League with England, Aragon, Emperor Maximilian, Switzerland and Venice to oppose France, Florence, and Ferrara. 1512: France and Ferrara defeat the Holy League at Ravenna. Switzerland invades Milan and restores the Sforza family to power, then takes the Veltin region. Holy League restores the Medici in Florence. Aragon grabs Navarre. Rome occupies Parma. Michelangelo finishes redecorating the Sistine Chapel. 1513: Machiavelli writes The Prince. Venice leaves Holy League and allies with France. Milan joins Holy League. Scotland invades England to help France, but loses at Flodden Field. 1515: Francis I of France defeats Switzerland at Marigano, then invades Milan. 1517: Luther's 95 Theses. 1519: Charles V pays 850,000 ducats in bribes to be elected Holy Roman Emperor over Francis I. Fuggers finance Charles's candidacy. 1520: Machiavelli's Art of War. 1521: 1st Valois-Hapsburg war begins. Charles V delegates royal authority in Austria to his brother Ferdinand I. 1522: Plague returns to Italy. Fall of Rhodes. French evacuate Milan. 1525: Aragon defeats Francis at Pavia to wreck his second invasion of Italy. 1526: Pope Clement VII forms the League of Cognac with England, France, Milan, Genoa, Venice and Florence to oppose Charles. 1st Valois-Hapsburg war ends. 2nd one begins. Ottomans defeat Hungary at Mohacs, then conquer the country. 1527: Hapsburg army sacks Rome. Rome loses Modena. 1528: Genoa allies with Charles. France invades Milan and Naples. 1529: Ottomans besiege Vienna. Francis renounces claims to Milan and Naples. 2nd war with Charles ends. 1530: Medici overthrow Florentine Republic. 1531: Schmalkaldic League forms. Later allies with France against Charles. 1535: Spain annexes Milan and takes Tunis. 1536: France occupies Savoy. Mantua annexes Montferrat. 1536-1538: Franco-Turkish alliance during the 3rd Valois-Hapsburg war. 1540: Venice loses last Greek possessions to Ottomans. 1541: Spain occupies Algiers temporarily. Budapest falls to Ottomans. 1542: Inquisition begins in Rome. 4th Valois-Hapsburg war (1542-1544) starts. 1545: Pope Paul III gives Parma and Piacenza to his son. Naples goes to Spain. Council of Trent opens.

Turn 6: 1550-1600

1555: Florence annexes Siena. Peace of Augsburg. 1557: Spain defeats France at St. Quentin. 1559: Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis. French King Henry II renounces claims to Italy. France gets Saluzzo and Calais, and the right to garrison Metz, Toul and Verdun. Spain annexes the Presidii (Tuscan ports), Naples, and Franche-Comte. 1562-1598: Huguenot Wars. 1565: Ottomans fail to take Malta after epic siege. 1571: Venice loses Cyprus to Ottomans. Spanish-Venetian naval victory at Lepanto does not recover it. 1574: Spain loses Tunis. 1588: Spanish Armada. 1597: Este family loses Ferrara to Rome. They move to Modena. 1601: Savoy takes Saluzzo. 1631: Rome annexes Urbino. 1669: Venice loses Crete to Ottomans.



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