Using these rules will give the players a better feel for the era. Regular rules apply unless they are changed by the following:

Banking: Players may give RFs to another player. Players may save RFs for future use.

Bribery: Italian cities often relied on mercenaries, who were quite unreliable. Thus, you may bribe another player to not attack you. To do this, you pay the attacker half the number of RFs that he has committed to the attack.

For example: Player A declares that he is attacking Player B in Territory Z with 8 RFs. Player B can pay Player A 4 RFs (which Player A can hold until he is ready to use them) to not attack.

In the case of a player attacking with an odd number of RFs, round fractions up. For example, it would take 3 RFs to stop a -5 RF attack.

Treachery: Cities changed friends and enemies with astonishing frequency during this era. See the Chronology for some examples. On your turn, you may bribe another player to attack a third player. You do this by giving him RFs. He must then attack with half of the RFs you gave him (round fractions up as before).

For example, Player A gives Player B 10 RFs to attack Player C in Territory Z. Player B must immediately attack Player C with 5 RFs. The other 5 RFs are not used and are removed from the game.

Economic Warfare: Players may attack each other on the General Objectives Chart. They may only do so in areas representing commercial activity. (In other words, areas labeled 'Commerce.')

THE BORGIAS (Six-Player Game)

The Borgia family wreaked a variety of mischief on Renaissance Italy. This version must use the advanced rules.

Add a 6th Player to the game representing the Borgia family and its allies. This player moves last and receives 10 RFs per turn, and operates using the banking, bribery and treachery rules. He wins if no other player scores more than 20 VPs.


Rome is not played by anyone is this version. Instead, at the beginning of the game, deploy Rome's RFs as follows: 45 in her Internal box, 10 in Parma & Modena, 10 in Bologna, 10 in Ferrara, 20 in Romagna, 6 in Siena, 8 in Naples, 6 in the Balkans, and 5 in Culture. All special rules apply.

Deploy all negative RFs according to the special rules as they occur on each turn. Rome's RFs can be attacked by the normal procedure. At the end of the game, assign VPs to Rome as per the standard rules. Note that it is possible for Rome to win the game against human players.


Any of the following can be used either singly or in combinations. Make sure everyone knows which rules are being used in a particular game.

RFs can be deployed simultaneously. The players write their deployments out and give them to the moderator who will record all of them at that time. Resolve conflict in the normal player-order. Repeat this each turn.

Allow players to communicate with each other only through written messages.

Normally, one player controls one city. To simulate the problems some cities have in making decisions, more than one player can be assigned to a city where internal disunity was a significant factor.

The instructor can require all players to record their diplomatic contacts with other players. They are collected at the end of the game. Information from these records (documents) can be surprising.

Any game can be lengthened beyond 6 turns at the instructor's discretion.

If one player has 10 RFs in a territory, and no other player has any RFs there at all, then the first one has Control of that territory and no player can deploy RFs there for the rest of the game. Two players can agree to split Control of a territory, but they both must establish Presences there in the same Game-turn. Both players get Victory Points in this situation.

An attacker loses one less RF in an attack than the defender. For example, the attacker could destroy 4 defending RFs, while losing only 3.


To make Conflict Resolution more unpredictable, resolve attacks as follows:

After RF deployment, the attacker identifies the defender. The number of the attacker's RFs is compared to the number of the defender's RFs and the odds are computed. Divide the number of the attacker's RFs by the number of the defender's RFs to get a ratio. For example, 10 RFs attacking 5 RFs would be 2 to 1. Always drop fractions. For example, 14 RFs against 5 RFs would still be 2 to 1. 15 vs. 5 would be 3 to 1.

After computation, roll a die and resolve attacks on the following table:

Die Roll 1-2 1-1 2-1 3-14-15-1+
1 X D D D D D
2 X X D D D D
3 X X X D D D
4 A X X X D D
5 A X X X X D
6 A A X X X X



German Game Authors Revisited - #5 - Karl-Heinz Schmiel by Joe Huber