1066: Battle of Hastings. William the Conqueror becomes King of England. 1071: Battle of Manzikert. 1095: Urban II calls for crusade at Clermont. 1096-1099: First Crusade.

1100s: Commercial Revolution underway. 1108-1137: Louis the Fat begins process of unifying France. 1122: Concordat of Worms settles the Investiture Controversy. 1129: Roger creates Kingdom of Sicily. 1140: Aragon and Barcelona merge. 1147-1149: Second Crusade. 1176: Frederick Barbarossa defeated at Legnano. 1154-1189: Henry II of England controls half of France after marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine. Beckett controversy. Invades Ireland. 1163: Veronese League begins. 1166: Lombard League founded. 1171-1250: Ayyubids dominate Near East. 1189-1192: Third Crusade. 1190: Teutonic Knights founded. 1190-1197: Emperor Henry VI. 1198: Innocent III begins the Papal Monarchy.

1201: Knights of the Sword take Riga. 1202-1204: Fourth Crusade. 1209: Albigensian Crusade begins. 1214: Philip II defeats England and Germany at Bouvines. Northern France is his. 1215: John signs the Magna Carta. 1215-1250: Frederick II feuds with papacy. 1226: Teutonic Knights begin to conquer the Baltic region. 1228-1229: Fifth Crusade. 1237: Knights of the Sword and Teutonic Knights merge. 1241-1242: Mongols invade eastern Europe. 1242: Alexander Nevsky defeats Teutonic Knights. 1248-1254 and 1270: St. Louis IX's Crusades. 1258-1265: Baronial revolt against Henry III. 1260: Mamelukes defeat Mongols in Middle East. 1261: Byzantine authority restored. 1268: Charles of Anjou conquers Naples and Sicily. Buys Latin Empire in 1278. 1282: Sicilian Vespers. Hapsburgs begin rise. 1284: Conquest of Wales finished. Genoa seizes Corsica, Elba and part of Sardinia from Pisa. 1285-1314: Philip the Fair calls the Estates General and helps begin the Avignon Papacy. 1291: Crusaders expelled from Holy Land. 1295: Model Parliament. 1297-1304: William Wallace resists Edward I.


1301: Osman I founds the Ottoman Empire. 1302-1305: Flemish Revolt. 1309-1377: Avignon Papacy. 1310-1313: Emperor Henry VII's expedition to Italy. 1311: Aragonese adventurers seize Athens. 1312-1437: Luxemburg Dynasty. 1314: Edward II defeated at Bannockburn in Scotland. 1314-1317: Great Famine. 1315: Swiss defeat Austria to preserve independence. 1326: Aragon takes Sardinia. 1327-1330: Emperor Louis IV's expedition to Italy. 1330-1333: King John of Bohemia invades Italy. 1337-1453: Hundred Years War. 1346: Wars between Hungary and Venice over Dalmatia begin. Crecy. 1347: Black Plague strikes Europe. 1358: Jacquerie and Parisien rebellions. Hanseatic League forms. 1363-1477: Era of Burgundian power. 1376-1381: Venice defeats Genoa in the War of Chioggia. 1378: Ciompi revolt in Florence. 1378-1382: Flanders rebels against France and fails. 1378-1417: Great Schism. 1381: Wat Tyler rebellion. 1386: Poland and Lithuania unite. 1396: Nicopolis Crusade.

1400-1408: Nobility revolts in England. 1406: Venice finishes conquering Eastern Lombardy. 1407: Casa di San Giorgio, the first public bank, opens in Genoa. 1409: Aragon unites with Sicily formally. 1411 and 1466: Poland defeats Teutonic Knights. 1415: Agincourt. 1419-1436: Hussite Wars. 1429: Joan of Arc helps raise the siege of Orleans. 1438: Hapsburg Albrecht II becomes Emperor. Crown stays in the family after this. 1442: Aragon annexes Naples. 1444: Varna Crusade. 1453: Ottomans take Constantinople. 1455-1485: Wars of the Roses. 1458: Naples splits from Aragon. 1479: Union of Aragon and Castille. 1483: Charles VIII begins Italian invasions. 1489: Venice annexes Cyprus. 1492: Granada falls. Columbus reaches America. Italian economic decline begins. 1499: Louis XII of France invades Italy.

Crusades Scenario: Instructions, Charts
Age of Adversity Scenario: Instructions, Charts
6-Player Scenario: Instructions, Charts
Scenario Notes




German Game Authors Revisited - #6 - Reiner Knizia by Joe Huber

German Game Authors Revisited - #7 - Uwe Rosenberg by Joe Huber