ANCIENT NEAR EAST

CHRONOLOGY

3000 to 2600:
Near East emerges from the Neolithic period. Copper and Bronze Ages. Ur dominates Sumer. Menes unites Upper and Lower Egypt. Old Kingdom starts (c. 2660) with its capital at Memphis. Campaigns into Nubia begin. Pyramid construction starts. Hieroglyphics and cuneiform writing develop.

2600 to 2200:
Sargon the Great ( I ) founds the Akkadian Empire, dominating Mesopotamia and trading with the Indus Valley. Egypt divides in half. Assyrians settle in upper Tigris region. The Epic of Gilgamesh.

2200 to 1800:
Guti overrun Sumeria (2200) before Ur restoration in 2100. Egyptian Middle Kingdom starts (c. 2080) and controls Palestine and Syria. Hittites invade Anatolia. Amorite tribes invade out of Arabia and establish small states in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Larsa. Hurrians appear in northern Mesopotamia. Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations form in Greece.

Start of 1800 B.C. Scenario

1800 to 1700 (turn 1):
Old Assyrian Empire forms. Hammurabi's reign in Babylon features codified laws.

1700 to 1600 (turn 2):
Hyksos seize power in the Nile Delta and Palestine. They introduce chariots to Egypt.

1600 to 1500 (turn 3):
Egyptians defeat the Hyksos and begin the New Kingdom. Hittites pillage Babylon (1531) and invade Syria. Kassites seize power in a weakened Babylon afterwards. The Mitanni invade, introducing horse-drawn chariots to the Near East, and conquering the Hurrians. Aryans (related to the Mitanni) begin invading India, eventually helping to destroy Harappan civilization.

1500 to 1400 (turn 4):
Egypt expands throughout the eastern Mediterranean as far as the upper Euphrates valley. Thutmose III defeats the King of Kadesh at Megiddo (Armageddon) in history's first recorded battle. The Mitanni dominate Assyria and fight Egypt. Kassites conquer the Kingdom of the Sea Land (Sumer). Arameans begin invading the Middle East from Arabia, and their language subsequently becomes the region's primary means of communication.

1400 to 1300 (turn 5):
Middle Assyrian Empire (1375-1047) begins after gaining independence from the Mitanni. The Mitanni state is destroyed later by the New Hittite kingdom (founded in 1380) and Assyria. Akhenaton introduces monotheism to Egypt.

1300 to 1200 (turn 6):
Ramses II loses at Kadesh (1299). Hittites and Egypt divide Syria in 1275. Moses establishes Hebrew state in Palestine. Assyria expands into Syria and northern Mesopotamia. Fall of Troy?

End of 1800 B.C. Scenario

1200 to 1100:
Sea Peoples invade Egypt and later settle in Palestine as the Philistines. Libyans raid Egypt. Phrygians and Luvians force collapse of the Hittite kingdom. Luvians later migrate into Syria. Elamites seize control of Babylon and eliminate Kassite rule (1160). Nebuchadnezzar I restores native Babylonian rule in 1137. Arameans defeat Assyria and raid throughout the Middle East. Trade with Arabia via caravan prospers. Greek Dark Age begins.

1100-1000:
Chaldeans established in southern Mesopotamia. Egypt loses Nubia, setting off warfare between the two regions. Greeks settling Ionia. Tyre discovers Spain.

1000 to 900:
Traditional date for the start of the Iron Age. Assyrian expansion renews. Hebrews and Phoenicians destroy the Philistines. David (1000-966) and Solomon (966-926) reign in Palestine. Country then divides in two. Phoenician alphabet develops.

Start of 900 B.C. Scenario

900 to 800 (turn 1):
Urartu kingdom founded in the Lake Van region. New Assyrian Empire begins in 883. Assyria conquers Syria and Cilicia. Carthage founded by Tyre. Median and Persian tribes appear in Iran. Etruscans migrate into Italy.

800 to 750 (turn 2):
Midas forms Phrygian kingdom in Anatolia (800). Cimmerians begin attacking Assyria. Traditional founding date of Rome (753).

750 to 700 (turn 3):
Assyria defeats Urartu (714) and Phrygia (709), annexes Syria (732), and conquers Babylon (729), Phoenicia (724), and Palestine (721). Deportation of the Ten Tribes of Israel. Cimmerians defeat Phrygia and then Urartu after allying with Assyria. Nubia controls Egypt south of Thebes.

700 to 650 (turn 4):
Assyria defeats the Cimmerians and conquers Egypt (662). Gyges overthrows Kandaules the Dog Strangler and forms Lydia (680). Chaldeans expand north towards Babylon.

650 to 600 (turn 5):
Assyria conquers Elam (646). Chaldeans seize power in Babylon and revolt against Assyria (625), later conquering Syria and Elam. Egypt ejects Assyrians and Nubians. Scythians terrorize Middle East before being defeated by Medes. Babylon and Medes sack Nineveh (612) and destroy Assyria (608). Medes conquers Urartu (609). Egypt develops trade and military relations with Ionian cities, controls Cyprus, and invades Syria before being defeated by Babylon (605). Cimmerians raid Asia Minor.

600 to 550 (turn 6):
Chaldeans invade Palestine (597) and destroy Jerusalem (586). Lydia overruns most of Anatolia. Croesus conquers Ionia, clashing with the Greeks. Medes and Lydia divide Asia Minor at the Halys River (585). Nubia driven further upriver. Cyrus II becomes King of Ansham (559).

End of 900 B.C. Scenario

550 to 500:
Persia conquers Elam (556), Medes (549), Assyria (547), Lydia (546), Babylon (539), and Egypt (525). Other campaigns against Iran, Central Asia, Scythians, and India during this period.

Note: Dates vary wildly depending on the source. The ones used here are probably as good as any others.


Rules
1800 B.C. Scenario: Instructions, Charts
900 B.C. Scenario: Instructions, Charts


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