Copyright 2001, by Douglas Loss. All Rights Reserved
Table of Contents

1. Introduction
2. Glossary of Terms
3. Sequence of Play
4. Areas
5. Population
6. Production
7. Distribution
8. External Relations
9. Internal Relations
10. Funding
11. Independent Agencies
12. Victory Conditions
13. Notes

[1.0] Introduction

Alterra is a simulation of the management of modern national and corporate economies and of the relationships between nations and extranational groups. The simulation is divided into turns of roughly one year in length, in which participants must produce agricultural and manufactured goods, distribute their products, and interact with other participants, with any luck to their mutual benefit. The objective of each participant is chosen from a list of possible objectives and will not necessarily be known to the others. The simulation requires at least four participants.

[2.0] Glossary of Terms

Agriculture Point: The amount of land needed to produce food for one population point for one turn under normal conditions.

Area: An internal division of a nation; used to reflect the differences of various parts of a nation.

Consumer Point: A unit used to measure the standard of living of a nation's population. The material and financial reward for labor.

Division: A land-based unit of military strength. Comparable in cost to its naval and aerial counterparts.

Independent Agency: Any organization not a government that is large enough to exert influence on more than a local scale. Generally, multinational corporations.

Industry Point: The production facilities necessary for producing mechanization, transport, industry, and consumer points.

Mechanization Point: Production of machinery and equivalent in all ways to one population point except that it requires no food or consumer points, but does require resource expenditure for maintenance.

Population Point: The standard unit of human population.

Resource Point: The amount of recoverable natural resources that can be produced by one population or mechanization point in one turn under normal conditions.

Task Force: A naval unit of military strength. Comparable in cost to its land-based and aerial counterparts.

Transportation Point: The amount of transport (trucks, planes, and ships) needed to carry any combination of ten food, resource, consumer, mechanization, industry, or population points for distribution within a nation, or one such point for external trade.

Wing: A unit of aerial military strength. Comparable in cost to its land-based and naval counterparts.

[3.0] Sequence of Play

Alterra is conducted in turns representing one year. During a turn participants may tax, produce goods and resources, engage in military actions, explore for new resources, do research and development, and attempt to gather intelligence on other participants. They may also trade with other participants on whatever bases are mutually agreeable.

[3.1] Negotiation and Allocation Phase: Participants make whatever deals with each other they care to, and sign any agreements they wish. They then allocate population and mechanization points and money to food production, resource production, industry, transport, intelligence-gathering, research and development, exploration for resources, and military buildup and maintenance. They then allocate resource points and food if necessary to industrial production, military buildup and maintenance, mechanization maintenance, and trade.

[3.2] Evaluation Phase: Civil unrest is determined first, then all food production is determined. If production doesn't meet internal demand, stockpiles will be used. If demand still isn't met feeding the population will be first priority. Resource production is determined, all industrial production is done, and intelligence, subversion, exploration, and research and development attempts are resolved. Taxation is determined, stockpiles of all types are depreciated, maintenance and/or demobilization of military units is done. Renewable resources are added.

[3.3] Trade and Movement Plotting Phase: Production results are returned to participants. All external transport and military movement and combat is specified, area by area. Money is transferred for trades and is spent to stockpile materials.

[3.4] Resolution Phase: Movement and combat are resolved and the results returned to the concerned participants. All newspapers, announcements, etc. are issued.

[4.0] Areas

The areas of a nation each have a rating for population, agriculture, resources, and industry. Only population in a particular area can be used to produce food, resources, or industrially produced goods with the appropriate points in that area. Thus, some population relocation may be necessary to fully use a nation's potential. Mechanization points are as signed to specific areas on the first turn; newly created mechanization and industry points are assigned to specific areas on the Negotiation and Allocation Phase of the following turn. Renewable resources and any new resources found through exploration are assigned to specific areas upon the turn they are developed/found.

[5.0] Population

Population (POP) is the basis of all production.

[5.1] Each POP point requires one food point per turn. For each unfed POP point there is an increased chance of starvation and civil unrest.

[5.2] A nation's standard of living is represented by the number of consumer (CON) points given to each POP point in a turn. The standard of living is important in determining the chance of civil unrest in a nation.

[5.3] To determine the amount by which a nation's POP points increase each turn, divide the number of POP points employed in agriculture (AGR) by the number not employed in AGR. Multiply the resulting number by the number of CON points expended per POP point in the last turn, and divide by 4. (For this purpose only, if no CON points were expended per POP point on the last turn, assume that one was.) This is the percentage of increase of POP points this turn. Each new POP point is assigned at random to an area within the nation. For example, if a nation has a population of 75, with 44 POP in AGR and 31 not, and 2 CON points per POP point last turn, the increase is 44/31*2/4%, or .71 POP points. This rounds to one point so the population increases to 76 for the next turn.

[5.4] For each consecutive turn that a nation fails to feed all its POP points there is an added 15% chance of losing POP points. One third of the currently unfed POP points are lost; at least one point must be lost. Points lost are taken at random from the areas that currently have more POP points than AGR points. If no areas do, POP points are lost at random from all areas.

[5.5] Any available transport (TRA) points, that is, any not used for internal distribution or external trade, can be used to relocate POP points at a rate of 10 POP points per 1 TRA point. The POP points in each area of a nation must be equal to or greater than the area's AGR points if possible.

[5.6] One mechanization (MEC) point is the equivalent of one POP point in all ways but two: no food or CON points are expended on MEC points, and every 10 or fraction thereof MEC points requires the expenditure of one re source (RES) point per turn in maintenance. Any MEC points not maintained are subject to a 30% chance of loss.

[6.0] Production

[6.1] One POP or one MEC point (with at least 1 POP point per area), combined with one AGR point, can produce one unit of food per turn under normal circumstances. This is the base production rate. It can be altered by research and development (R&D) into agriculture, expending RES points (as fertilizer), and by weather factors. After adjustment the food is produced.

[6.11] Each RES point expended per 10 AGR points in production per turn will boost food production by 10% each, up to a maximum 30% boost. All producing AGR points must have equal RES points allotted to them, with fractions rounded up. For example, 53 AGR points need 6 RES points, or 12, or 18.

[6.12] After all adjustments to the base agricultural yield in an area have been made, the weather factor is taken into account. It may vary from .6 to 1.4, and is influenced by the weather in adjacent areas. The adjusted agricultural production is multiplied by the weather factor to give the actual production for the turn.

[6.13] One TRA point, if it is at sea within 5 sea areas of the owning nation, can produce one food unit per turn in lieu of being used for regular transport purposes.

[6.131] If a sea area is producing food units equal to its current capacity there is a 50% chance that its food production capacity will drop 1-5 points on the next turn. Depleted areas will regain 1 point of food production capacity per turn up to their initial full capacities on any turn in which they aren't producing food at their current full capacities.

[6.2] One POP or one MEC point, and one RES point, per industry (IND) point can produce one MEC point, 1/2 of a TRA point, 1/3 of an IND point, 2 CON points, or one military (MIL) unit. In addition, money is required to produce IND, CON, or MIL points, at the rate of two megabucks (M$) per IND and MIL point and one M$ per two CON points. CON points require a further expenditure of one food unit per 3 CON points, and MIL units require the expenditure of 2 TRA points. (see Production Cost Chart)

[6.21] Each producing IND point must have at least one POP point assigned to it; it can have up to 4 POP or MEC points assigned to it. Thus, an area with 4 producing IND points, with four POP and 12 MEC points could, using 16 RES points, 7 M$, and 2 food units, produce 3 MEC points, 1 TRA point, 1 IND point, 1 MIL unit, and 6 CON points in one turn. (Two TRA points produced were immediately used to produce the MIL point.)

[6.3] One POP or one MEC point can produce one RES point per year. Points so produced are subtracted from total recoverable resources. Except for renewable resources the only way to increase total recoverable resources is by exploration.

[6.31] To explore, MEC and POP points and/or M$ are allocated to the effort. For each M$, POP, or MEC point there is an increased chance (up to 90%) of adding 5-50 RES points (see Discovery Cost Chart). At least one MEC or POP point must be used. Exploration must be specified as land or offshore exploration.

[6.32] Renewable resources may be increased to a maximum of 1/10 of a nation's initial RES points by using the exploration routine. Any such use of the exploration routine must be identified as an attempt to increase renewable resources.

[6.33] If offshore resource exploration has discovered resources in a sea area adjacent to a nation, that nation can produce one RES point per turn for each combination of one TRA and one MEC point allocated to that area.

[6.4] Research and development (R&D) can increase agricultural yield and industrial output. MEC and POP points and M$ allocated to R&D each add to the chance of success, up to 90% (see Discovery Cost Chart). At least one MEC or POP point must be allocated. Upon success, the yield or output increases by 10% of the base. For example, 3 successful R&D attempts will give an output of 1.3 times the base amount. R&D attempts must be specified as agricultural or industrial.

[7.0] Distribution

[7.1] Any economy must have internal transport to move its goods and people to the proper places. To determine the amount of TRA points needed for internal transport, add all the food units, RES points, and industrially produced points (other than IND points and MIL units) produced in a given turn, divide that number by 10, and round up; that is the number of TRA points needed for internal transport in that turn. In addition, every 10 or fraction thereof TRA points require the allocation of one POP point and one RES point per turn for maintenance. Any TRA points not maintained are subject to a 30% chance of loss.

[7.11] Each extra TRA point available can carry one other point of any kind per turn on external trade, produce one food unit or RES point from a qualifying sea area.

[7.12] Newly produced TRA points enter the transport pool the turn after production.

[7.13] TRA points will automatically be drawn from the stockpiled TRA points if needed.

[7.2] Food, RES, CON, MEC, and TRA points can be stockpiled for future use. Each stockpiled point of any kind costs 1 M$ to stockpile. There is a 20% chance per turn per type of stockpile of a 10% shrinkage in the stockpile. M$ may be spent each turn to reduce the chance of shrinkage. Each M$ spent will reduce the chance of shrinkage on one type of stockpile by 4%, down to a minimum of 4%.

[7.21] Each non-stockpiled, surplus (not used or traded) food unit, RES point, or industrially produced point reduces the current production by one point.

[7.3] Large amounts of surplus points can produce unemployment.

[7.31] If current production in agriculture falls below the number of POP points in agriculture, half of the difference in POP points must immediately go to the unemployment pool.

[7.32] If current resource production falls be low the combined POP and MEC points in resources, half the difference in POP points must immediately go to the unemployment pool.

[7.33] If current industrial production needs fall below the combined POP and MEC points in industry, the difference in POP and/or MEC points must be disemployed. POP points go immediately to the unemployment pool, while MEC points have a 30% chance of shrinkage until stockpiled.

[7.34] For each unemployed POP point over 8% of the POP point total, 10% is added to the chance of civil unrest.

[8.0] External Relations

[8.1] The procedure for gathering intelligence on other nations or agencies is similar to the procedure for R&D. Each M$ spent will add to the likelihood of an accurate answer, up to a maximum of 90% (see Discovery Cost Chart). Questions may not be more than 25 words long, and must be about measurable things; the referees have no way of determining the actual intents of the participants, for example. For each specific question asked a separate expenditure is required. All questions will be answered, but larger expenditures give a greater likelihood of accuracy.

[8.11] Expenditures can also be made for general counter-intelligence. These expenditures are used to lower the success chance of intelligence-gathering aimed at the spending nation. If more than one intelligence-gathering attempt is made upon a nation in one turn, any counter-intelligence expenditures are divided among them all on a pro rata basis. For example, if 10 M$ is spent for counter-intelligence and 3 intelligence-gathering attempts are made, one at 40%, one at 70%, and one at 90%, then 2 M$ would be applied to the 40% attempt, 3.5 M$ to the 70% attempt, and 4.5 M$ to the 90% attempt.

[8.2] Military (MIL) units require an expenditure of 1 RES, 2 M$ and 2 TRA points each to produce. In addition, one POP point must be allocated for every 10 or fraction thereof MIL units. MIL units must be designated as divisions, wings, or task forces upon production. MIL units cost 1 M$, 2 CON points, and 1 RES point per turn for maintenance. MIL units not maintained are demobilized. If a sufficient amount of units are demobilized on one turn, one quarter of their TRA and all their POP points are added to the transport and population pools respectively. Fractions are rounded down. For example, if 10 MIL units are demobilized, 5 TRA points and 1 POP point are added to the totals available for use. POP points added to a nation through demobilization are added to areas where 10 or more MIL units demobilized, or to areas where the majority of MIL units demobilized. For example, if 10 MIL units demobilize in area A, 7 in area B, and 4 in area C, both area A and area B in crease their populations by 1.

[8.21] Any military units outside the nation that built them must have the RES and CON points necessary to their maintenance trans ported to them each turn or provided by the nation they are in. The needed points require 3 TRA points per MIL unit to carry them. Note that the maintenance costs may be provided by a nation other than the owning one. Even an independent agency can provide them. MIL units that demobilize outside their own ing nations disappear.

[8.22] Military R&D is applied exactly as other R&D except that success acts as a "force multiplier." For example, 3 R&D successes will make 10 divisions equivalent to 13 baseline divisions.

[8.23] Movement is traced from area to area. Wings can move anywhere, but divisions can move only on land, and task forces can move only at sea. Movement ceases upon entering an area containing unfriendly units that can at tack.

[8.231] Divisions can move a total of 6 areas per turn, with desert and mountain areas counting as 2 each. Wings have unlimited movement but must land in a friendly non mountain area at the end of each turn. If wings are involved in combat, after combat has been resolved the surviving wings must immediately land in the nearest friendly non mountain area. Task forces also have unlim ited movement. TRA points can move 10 areas per turn.

[8.232] Movement of MIL units must be specified area by area. Contingency orders to go into effect upon contact with TRA points or MIL units may be issued. Each unit or TRA point will move one area (or expend a second movement in a desert or mountain area), or expend a movement to engage in combat. After all MIL units and TRA points have expended a movement, each does so again, until all units have finished their plotted movement or run out of movement capability.

[8.24] Engaging in combat is equivalent to moving into an adjacent area. If a division uses its sixth movement to move into an unfriendly occupied area, it can attack but can't move on. If it has movement capability left, after the combat it may continue moving if circumstances allow.

[8.25] Task forces can carry one division or one wing across the sea per turn. Wings can carry one division each, but cannot then engage in combat. Task forces can attack other task forces and wings, divisions can attack divisions and wings, and wings can attack any units. Only divisions can occupy areas. Any MIL unit can destroy 1 TRA point and its carried goods each turn.

[8.26] To resolve combat, compare the strengths of the opposing forces. Generate a random number from 1-100 for each side, divide the number by 20 and round off. This is the base number of strength points killed on the other side for every 10 friendly points. The adjusted kill number is multiplied by the strength, divided by 10, and rounded. This number of points is deducted from the opponent's strength.

[8.261] For example, a force of 26 opposes one of 10. The 26 side generates a 45 and the 10 side generates a 67. The base kill number for the 26 side is 2; for the 10 side, 3. The kill numbers are multiplied by one tenth of the proper strengths, yielding 5.2 and 3 respectively. The resulting numbers are debited from the opposing forces, giving a side of 23 against a side of 5.

[8.262] If one side hasn't moved during the turn, add one to that side's kill number.

[8.27] Forces can withdraw from battle. Battles are figured using only the forces fighting. If all forces are withdrawn by one side, the other side attacks as outlined above, while the first side cannot attack. If there are TRA points in the same area after battle, the stronger side can destroy a number of TRA points equal to the strength difference of the two sides.

[8.28] In a military occupied area, some of the population will resist. A random 5-20% of the POP points in the area is the pool of possible guerrilla points. Of this pool, a fraction equal to the civil unrest chance on the last turn will not become guerrillas. The guerrilla POP points will never go below 5% of the population. Guerrilla POP points cannot be allocated for any other uses than being guerrillas.

[8.281] The number of guerrilla points is the number of MIL strength points required to maintain occupation. If less than this number is in the area, it is no longer occupied, and the supply lines are cut. If a battle occurs in an occupied area a number of MIL strength points equal to the guerrillas is deducted from the strength of the occupiers.

[8.3] On each turn that a nation operates under civil unrest or fails to feed its entire population, there is a chance that it will lose some of its population as refugees.

[8.31] Compare the starvation chance and the amount by which the unrest chance was failed. Whichever number is higher is the chance of refugees.

[8.32] If a nation has refugees occur, the number of refugee POP points is either the same as the number of starving POP points or a random 5-15% of the total population, whichever is higher. Refugee POP points will be selected randomly from the areas within the losing nation.

[8.33] Refugee POP points will leave their nation of origin and attempt to enter other nations based on those nations' perceived wellbeing (WEL). The WEL is found by adding the amount of excess food produced in the previous turn to the product of the total POP points times the CON points paid in that turn in excess of the refugee nation. For example, nation A pays one CON point per POP point, but loses refugees. Nation B produced 35 excess food units last turn and paid 3 CON points per POP point to its 70 POP points. Therefore B's WEL is 35+(3-1)*70, or 175. Only nations which paid CON points to their POP points at least equal to the nation losing refugees are considered.

[8.34] The WELs of all the appropriate nations are added and each nation's ratio to the whole is figured. That fraction is the fraction of the total refugee POP points that attempt to enter each nation. For example, with 15 refugee POP points and WELs of 140 for A, 230 for B, 180 for C, and 450 for D, the ratios are: A, .14; B, .23; C, .18; and D, .45. This means that 2 points try to enter A, 3 try to enter B, 3 try C, and 7 try D.

[8.35] If a receiving nation wants to limit the influx of refugees, it must spend money and allocate manpower to do so. One POP point can stop 5 refugee POP points if the required money has been spent. Two M$ can stop 1 refugee POP point if there is an appropriate allocation of POP points. No more than half of the refugee POP points (rounding up) trying to enter a country can be stopped. For example, if 15 refugee POP points attempt to enter a nation, that nation can prevent 8 of them from doing so by allocating 2 POP points and 16 M$ to the effort. If only one POP point is used only 5 refugees can be stopped regardless of extra money; if only 12 M$ are spent only 6 can be stopped regardless of POP allocation. Entering refugee POP points will be assigned at random to areas in the receiving nation. They become regular POP points of that nation.

[9.0] Internal Relations

[9.1] Civil unrest is the show of dissatisfaction with the current conditions within a nation. A number of different factors influence the chance of civil unrest.

[9.11] For each POP point not receiving food or each unemployed POP point over 8% of the POP point total there is a 10% chance (cumulative) of civil unrest.

[9.12] Each time that the standard of living (the number of CON points paid to each POP point per turn) goes down there is a 15% chance per point of difference (cumulative) of civil unrest. For example, if A's population had been getting 7 CON points per POP point per turn, but dropped to 4 points this turn, there would be a 45% chance of civil unrest.

[9.13] If civil unrest doesn't occur on the turn the standard of living falls, the contribution of the standard of living drop to the unrest chance is halved on each succeeding turn until it falls below 5%. If a second drop in the standard of living occurs while an earlier one is still contributing to the unrest chance, use which ever percentage is higher. For example, using the earlier figures, if the standard of living dropped to 3 CON points per turn on the turn after it went from 7 to 4, the percentage used would be 23% rather than 15%. But if it happened 2 turns after, the percentage would be 15% rather than 11%.

[9.14] If a nation is invaded militarily, the civil unrest chance goes down 30% and stays 30% below the normally calculated unrest chance until the invasion ceases. If an area is ceded to another nation, the civil unrest chance goes up 10% (for each such area) for the rest of the simulation.

[9.15] When civil unrest occurs, generate a random number between 1-100. If this number is below the unrest chance, double the amount by which it fell below the unrest chance. This is the effect number for each of these categories: agriculture, resources, industry, and transportation. Generate a further random 1-100 for each category; if any of these numbers are below the effect number, double the difference, and that is the percentage of POP points in that category idled for that turn.

[9.16] For example, if the unrest chance is 45% and a 22 is generated, the difference is 23 and the effect number for each category is 46. If the generated agriculture number is 53, the resource number is 30, the industry number is 70, and the transportation number is 15, then agriculture is unaffected, resource POP points are reduced by 32% this turn, industry is unaffected, and transportation POP points are down by 62%.

[9.17] Since civil unrest is determined at the beginning of each turn, all modifications to the unrest chance effect the next turn rather than the current one.

[9.18] If civil unrest reduces POP points, POP points are picked randomly from the areas of the nation until the needed number have been idled.

[9.181] If all the POP points in agriculture in an area have been idled, there is no food production from that area this turn.

[9.182] If all the POP points in industry in an area have been idled, there is no industrial production from that area this turn. If enough POP points have been idled to cause one or more IND points to be without a POP point, those IND points can't produce anything. If this condition means that there are excess MEC points (maximum of 3 per IND point), those MEC points are disemployed and sub ject to a 30% chance of shrinkage until stockpiled. If production must be reduced, points to be produced will not be produced in this order: MIL, IND, TRA, MEC, CON.

[9.183] If RES points and food produced fall below the amounts needed for allocated industrial production, stockpiles are drawn upon. If the amounts are still too low, allocated RES points and food units are randomly removed from areas of the nation until the needed numbers have been removed. Points will be not produced in the same order as above for RES points; for food units, CON points will be not produced.

[9.184] If POP points idled in transport cause usable TRA points to fall below those needed for internal transport, points will be not transported in this order: POP, IND, MEC, CON, RES, food. Non-transported points cannot be used. Thus, affected IND points don't get added to their areas, MEC points don't enter the MEC pool (but may be stockpiled), CON points aren't available to the population (but may be stockpiled), RES points aren't available to industry (but may be stockpiled), and food units aren't available to the population (and may not be stockpiled).

[9.2] A nation or an independent agency may attempt to influence the civil unrest chance of another nation by using subversion. The procedure is the same as that for intelligence-gathering (spending M$ and allocating POP and/or MEC points to increase the chance of success) except that success adds 15% to the chance of unrest for that turn. Subversion must be directed at a specific nation.

[9.21] If a second subversion attempt in a row is successful, it adds 30% to the unrest chance. Generally, the number of successful subversion attempts in a row times 15 is the percentage added to the unrest chance that turn.

[9.22] Counter-subversion attempts may be made in exactly the same manner as counterintelligence attempts.

[10.0] Funding

[10.1] Money is needed in virtually every aspect of the simulation. One of the ways that money is obtained is through taxation.

[10.11] Each turn the tax rate is established (from 10 to 50%). All food, RES, CON, MEC, and TAR points produced in the turn are added together, the tax rate percentage is applied to the total, and that number of M$ is collected for the turn.

[10.12] There is a chance that taxation will influence output. The base chance of such influence is 30%. If the taxation does influence the output, there is a 50-50 chance that the output for the next turn will be raised or lowered by .1 in both agriculture and industry.

[10.13] If the taxation rate is different from 30% the difference is added to the 30% base chance of influence. If influence comes about, a taxation rate below 25% will add to the production, one above 35% will subtract from it, and rates from 25-35 will have the same 50-50 chance as a 30% rate. Multiply the difference from 30 of the taxation rate by 2.5; this is the percentage chance that the output change will be .2. Otherwise it will be .1.

[10.2] Money can also be obtained through trade. Trades are entirely up to the concerned parties. Anything may be traded for anything. However, only information appearing on the turn forms of the nations is binding. Also, merely purchasing or otherwise acquiring something doesn't move it to wherever the purchaser desires; it must be transported there in the normal fashion.

[10.21] All trades are specified in whatever detail the parties to the trade wish on the Negotiation and Allocation Phase. Copies of the trade agreements are kept by the trading parties. After the Evaluation Phase nations specify the movement of their TRA points and MIL units and transfer of monetary trade payments. Not fulfilling agreed-upon trade commitments carries no penalty, although it may make future trades more difficult due to reduced credibility.

[10.22] Technology for agricultural yield, industrial output, and military ability may be transferred just as tangible goods are. There is no TRA point cost for such transfers. The transferring nation or agency need not transfer its highest level to the receiver, but may transfer any level of technology up to its highest.

[11.0]Independent Agencies

[11.1] Independent agencies are generally multinational corporations. Any independent agency can spend money on R&D, intelligence gathering, acquiring technology for agriculture and industry from the nations that develop it, and buying resources, food, information, transports, machinery, and consumer goods. They can also sell any of the above items or services that they might have. Producing resources, food, transports, industry, machinery, etc. is the province of nations. They can of course transfer this ability to an independent agency by sale, lease, or for whatever other considerations both parties agree upon.

[11.11] A nation can hire an independent agency to run its agricultural or industrial production. The agency's agricultural yield or industrial output level is then used to determine production. Such hiring is for one turn only, and must be renewed each turn it is desired. Each such hired agency must pay 1 M$ per turn for each 5 appropriate points (either AGR or IND) managed.

[11.12] TRA and MEC points used (not traded or sold) by agencies cost one RES point per turn per 10 TRA or MEC points for maintenance. Any TRA or MEC points not main tained are subject to a 30% chance of loss.

[11.2] Each independent agency must be based in a specific nation and pay whatever taxes that nation requires. Independent agencies can transfer their bases of operations to other nations by indicating on the turn forms that they are doing so.

[11.21] Taxes are paid on total income at what ever rate the base nation requires.

[11.22] Each agency must declare its total income for the previous turn on the appropriate record form. This is the amount on which it in tends to pay taxes to its base nation. The base nation may accept this figure or use its own figure for the agency's income. Whatever figure the base nation decides on for an agency's income will be used for tax purposes.

[11.23] An agency need not declare all of its income. If it declares a smaller amount which is accepted it will pay less taxes. By the same token, a base nation need not accept an agency's declaration. It may use the intelligence rules to try to determine the correct income, or it may just guess. However, consistent overtaxation might cause the agency to relocate.

[11.3] Each independent agency starts the simulation with 2-6 free answers to intelligence-gathering questions. These answers are 70% accurate, and will be given one per turn starting on the second turn. If no question is asked, that turn's question is still used up. Money and/or MEC points can be allocated to increase the accuracy chance up to the maximum 90%.

[11.4] An agency's TRA points start on the first turn in any area of that agency's base nation. An agency's stockpiles at the start of the simulation are assumed to be in that agency's base nation. During the course of the simulation stockpiles are accumulated in whatever nation the points happen to be in when stockpiled.

[11.41] Any nation except the basing nation may seize the stockpiles of any agency that are within its borders.

[12.0] Victory Conditions

[12.1] There are many types of victory possible in this simulation. Participants must decide for themselves how they want to try to win.

[12.2] For Nations the victory types are:

[12.21] Highest standard of living--figured as CON points per POP point on the last turn.

[12.22] Greatest standard of living increase-- figured as the ratio between CON points per POP point on the first turn and the last turn.

[12.23] Richest--the most M$ on the last turn.

[12.24] Strongest--the greatest strength in MIL forces on the last turn.

[12.3] For Independent Agencies the victory types are:

[12.31] Richest--the most M$ on the last turn.

[12.32] Most tangible assets -- figured as the greatest number of RES and food points owned on the last turn.

[12.33] Most influential--figured as the most M$ received for non-material services (in formation, technology, hired transport, etc..) on the last turn.

[12.34] Most profitable-- figured as the greatest ratio of money brought in to money spent (average over the last three turns).

[13.0] Notes

This simulation is designed to simulate economic interactions among major powers. Although politics isn't an overt portion of the rules, international politics will quickly develop from the situations the various nations find themselves in.

Some participants may be disappointed that nuclear weapons aren't a part of this simulation. They aren't included because their use would make it too easy for a participant who perceived him or herself as doing badly to end the simulation with no one winning. As it now stands that isn't possible. You have to try other ways to do well.

If any further rationale for no nukes is needed, try this. A weapon is anything one can use to force his or her views on someone else. Nuclear devices don't qualify. It's very difficult to force your views on someone else if both of you are vaporized. This may be part of the reason why nukes haven't been used in over 50 years, although otherwise the opportunity has been there many times.

We have tried to strike a balance between accuracy and detail, and comprehensibility. We think we've done alright, but we welcome your views on how Alterra can be improved.

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