Age of Discovery Chronology
Turn 1 (1492-1600)
Turn 2 (1600-1630)
- Age of Discovery begins with Portuguese explorations of the Atlantic and Africa.
- Columbus discovers America in 1492. Spanish conquistadors destroy the Inca and Aztec empires and colonize Latin America. They explore Florida, the southwestern USA and the Amazon River, and circumnavigate the world (Magellan's expedition).
Portuguese colonize Brazil and construct trading posts and naval bases in Africa, the Middle East, India, East Asia, and the East Indies.
- England defeats the Spanish Armada (1588). Francis Drake explores the Pacific Ocean, but attempts to find the Northwest Passage and develop colonies in North America fail.
- Dutch Revolt starts in 1568. Holland begins trade with the East Indies, India, Guiana, and the West Indies.
- France explores the St. Lawrence River and feuds with Hapsburg rulers.
- Thirty Years War starts in 1618.
- Portuguese and Spanish expansion essentially halts as other powers escalate overseas operations.
- Dutch establish trading posts in Guiana, Brazil, Manhattan, the West Indies, the Guinea Coast, and Taiwan.
- England continues search for Northwest Passage. Colonies start at Barbados (1605), Jamestown (1607), Newfoundland (1610), Plymouth (1620), and Massachusetts Bay (1628, 1630). Commerce starts with India.
- France founds Quebec (1608) and begins operations in the Caribbean.
- Denmark builds trading post in India.
Turn 3 (1630-1660)
- Thirty Years War ends in 1648.
- Portugal retakes Dutch Brazil.
- Dutch commercial empire reaches its zenith with strong presence in Asia. Finances 'Golden Century.'
- English Civil War (1642-1649) slows expansion.
- France establishes trading posts in West Africa.
- Knights of Malta occupy Caribbean islands.
- Sweden (Delaware Valley) and Courland (Gambia, Tobago) join colonial race.
Turn 4 (1660-1690)
- Louis XIV begins expansion in Europe (War of Devolution, 1667-68, and the Dutch War, 1672-78). French explore the Mississippi Valley and increase commercial activities in India.
- England, Denmark, Sweden, and Brandenburg establish forts on the Guinea Coast.
- England and Denmark active in the Caribbean and Java.
Turn 5 (1690-1720)
- Europe wracked by the War of the League of Augsburg (1688-97, King William's War in Americas), War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13, Queen Anne's War), and Great Northern War (1700-21).
Turn 6 (1720-1763)
- Sweden and Austria active in India. Denmark colonizes Greenland.
- Britain becomes the dominant power in North America and India after the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48, King George's War) and Seven Years' War (1756-63, French and Indian War).
- Other empires declining.
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