EuroParl is an abstract simulation of European Parliamentary elections. You control a political party or faction and use its resources to win elections in as many countries as possible, thereby gaining Victory Points. The player with the most VPs at the end of the game wins. The factions are the Communist, Green, Socialist, Liberal, Conservative, Rightist, Eurosceptic, and Regional parties. Not every party will be taken by a player in every game. EuroParl is played on a Game Sheet that is divided into areas representing countries.


The class is divided into groups. Each group has a moderator who runs the game and keeps records for that group. Each remaining student chooses a faction in any mutually agreeable fashion. If players cannot agree on party allocation, then the moderator will assign them to the players. Parties not chosen by the players are referred to as "nonplayer parties" in the rules.


EuroParl consists of six Game-Turns. A Game-Turn proceeds as follows:

Time is allocated in each Game-Turn for negotiation among the players.

The first player, as specified in the instructions, receives Political Strength Factors (PSFs) and deploys them. Each player receives 30 PSFs in each Game-Turn. The player then conducts attacks against the other players' PSFs. This completes the player's turn.

The remaining players receive PSFs, deploy PSFs, and then attack.

On Game-Turn 1, the Communist player goes first, followed by the Greens, Socialists, Liberals, Conservatives, Rightists, Eurosceptics, and Regionalists. In other words, go from left to right on the Game Chart. On Game-Turn 2, start with the Greens and finish with the Communists, On 3, start with the Socialists, and finish with the Greens. Continue this process until the end of the game.

When all players have taken their turns, a Game-Turn has been completed.

Each game lasts for six Game-Turns. The game is over after all of these have been completed. The players then determine the winner.


Political Strength Factors (PSFs) represent a party's leadership, ideas, political strength, finances, and its willingness to use these. PSFs are similar to the pieces in Risk and checkers.

Your goal is to win elections by having the most PSFs in as many countries as possible. You do this by deploying PSFs. Each Game-Turn you will receive 30 PSFs. You then deploy your PSFs in any country. You must deploy all PSFs received in a turn in that turn. You cannot move PSFs after deployment. You can give them to another player at the beginning of your turn if you have a coalition with that player. After deployment you may use your PSFs to attack PSFs belonging to another player.

To deploy PSFs, tell the moderator where you want to put them. The moderator will then record your deployments in the column under your party's name on the Game Sheet according to your instructions.

At the start of each Game-Turn, the moderator will deploy a nonplayer party's PSFs evenly among the countries on the Game Sheet, putting two PSFs in each country except for Norway. If the Eurosceptics are a nonplayer party, two of their PSFs go into each country except for Luxembourg.

Each faction starts the game with PSFs already deployed on the Game Sheet. These represent the intrinsic strength of each party. You can add new PSFs to them as the game progresses.


After placing PSFs, you can use them to attack your opponents. These attacks represent everything from simple threats to legislative action to major political campaigns. Attacking is never required. Attacks can be made when you and another player have PSFs in the same country. In other words, you attack horizontally. You attack by first indicating your target (the defender). Both you and the defender remove an equal number of PSFs. You decide how many PSFs are removed. The moderator records this on the Game Sheet.

After you are finished with this attack, you may attack a different opponent's PSFs in that country if you have any PSFs left there. You may attack in as many countries as you wish, as long as you have PSFs in them. You may attack a nonplayer party. Nonplayer parties may not attack anyone.


As part of your strategy, you may form coalitions with other parties.

Two players may agree to form a coalition in any country. Simply announce that you are doing so. If this is done, then neither party may attack the other for the rest of the game. Also, you can give PSFs to, or receive PSFs from your partner to be used in that country. Coalitions are done on a country by country basis. You can have different coalition partners in different countries. You cannot coalesce with a nonplayer party.


A party can only ally with certain others. The following coalitions are allowed:

Communists, Socialists, and Greens may unite with each other in any combination.

Liberals may coalesce with either the Socialists or the Conservatives, but not with both at the same time in the same country. The Liberals will not join a coalition that includes Communists.

Any party can ally with the Regionalists.

Any party, except the Liberals, can join with the Eurosceptics. However, if you do, you cannot ally with anyone else.

The Rightists can group with the Conservative, Eurosceptic, or Regional factions. Anyone joining the Rightists cannot ally with anyone else.


You cannot win EuroParl unless you negotiate with the other players. Whoever makes the best deals usually wins. However, trust no one! Lies, betrayals, threats, broken deals, and bluffs are all allowed and encouraged. It is recommended that you read through Machiavelli's The Prince before the exercise. Always remember: you and your opponents are politicians.


After the last turn, players determine in which countries they have PSFs. You receive Victory Points if you are among the top parties in any country. The Victory Point Chart shows how many points you get. Check the VP Chart and then record your points on the Scoresheet. After doing each country, total them up. The player with the most points wins. Note that it is possible for a nonplayer party to win.

Look for the country's line, determine rankings (i.e. largest party, second largest, etc.), and look up each party's number. For example, the largest party in Spain wins 6 VPs, the second largest 4, the third 2, and so on.

If two parties are tied at any level, then add the contested seats together and divide in half. For example, if two parties in Spain are tied for the lead, each would receive 5 VPs. Drop fractions.

If not all parties are present in a country, divide the unallocated VPs evenly among the parties that are present. Leftover VPs go to the largest party. For example, if there are only three parties in Spain, the remaining 4 VPs need to be allocated. One would go to each party present, and the remaining 1 to the largest party.

Do this for each country. Record the total VPs won on the Scoresheet. The moderator will do this for the nonplaying parties.

To get VPs for Norway, at least one party must have more PSFs there than the Eurosceptics. This represents a successful attempt to bring Norway into the European Union. Otherwise, no one gets VPs for Norway.


Intrinsic PSFs are based on a party's average electoral strength in this era. Each VP in the game represents about four Members of the European Parliament (MEPs). The high Eurosceptic intrinsic strength in Norway reflects that country's rejection of EU membership twice.

EuroParl is a simplified version of European Union, a simulation for advanced European history courses.

EuroParl is designed by Peter L. de Rosa, and is Copyright, 2002. All rights reserved. Reproduction allowed for nonprofit educational use as long as this copyright notice is included.


Any of the following can be used either singly or in combination. Make sure everyone knows which rules are being used in a particular game.

PSFs can be deployed simultaneously. The players write their deployments down and give them to the moderator who will record all of them at that time. Resolve conflict in the normal player-order. Repeat this each phase.

Players may communicate with each other only through written messages.

Normally, one player controls one faction. To simulate the problems some political parties have in making decisions, more than one player can be assigned to a faction where internal disunity is a significant factor.

The instructor can require all players to record their negotiations with other players. They are collected at the end of the game and analyzed. Information from these documents can be interesting.

An attacker loses one less PSF in an attack than the defender. For example, the attacker could destroy 4 defending PSFs, while losing only 3.


To make Conflict Resolution more unpredictable, resolve attacks as follows:

After PSF deployment, the attacker identifies the defender. The number of the attacker's PSFs is compared to the number of the defender's PSFs and the odds are computed. Divide the number of the attacker's PSFs by the number of the defender's PSFs to get a ratio. For example, 10 PSFs attacking 5 PSFs would be 2 to 1. Always drop fractions. For example, 14 PSFs against 5 PSFs would still be 2 to 1. 15 vs. 5 would be 3 to 1.

After computation, roll a die and resolve attacks on the following table:

Die Roll 1-2 1-1 2-1 3-14-15-1+
1 X D D D D D
2 X X D D D D
3 X X X D D D
4 A X X X D D
5 A X X X X D
6 A A X X X X

Example of Play

After several Game-turns, the situation on the Round Sheet looks like this:

Greens Socialists Liberals Conserrvatives
Xenophobia 5 10 8 5
Yurt 6 - 2 5
Zen - 5 - 11

The Greens get 10 PSFs per turn. They put 5 in Xenophobia and 5 in Yurt:

Greens Socialists Liberals Conservatives
Xenophobia 10 10 8 5
Yurt 11 - 2 5
Zen - 5 - 11

The Greens then attack the Socialists in Xenophobia with 5 PSFs (each loses 5 PSFs) and the Liberals in Yurt with 2 PSFs:

Greens Socialist Liberals Conservatives
Xenophobia 5 5 8 5
Yurt 9 - 0 5
Zen - 5 - 11

The Greens next attack Liberals in Xenophobia with 2 PSFs. (remove 2 PSFs from each):

Greens Socialists Liberals Conservatives
Xenophobia 3 5 6 5
Yurt 9 - - 5
Zen - 5 - 11

Now it is Socialists' turn. They get 15 PSFs. They put 4 in Yurt and 11 in Zen:

Greens Socialists Liberals Conservatives
Xenophobia 3 5 6 5
Yurt 9 4 - 5
Zen - 16 - 11

The Socialists then attack the Greens in Yurt with 4 PSFs, and the Conservatives in Zen with 11:

Greens Socialists Liberals Conservatives
Xenophobia 3 5 6 5
Yurt 5 0 - 5
Zen - 5 - 0

The Liberals now receives 20 PSFs. They put them in Xenophobia:

Greens Socialists Liberals Conservatives
Xenophobia 3 5 26 5
Yurt 5 - - 5
Zen - 5 - -

The Liberals attack the Socialists with 5 PSFs, and then the Conservatives with 5 PSFs, all in Xenophobia:

Greens Socialists Liberals Conservatives
Xenophobia 3 0 16 0
Yurt 5 - - 5
Zen - 5 - -

If this were the end of the game, the Socialists would be the largest party in Zen, the Greens and the Conservatives would split Yurt, and the Liberals would win Xenophobia, with the Greens in second.

EuroParl Main Page

Game Sheet

Victory Point Chart


From European Union in the Winter 2001 issue:

Political Parties

European Parliamentary Election Results




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