Submitted by: Peter Siegel, PAC President
John Milner Associates, Inc. .
After serving the Pennsylvania Archaeological Council
(PAC) for two years, I have a few observations. The voice of archaeology
is small but the implications of archaeology are not. The archaeological
past represents a materialization of many peoples' heritage. Some
people still live in or near the area of their own archaeological
heritage; others have moved on or disappeared. As an organization,
PAC is consumed by knowing the importance of the past and how best
to preserve and manage it in the face of ever-growing hurdles.
Probably the biggest hurdle is the downward spiral
of the economy, which permeates every aspect of society. The dwindling
supply of money results in greater competition for it and legislators
are faced with the challenges of balancing very real needs of citizens.
To this end, in my view, passing Act 70 was shortsighted given that
taxpayers thereby incurred another burden. However, in the long
run, it didn't burden the taxpayer because funding for the resultant
Commonwealth Archaeological Program (CAP) has been cut and permit
applicants for projects that require Act 70 involvement are legally
destroying archaeological sites across the state. Act 70 is now
an unfunded mandate.
What's the message here? Developers with deep pockets
lobby state congress to pass a law that increases their profit margin
at the expense of our collective heritage. I know that I am preaching
to the choir but I think that PAC needs to remain proactive in educating
the various sectors of the public about the importance of preserving
and understanding the past. These sectors range from the youngest
constituents - school children - to various business, local government,
and preservation organizations, to the elected officials who debate
and enact legislation on our behalf.
The Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission
(PHMC) requested that PAC come up with a "pithy" statement about
what archaeology is and why it's important. There was a flurry of
activity some months ago about this. In my view, one of the best
statements was written by my daughter's 6th-grade English teacher,
based on information provided to him by Kurt Carr and me:
On the Value of Archaeology
by Rich Beck Peirce
Middle School, West Chester Area School District
The past can be a ray of sun that lights a path for humankind or
a shadow that lingers on humankind's future. Archaeology is the study
that reveals our past in the hope of avoiding the dark shadows that
befell us in the past. Archaeology provides a voice for those that
have no recorded history. It provides a balance between what has clouded
our perceptions and what was real. Archaeology paints a still life
that celebrates the range of human adaptation; the cycle of rebirth;
the circle of success and failure; and the vein of achievement, possibilities,
and hope that has ebbed and flowed in the maelstrom of human endeavor
throughout the ages. Archaeology illustrates the range of human adaptation;
of survival and decline; of extinction and renewal. It illustrates
how we have reacted to a variety of environmental circumstances; how
we have become who we are and perhaps, it can provide a map to what
we might become. Archaeology is a means to document patterns of cultural
evolution that could benefit generations to come. Archaeology has
demonstrated that human cultural adaptation is not unique. We are
akin to the smallest organism. What drives us, drives all living things
- nature, biology, experience, habit, and society. To understand the
inevitability of change is the archaeologist's key that unlocks both
the mystery of our past and of our future.
Perhaps this is a little romantic, but maybe it's something our elected
officials will respond to.
I would like to acknowledge a few people who were very helpful to
me over the past two years of serving PAC: Ira Beckerman, Beverly
Chiarulli, Rick Geidel, Mark McConaughy, Philip Perazio, Valerie Perazio,
Ben Resnick, and Renata Wolynec. A number of people represented or
continue to represent PAC as a Consulting Party for various projects
in the state: Bill Chadwick, Tom East, Rick Geidel, Pat Miller, Philip
Perazio, Ben Resnick, and Heather Wholey.
I wish PAC and the future of Pennsylvania's past all the best.
Submitted by: Mark A. McConaughy, BHP, PHMC
The results of the PAC election are as follows:
President: Paul Raber
Vice President: Ben Resnick
Secretary-Treasurer: Mark A. McConaughy
Board of Directors: Kurt W. Carr and Heather Wholey
There were no submissions for this edition.
Obsidian Project Requests Your Help
Submitted by: Charles A. Bello, CRCG
PAC members Carolyn Dillian and Charles A. Bello are
looking for information concerning archaeological obsidian finds in
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, adjacent states, and throughout the eastern
seaboard states. The previous issue of the PAC Newsletter (Volume
25, 2004) discussed this project at length. Current information concerning
this ongoing research and recent publications (PDF) can be found at
their Web site http://www.eastarch.org/obsidian/.
Please visit the site and contact them if you can help. Contact: Charles
A. Bello, M.A., RPA, 19 Ledge Lane, Pipersville, Pa 18947 or 610-294-8260
Phase II and III Studies on Calver Island
Susquehanna River Bridge Replacement Project
Dauphin and York Counties, Pennsylvania
Submitted by: Patricia Miller KCI Technologies, Inc.
The Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission is replacing the
bridge that crosses the Susquehanna River in Dauphin and York Counties,
Pennsylvania. Because the project requires permits from the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers (USACE), archaeological investigations were conducted
in compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation
Act. Phase II and III investigations on Calver Island were conducted
at areas of potential ground disturbance from construction of five
piers. Because of engineering constraints, work within the APE could
not be performed below a depth of 2.1 meters (7.0 feet). Therefore,
an Alternative Area was established for archaeological investigations
that would extend to the depth of channel lag to determine whether
deeply buried components are present at the site.
Work in the Alternative Area began with the completion
of a program of geoprobes to assess the depositional history of the
island. The geoprobes revealed thick, silty Bw horizons in the center
of the island and stacked soil sequences underlying the levees on
the island margins. Screening of the geoprobe soil indicated that
artifacts were present to at least 30 centimeters (12 inches) above
channel lag, which occurred at approximately 5.8 meters (19.0 feet)
below the surface. Subsequent excavations confirmed that the geoprobes
provided an accurate model of soil stratigraphy and artifact distribution.
Following the geoprobes, block excavations were completed.
In all, Phase II and III investigations on the island covered 188
square meters (2027 square feet). Radiocarbon dates indicate that
the site was occupied from as early as 5060 BP through the Late Woodland
Period. Completion of two 2 meter x 2 meter units to channel lag within
the Alternative Area remains to be completed in the 2005 field season
and it is likely that earlier components will be identified.
The most intensive occupation of the island was during
the Late Archaic and Transitional Periods. A series of late Transitional
Period occupations dated to between 3000 to 3400 BP. The artifact
assemblages included small amounts of steatite and ceramics. Rhyolite
predominated in the debitage. Points were primarily stemmed, but Susquehanna
broadspears were also present. Six features were identified, representing
at least three separate occupations. Feature types included hearths
and hearth refuse pits.
Early Transitional Period occupations dated between
3400 and 3700 BP. Argillite predominated in the debitage assemblage.
The vertical distribution of features suggested that at least four
separate occupations were present. Feature types included surface
and pit hearths, fire-cracked rock dumps, and a roasting pit. Steatite
was present and included bowl fragments. Nine broadspears of various
types were found, but stemmed points were more numerous.
A Late Archaic to early Transitional Period occupation
zone was dated from 3700 BP to ca. 4000 BP. Argillite was the predominant
material in the debitage and most of the points were stemmed. Features
indicated the presence of at least two occupations. Feature types
included hearths, storage/refuse pits, and a roasting pit.
A Late Archaic zone dating to ca. 4300 BP represented
an intensive period of occupation. Slate and quartz were predominant
in the debitage. Associated features, which included a roasting pit,
a possible earth oven, pit, a hearth, four fire-cracked rock dumps,
and three hearth refuse deposits, could all conceivably represent
the same occupation. In addition to stemmed points, a corner-notched
point and a triangular point were also found.
An earlier series of Late Archaic occupations dated
to ca. 4400 BP. The vertical distribution of features suggested at
least three occupations. Lithic materials were similar to those of
the ca. 4300 BP occupation zone. The five features included an earth
oven, a surface hearth, two hearth refuse deposits, and a feature
of unknown function. Points were notched and stemmed, although three
triangular points were also found.
The earliest occupations identified in the 2004 field
season dated to ca. 5000 BP. Feature distribution suggested at least
six separate occupations. Lithic materials included quartz, quartzite,
argillite, rhyolite, and gray chert. The features included three earth
ovens, three pit hearths, a surface hearth, a refuse pit, a hearth
refuse deposit, and a pit of unknown function. Points were notched,
stemmed, and triangular.
The Calver Island excavations revealed a series of intensive
occupations between 3000 and 5000 years ago. When complete, microwear
analysis and analysis of faunal and botanical remains from features
should provide more evidence of the specific types of activities that
took place on the island, but the general tool and feature types suggest
seasonal base camps were present throughout the period rather than
any type of special purpose camp. Although there were some changes
in point types and lithic material use over time, the tool and feature
types suggest a continuity of adaptation in what would have been an
extremely favorable setting throughout the period.
New AMS Dates Challenge Our Understanding of the
Later Prehistory of the Upper Ohio Valley
Submitted by: Bernard K. Means Virginia Commonwealth
The forthcoming issue of Pennsylvania Archaeologist
reports on a series of new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates
obtained from Monongahela village sites located in Somerset County,
Pennsylvania. Somerset County is in the Allegheny Mountain Section
of the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province and is drained
by the Casselman and Youghiogheny Rivers, both of which are part of
the Upper Ohio River drainage system. Somerset County is notable for
having the largest number of completely excavated Monongahela village
sites. Most village sites were excavated as part of federal relief
or New Deal excavations from 1934 to 1940 (Means 1998). Three village
sites were excavated more recently as part of compliance excavations,
including Gnagey No. 3 (George 1983a), Quemahoning/ Alwine (George
1983b), and Petenbrink No. 1 (Means 2002).
The New Deal-excavated sites were previously undated
and were assigned to the Somerset Phase by Richard George, which he
defined largely on the basis of his excavations at Gnagey No. 3 (George
1983a). The Somerset Phase was considered to extend from AD 900 to
AD 1250 (George 1983a; Johnson 2001). Gnagey No. 3 had two overlapping
occupations, with one thought to date to the tenth century AD and
the other likely to the twelfth century AD. Recent dates obtained
by John Hart and his colleague C. Margaret Scarry from two beans at
Gnagey No. 3 produced dramatically different dates suggesting that
both components at this site actually dated to the middle of the fourteenth
century AD (Hart and Scarry 1999).
I recently obtained funding from the National Science
Foundation (grant BCS-0226785) intended-in part-to clarify the occupational
history of the Allegheny Mountain section. Using collections from
The State Museum of Pennsylvania, Division of Archaeology, and the
Carnegie Museum of Natural History, I was able to date organic remains
in the form of carbonized residue on ceramics, carbonized beans and
maize remains, and a section of a bone awl from nine components located
at seven New Deal-excavated village sites. I also obtained additional
dates from the two components at Gnagey No. 3. These new AMS dates
demonstrate unequivocally that the Monongahela occupation of this
region dated from ca. AD 1100 to AD 1580, and not from AD 900 to AD
1250 as had been previously thought.
For a full reporting of these dates and some of their
implications, please refer to "New Dates for New Deal Excavated Monongahela
Villages in Somerset County" Pennsylvania Archaeologist 75 (1).
(Small print above graphic is as follows: Atmospheric
date from Reimer et al (2004); OxCal v3.10 Bronk Ramsey (2005); cub
r:5 sd:12 prob usp [chron])
George, R. L.
1983a The Gnagey Site and the Monongahela Occupation of the Somerset
Plateau. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 53(4):1-79.
1983b Appendix V: The Quemahoning Site. Pennsylvania Archaeologist
Hart, J. P. and C. M. Scarry
1999 The Age of Common Beans (Phaseolous vulgaris) in the Northeastern
United States. American Antiquity 64(4):653-658.
Johnson, W. C.
2001 Late Prehistoric and Protohistoric Period Monongahela Culture
and the Case for an Iroquoian Connection. In Societies in Eclipse:
Archaeology of The Eastern Woodlands, A.D.1400- 1700, edited
by D. S. Brose, C. W. Cowan, and R. C. Mainfort, Jr., pp. 67-82.
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Means, B. K.
1998 Archaeological Past and Present: Field Methodology from 1930s
Relief Excavations in Somerset County, Pennsylvania and its Relevance
to Modern Archaeological Interpretations. Journal of Middle Atlantic
2002 The Later Prehistory of Meyersdale, Pennsylvania, and Its
Surroundings: An Overview. North American Archaeologist 23(4):281-307.
. PUBLIC EDUCATION
PAC Education Committee Report
Submitted by: Valerie Perazio Kittatinny Archaeological
For over ten years, the Pennsylvania Archaeological
Council (PAC) has proudly sponsored an essay contest, which annually
coincides with the celebration of Archaeology Month in Pennsylvania.
The essays are announced in September, submitted by students across
the state in February, and an awards ceremony is held in the spring.
Students address the issue of preserving the past for the future
by considering what archaeological sites preserve and how students
can become part of the process of preservation. Each year, the best
authors are selected in two categories: grades 4-6 and grades 7-9.
The essays bear witness to the encouragement given by dedicated
teachers who believe in the value of learning to express abstract
thoughts on paper and who understand the necessity of exposing young
minds to new and worthy ideas.
The 2004-2005 academic year was an exemplary year
for the Archaeological Essay Contest. Essays were received from
school districts and home schools in the following towns across
the state: Altoona, Dillsburg, Elizabethtown, Erie, Homer City,
Mechanicsburg, Media, North Huntingdon, Perkasie, Selinsgrove, and
Titusville. One hundred seventeen essays were received from students
studying social studies, Pennsylvania history, archaeology, English,
language arts, biology, and independent topics in gifted classes.
Each category of student essays received First, Second,
Third, and Honorable Mention awards. In addition to the actual certificates
and awards, the prizes included copies of the Pennsylvania Department
of Transportation (PennDOT) sponsored publications on Gayman Tavern
and King of Prussia Tavern, Pennsylvania Archaeology Month posters
and bookmarks, pencils, and a copy of the Society for American Archaeology's
(SAA's) "Principles of Archaeological Ethics." Teachers also received
this material for their libraries and classrooms as well as a copy
of Volume 25, No.2, 2002 of CRM, which deals in its entirety with
the global crisis of looting.
The award ceremonies were traditionally held at City
Island in the following year's Archaeology Month celebrations. The
loss of the CAP program has forced PAC to find alternate locations
to honor the students and their families. Locations have included
the Pennsylvania State Museum and Bushy Run Battlefield. This year,
PAC was privileged to be able to use the newly renovated Pennsylvania
Military Museum in Boalsburg. Although not yet open to the public,
the conference room was available for the ceremony and light refreshments.
Afterwards, the students and their families were invited to see
the museum exhibit in progress - not an everyday occurrence. In
addition, the museum's new introductory DVD was played for the first
time to this "public" group, and the viewers' comments were solicited.
Traditionally, the ceremony has involved speakers.
Holding the ceremony at alternate locations has limited the number
but not the quality of the speakers. Last year, at Bushy Run Battlefield,
Mark McConaughy spoke about Western Pennsylvania Prehistory. This
year, Philip Perazio presented a smorgasbord of archaeological sites
including upland, urban, and industrial sites as a means of underscoring
the importance of preservation, even in unlikely areas.
Each year, thousands of potentially important archaeological
sites are lost through apathy, greed, negligence, and looting. In
large part, this stems from ignorance of what the past represents
and what archaeology can offer, as well as frustration as to what
people can do. The annual Pennsylvania Archaeological Essay Contest
is one effort of PAC to counterbalance this situation by providing
teachers with resources and students with an outlet to explore the
relationship of the past and present. The opportunity to think and
discuss encourages the teacher-student-learning dynamic. It is fervently
anticipated that young minds so educated will work for the future
of the past.
2005 Pennsylvania Archaeology Month Table at
Submitted by: Richard A. Geidel KCI Technologies,
PAC, in partnership with the PHMC and PennDOT, will
again have an information table for a day at the State Capitol in
Harrisburg during October. This will be the third consecutive year
we've had a table at the Capitol as part of Pennsylvania Archaeology
Photograph submitted by Joseph Baker, PennDOT.
This year we are planning to increase our visibility
beyond a display table. We hope to arrange for speakers, including
representatives from the sponsoring agencies, state and federal
legislators, and a prominent Pennsylvania archaeologist. We also
want to include activities to engage the many people who pass through
the Capitol on any given day: legislators, staff, lobbyists, and
visitors. In the coming months we will be soliciting PAC members
for information and pictures about projects and sites in Pennsylvania
that help us document and understand the Commonwealth's archaeological
heritage. We also welcome suggestions PAC members may have about
how to make our day at the Capitol more than just a chance to hand
out pencils and posters. Please send your ideas to Joe Baker (717-705-1482
(P), 717-772-0834 (F) or firstname.lastname@example.org)
or Rick Geidel (717-691-1340 (P), 717-691-3470 (F), or email@example.com).
Project Archaeology Update
Submitted by: Renata B. Wolynec Edinboro University
PAC has been an active partner with Project Archaeology
since the 1990s. PAC has developed a variety of curriculum materials
with support from grants from the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum
Commission. These include a reading-based middle school curriculum,
a teaching trunk which complements this curriculum, video materials
for use with the teaching trunk, and an educational standards-based
middle school curriculum, among other materials. PAC members have
been trained to offer workshops to teachers and archaeological professionals
in the use of these and national curriculum materials. Workshops
have been offered at statewide teachers' conferences and at specialized
workshop venues across the state.
Last fall, presentations were made at the Pennsylvania
Council for Social Studies annual meetings by Beverly Chiarulli,
at the Pennsylvania Science Teachers Association annual meetings
by Valerie Perazio, and at the National Council for Social Studies
(NCSS) annual meetings in Baltimore by me. The NCSS meetings provided
me with an opportunity to collaborate with national Project Archaeology
colleagues in presenting both national and Pennsylvania-based materials.
I was able to distribute Pennsylvania Archaeology Month materials
and CDs of the new standards-based curriculum. The formal presentation
included a lesson plan, which was printed in the 2003 teacher's
packet of Pennsylvania Archaeology Month. This lesson focuses on
using primary sources, such as maps, to identify the location of
historical archaeological sites, in this case, the French Fort
sur la Rivière aux Boeufs.
Project Archaeology Pennsylvania workshops were offered
at two locations in 2005. A mini-workshop was held during the afternoon
session of the spring PAC meeting. Beverly and I presented the workshop
to fellow PAC and Society for Pennsylvania Archaeology (SPA) members.
The participants spent a pleasant and congenial afternoon modeling
a middle school class as they learned how to use a variety of lessons
from the national and state Project Archaeology curricula. Of course,
Beverly and I enjoyed sharing this wonderful material with our colleagues.
The second location was at Edinboro University of
Pennsylvania, this past June. Practicing teachers, teachers in training,
social studies graduate students, and undergraduate anthropology
students participated in a three-week course, "Basic Archaeology
for the Teacher," which included in-depth presentations and analyses
of the Project Archaeology materials. This coming fall, a selection
of these materials will be offered at a special event for teachers
at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
It has become clear to me that an increasing number
of teachers will use the Project Archaeology materials if they can
be given access to them, with or without training in how to use
them. For example, a Titusville school used a teaching trunk during
this past school year. Both students and the teacher benefited greatly
from the materials PAC made available to them. This teacher had
not participated in any workshop. Because the materials are so very
teacher friendly, he had no trouble adapting them to meet the needs
of his class.
As state network coordinator for Project Archaeology,
I have attended meetings of network coordinators in Indianapolis
and Salt Lake City, this past academic year, with travel support
provided by Edinboro University of Pennsylvania. There are two important
developments we need to be aware of. First, the national Project
Archaeology writing team is currently producing a new curriculum
to replace the popular and reliable Intrigue of the Past: A Teacher's
Activity Guide for Fourth through Seventh Grades (Smith et al. 1996),
a publication of the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land
Drafts of the new national curriculum have been introduced
at the network coordinators' meetings and I have had the opportunity
to test part of it with my students in "Basic Archaeology for the
Teacher" this past June. It is well conceived and promises to become
a useful and engaging teaching and learning tool. I will introduce
the new curriculum in next year's newsletter.
Second, Project Archaeology has now found a new home
at Montana State University at Bozeman. It is unclear how this change
in affiliation will influence our use of new and old Project Archaeology
materials. Thus far, the team is as responsive to and supportive
of individual state initiatives as ever. For more information about
the national Project Archaeology please access its Web site at www.projectarchaeology.org.
Finally, during the SAA meetings, the Public Education
Committee of the SAA organized a special event for children called
Archaeologyland. This round of activities included cordage making
and creating a rock art wall, among other activities. Although they
ran out of CDs very quickly, I was able to receive a copy from Carol
Ellick, Chair of the SAA Public Education Committee. If anyone would
like a copy of this engaging activity set, please contact me at
I will send you a CD.
We learned many years ago that an educated public
is a valuable partner in discovering, preserving, and protecting
Pennsylvania's remarkable cultural heritage. Developing, expanding,
and strengthening this partnership is always a work in progress.
We need your participation. Please contact me if you would like
to be involved in Project Archaeology.
See Public Education
HISTORICAL AND MUSEUM COMMISSION
ARCHAEOLOGY WEB SITE
Submitted by: Kurt W. Carr BHP, PHMC
As some of you know, the PHMC's Bureau for Historic Preservation
(BHP) is in the process of developing a Web site for Pennsylvania
archaeology. Our purpose is to disseminate fresh and up-to-date information
on archaeology in Pennsylvania. These have been very successful in
other states in getting new data out and raising the visibility of
archaeology and the nonrenewable nature of archaeological resources.
Our target audience is the professional community, the general public,
and especially students and teachers. Each of these groups will have
their own portal divided into several pages.
The "Professionals" portal will be divided into "Resources," "PHMC
Archaeology," and "Guidelines and Policies." We are hoping that this
portal will facilitate archaeological research in the state by allowing
access to various databases in one place. Most of the word documents
will be searchable files. The major parts of the portal for professionals
are shown in the following outline.
Archaeology for PROFESSIONALS
On left navigation bar:
CRM Reports Database A Searchable Reports database with abstracts
Unpublished Manuscripts in The State Museum
Watershed Syntheses - Currently four have been completed: Lower
Schuylkill Valley, the Upper North Branch of the Susquehanna, Raccoon
Creek, and the Upper Juniata Valley.
Current Research Projects - A brief synthesis of new and unpublished
Commonwealth Archaeology Program
Archaeology at PHMC Sites An annotated bibliography of the archaeology
of our properties
PHMC Archaeology Grant Projects
Current Research by PHMC employees
Guidelines and Policies
Environmental review process
BHP Excavation and Survey Guidelines
The State Museum Curation Guidelines
Other policy statements and current issues
Electronic PASS form and code book
On right-side navigation:
Link to CRGIS
Links to PAC, SPA, etc.
Comments and Questions
Site Map .
The "Public" portal will be divided into "Pennsylvania Archaeology,"
"Environmental Review," "Avocational Archaeology," and "Museums and
Tours." Our goal with this section is to get the technical information,
gathered by a century of professional archaeology, out to the public
in a format that can be easily understood and appreciated. The Society
for Pennsylvania Archaeology, Inc. Web site has done a great job in
serving a wide variety of needs and much of this section will direct
our users to this resource. The Pennsylvania Archaeology section will
contain many popular versions of existing technical information such
as compliance reports, county and watershed synthesis, and popular
summaries of CAP projects. This is for people who want information
on the archaeology of their own back yard. What has been found in
my town and my county? What have we learned about people in the past?
The major parts of the portal for the public are shown in the following
Archaeology for THE PUBLIC
The value of Archaeology
Announcements: Public events - Farm Show, Archaeology Month, canoe
Popular summary of Pennsylvania archaeology
Popular summaries by county or watershed
Popular summaries of CAP projects
Recent projects in Pennsylvania archaeology
Popular book titles
The State Museum collections
Environmental review for developers
The role of the public in protecting archaeological resources
Avocational Archaeology (Careers and Volunteer Information)
The Society for Pennsylvania Archaeology, Inc.
Avocational archaeology and "hunting arrowheads"
Information on donation procedures
Volunteer information for CAP projects, PHMC internships, and other
Careers in archaeology
Electronic PASS forms (short and long form) and code book
Museums & Tours (Museums, virtual tours, and visiting sites)
Visiting archaeological sites
- Tour of Archaeology Gallery in the State Museum
- Tour of Archaeology Lab in the State Museum
The "Students and Teachers" portal will include many items on the
"Public" portal, but with an orientation towards education. Several
curricula have been developed for Pennsylvania archaeology and these
will be provided. To a large degree, we see this as a vehicle to promote
the curriculum developed by PAC and get this into the hands of more
teachers. The "Students and Teachers" page will also provide popular
summaries of Pennsylvania archaeology by county and watershed, as
resources for teachers in their area. These would be well illustrated.
Finally, this page would include resource lists of publications, museums,
and PowerPoint presentations developed by the PHMC. The major parts
of the portal for students and teachers are shown in the following
Archaeology for STUDENTS & TEACHERS
Curriculums (Teaching curricula and teaching aids)
The purpose and goals of archaeology
Three curricula currently available
Summaries (An Overview of Pennsylvania Archaeology)
Popular summary of Pennsylvania archaeology
Popular summaries by county or watershed.
Popular summaries of CAP projects and compliance projects
Popular summaries of CAP and compliance projects
PowerPoint presentations by PHMC staff
A book list
A list of museums in Pennsylvania
Tour of Archaeology Gallery in the State Museum for teachers
Tour of Archaeology Lab in the State Museum
Much of the above will be available when the Web site goes live this
fall. We would like your input so please write, call, or e-mail me.
Contact: Kurt W. Carr, PHMC, Commonwealth Keystone Building, 400 North
Street, Harrisburg, PA 17120-0093 or 717-783-9926 or firstname.lastname@example.org
PENNDOT REPORT -- APRIL 22,
Submitted by: Ira Beckerman PennDOT
Byways to the Past Conference
PennDOT thanks those who responded to our fall request for archaeological
nominations to the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Historic
Preservation Excellence Awards. Last year, there was one nomination.
This year, there are quite a few. We also look forward to your attendance
at the Byways Conference, which will have a session specifically devoted
to transportation archaeology. The Raccoon Creek Technical report
will be available as a CD-Rom publication, as will a compendium of
Historic Contexts for 20th Century Resources.
Cultural Resources Handbook
The Handbook is still in preparation and is about 95% complete. The
remaining work is in our Quality Control/Quality Assurance Chapter,
which covers how PennDOT ensures that the work we do is of good quality.
We would like to have a circulating draft in 2005, with approval by
FHWA by the end of 2005, and training in 2006. We anticipate training
on the Handbook to the consultant community on three occasions - one
each in West, Central, and Eastern Pennsylvania.
Emergency Programmatic Agreement
In January 2005, FHWA executed a programmatic agreement (PA) to cover
emergency projects, such as activities undertaken in the wake of Hurricane
Ivan. The PA applies to projects using FHWA Emergency Relief (ER)
funding, which is largely restricted to activities that restore service,
and not for highway improvements. The PA will last for ten years,
and can be triggered by a federally declared emergency. A copy of
the PA is available at our Web site, under "Publications." You can
reach our Web site through www.penndotcrm.org.
PennDOT met with FHWA, the State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO),
the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), and the National
Register on November 3, 2004 to work toward resolution of treatment
and eligibility of so-called lithic scatters. The outcome of that
meeting was a commitment by the ACHP to draft a programmatic agreement
(PA) for treatment. A draft has been circulated for comment by SHPO,
FHWA, and PennDOT, and comments have been provided to ACHP. Prior
to the meeting, PennDOT and the SHPO had worked to develop a mutually
agreeable treatment plan, and had largely succeeded, with a few points
to be worked out. As of April 2005, there remains a unified commitment
to address this resource type in a systematic way; however, it is
not clear that FHWA and the ACHP are in agreement with PennDOT and
the SHPO on approach. The FHWA and ACHP appear to favor a formal PA,
with PennDOT and the SHPO considering the possibility of a letter
agreement on protocol being sufficient to address the issue. At this
writing, it is not clear which approach will be selected.
Indiana University of Pennsylvania (IUP) continues to work under
a four-year memorandum of understanding (MOU) with PennDOT on bringing
old archaeological collections up to curation standards for long-term
preservation. The project is in its second year and all of the extant
collections have been retrieved and are at IUP. Processing has been
made more difficult, due to the highly variable condition of the collections,
with a number of large collections requiring washing and labeling.
In addition, much effort has been expended on locating property owners
at the time the fieldwork was completed. This project is being conducted
in cooperation with the State Museum.
Project Streamlining Initiative
PennDOT has undertaken a streamlining initiative (in 2004) and has
formed a number of thematically based committees to implement proposed
initiatives. Cultural Resources (CR) was one of three major issues
tackled by the Environmental Committee, the other two being Threatened
and Endangered Species, and 4(f). Four main initiatives were proposed
for Cultural Resources: (1) expanding the existing minor projects
programmatic agreement, possibly leading to a delegation agreement
at a future date; (2) executing memorandums of understanding with
the fifteen federally recognized tribes having an interest in Pennsylvania
(these MOUs would define the protocols for how each tribe would consult
with PennDOT and FHWA); (3) conducting archaeology in final design,
so that National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) approval can be granted
prior to the completion of Phase I and Phase II studies and the execution
of a memorandum of agreement; and (4) electronic documentation, which
would include both electronically based decision making (e.g., letter,
concurrences) and electronic documents and reports. CR representatives
to the Environmental Team are Chris Kula and Joe Baker.
This following article has been reproduced with the
permission of the Dover Post, Dover, Delaware.
Ned Heite Remembered for Historical Contributions
By Jeff Brown and Joanna Wilson, Staff Writer and
Lifestyles Editor, Dover Post, Delaware, 04/20/05
Edward F. "Ned" Heite was not a man who courted the
limelight, but neither was he one to avoid controversy when it touched
upon one of his many passions - he'd speak his mind and leave no doubt
as to which side he was on.
The Dover native and longtime Camden resident passed
away quietly April 17 at the age of 66 after an extended illness,
leaving behind firm last wishes that there be no ceremony and only
a few spare lines on the obituary page to memorialize him. But despite
those instructions, those who knew him well could not let him go without
at least a few words.
"Ned never wanted the attention, and yet he contributed
and he gave to everybody," said Dan Griffith, the recently retired
director of the Division of Historical and Cultural Affairs.
"He was such a unique guy, we just can't let him go
without some recognition," said new state Archivist Russ McCabe of
the man who, when serving as chief of the state archives, hired him
Heite had deep roots in Delaware and once hinted his
family was descended from the remnants of Blackbeard's pirate crew
who had settled in old Kent County. The son of the late Harry and
Catherine Heite, he grew up on State Street in Dover, graduated from
Dover High School and earned both bachelor's and master's degrees
in history from the University of Richmond.
During a career that stretched over more than four decades,
Heite was a writer, newspaper editor and college instructor as well
as one of the state's most recognized archaeologists and experts on
Delaware's early history. In the 1970s, he served as the state's first
historic preservation officer, overseeing some of Delaware's first
entries onto the National Register of Historic Places, and succeeded
the legendary Dr. Leon deValinger as state archivist.
He left state employment in 1980, forming his own archaeological
consulting firm, which he based in Camden. Despite the illness that
was slowly sapping his strength, Heite remained active in his chosen
field, attending a regional archaeological conference only weeks before
Heite was an imposing figure, a mustachioed bear of
a man in thick glasses topped by a great shock of black hair. No matter
where he was, he always fit the popular image of the archaeologist,
from his ancient Land Rover -- memorialized in a gold earring he sometimes
wore -- to his worn khakis and sturdy sandals.
"He was never known for his sartorial splendor. He never
got dressed up, and when he did, even if it was a suit, it was always
rumpled," McCabe said.
In Heite's case, clothes did not make the historian,
"With Ned, what you saw was what you got. He was never
one to put on airs or sit in judgment. He was very open-minded," McCabe
"He made a tremendous contribution to archaeology in
Delaware," Griffith said, recalling his friend and colleague of 30
years. "I think the depth of his knowledge of the documentary records
at the State Archives and the details he knew of colonial life in
Delaware are unrivalled."
As state archivist, Heite had a style all his own, McCabe
recalled - and it wasn't all business.
"He enjoyed a good laugh, though his sense of humor
could be a bit abstract at times," McCabe said, recalling that when
the Skylab space station fell from orbit in 1979, Heite came to work
wearing a helmet emblazoned with Skylab emblems - "something you could
never imagine Leon deValinger doing. But he was cut from different
cloth than Leon."
Heite also became involved in the Camden community.
In addition to serving on the Camden Town Council in 1983 and 1984
and on the Planning Commission from 1986 until 1992, he'd turn up
at council meetings to express his strongly held opinions, reserving
his most thunderous righteous indignation for developments that threatened
"Anybody that's ever met the guy couldn't forget him.
He had such an eclectic interest in everything," McCabe said, recalling
Heite's flair for the dramatic as well as his penchant for singing
18th century sailors' drinking songs. "He had this encyclopedic knowledge
about the strangest things, particularly any element of Delaware history.
He had some information about just about anything you asked him."
His personal memories as well as his historical knowledge
made him a man to call for information. Most recently, he shared tales
of Kitts Hummock Beach in a 2003 story for the Dover Post, recalling
the details of his boyhood summers as well as the background of the
sleepy bayside community.
He dismissed the theory that the beach was named for
pirate Capt. Kidd with typical authority: "Nonsense!" he boomed. As
for the Hummock part - "It's spelled 'hummock' but it's pronounced
'hammock,'" he corrected.
A prolific writer, Heite either wrote or co-authored,
some with ex-spouse Dr. Louise Heite, more than 200 articles and reports
on subjects ranging from excavations at a 19th century Lebanon cannery
to a treatise on the types of beer available in Iceland. Most recently,
he did groundbreaking research into Delaware's Native American history,
which McCabe said he hopes might be published as part of Heite's legacy.
"He was a very colorful writer," McCabe added - even
in the memos he sent to archives staff. "And he loved digging for
McCabe recalls Heite visited the Archives just a week
and a half ago to do research and congratulate him on his promotion.
"I was particularly touched by the fact that he came," said McCabe,
who knew his health to be failing.
On March 31, his last day of work at the Division of
Historical and Cultural Affairs, Griffith said he visited his old
friend for a little celebration and a chat.
"We just sat there and talked about archaeology," he
said. "I remember giving and getting a hug from him. I'm really glad
I did that."
PAC COMPUTER USER'S
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IN THE NEWS
The following was adapted from the Press Release.
Meadowcroft Rockshelter Named National Historic Landmark
Historian David McCullough Cites
Rockshelter's Significance at National Conference
Submitted by: David Scofield Meadowcroft Rockshelter
and Museum of Rural Life and
Ned Schano Heinz History Center
April 25, 2005 - PITTSBURGH - At a national conference
of history educators this weekend, History Center President and
CEO Andy Masich announced that the Meadowcroft Rockshelter, located
in Avella, Pa. and an associate of the Senator John Heinz Pittsburgh
Regional History Center, has earned the designation as Pennsylvania's
newest National Historic Landmark.
Renowned historian and Pulitzer Prize-winning author
David McCullough, who was in Pittsburgh for the National Council
for History Education (NCHE) conference, echoed the sentiments of
Secretary of the Interior Gale A. Norton, who awarded the National
Historic Landmark designation, in describing Meadowcroft's national
significance in American history and culture. McCullough described
how Meadowcroft has revolutionized how archaeologists view the peopling
of the New World and he praised the Rockshelter's place as the oldest
site of human habitation in North America.
More than 16,000 years ago, the first Americans made
their camp under a rock overhang that protected them from the elements.
Throughout the ages, the Rockshelter site was occupied from the
earliest Paleo-Indian times until European settlement in the 1750s.
Today, visitors may go inside the open excavation and see evidence
of campfires made by the first Americans thousands of years ago,
as well as evidence for some of the earliest crops in what is today
the northeastern United States.
"Just 30 miles west of Pittsburgh, nestled in a quaint
countryside location, lies a key to understanding North American
ancestry," said Andy Masich, president and CEO of the History Center.
"The people of Western Pennsylvania are proud to have such a national
treasure in our midst. It was here at Meadowcroft that archaeologists
first found evidence that the peopling of the Americas occurred
much earlier than 11,500 years ago."
"We are honored to add the National Historic Landmark
designation to our growing list of commendations," said David Scofield,
director of Meadowcroft Rockshelter and Museum of Rural Life. "With
this, and with our status as a Pennsylvania Commonwealth Treasure
and an official project of Save America's Treasures, we hope the
region will continue to visit, explore, and understand the amazing
and important stories housed at Meadowcroft."
James M. Adovasio, Ph.D, Mercyhurst College professor
and principal investigator of the site, said "The Rockshelter's
designation as a National Historic Landmark provides further validation
of the archaeological significance of the site. This honor comes
at an ideal time, since this year marks the 50th anniversary of
the Rockshelter's discovery in 1955."
The Rockshelter officially opened for the 2005 season
on May 1. The public will discover how ancient people survived -
from what they ate to the weapons they relied on every day - via
admission to and special tours of the Rockshelter. A special ceremony
celebrating the National Historic Landmark designation was held
at the Meadowcroft Rockshelter in June.
The Meadowcroft site also includes the Museum of Rural
Life, a carefully recreated 19th century village including structures
such as a one-room schoolhouse, blacksmith shop, and family home.
On the heels of the National Historic Landmark designation,
the Meadowcroft Rockshelter and Museum of Rural Life has prepared
its most multi-faceted season ever. Dubbing its lineup the "Season
of Discovery," in honor of the 50th anniversary of the Rockshelter's
discovery, the site will feature an array of exhibits, programs,
and special events.
Meadowcroft Rockshelter and Museum of Rural Life is
located in Avella, Pa., Washington County, within an hour's drive
of Pittsburgh; Wheeling, West Virginia; and Steubenville, Ohio.
For more information on programs and events, please visit www.pghhistory.org.
.MEETING AND EVENTS CALENDAR
** Please send notices of upcoming events to the editor.
Pennsylvania continues to be underrepresented on the SAA Press Information
Referral Network. Several PAC members volunteered last year, and their
willingness to participate is very much appreciated. Please consider
volunteering. For more information, please read the SAA Archaeological
Record, Volume 4, Number 2, March 2004 or contact Renata Wolynec at
PAC encourages its members to join the Society for Pennsylvania
Archaeology. It is important to foster communication between professional
and avocational archaeologists. Moreover, membership in SPA supports
Pennsylvania Archaeologist in which PAC members often publish. For
more information please access the Web site www.pennsylvaniaarchaeology.com
Please make sure PAC has your current e-mail address (or FAX number)
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I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to all PAC members
who contributed to this newsletter. There would be no newsletter without
your willingness to take the time out of your busy schedule to write
about your work or that of your organization. I would also like to
thank Mark McConaughy, Ira Beckerman, and Valerie Perazio for their
prompt replies to my last minute questions, and my husband for his
valuable technical support.
The deadline for the next issue is April 28, 2006. Please forward
your submissions to firstname.lastname@example.org
as an e-mail attachment, Word preferred.
I wish you all a productive, satisfying, healthy,
and wonderful year!
Renata B. Wolynec, Editor