These are the Official Answers
for the 2014 St. Valentine's Day Massacre.

We posted them here on March 5.

In addition, earlier in the week we mailed answer books to all competitors; they are on their way.

The answers and explanations below are identical to those printed in the answer books.

The answer books also include the procedure for filing a protest (objection) regarding any answer.
We will keep this page posted at least until the protest email deadline, March 14.

When scoring is done, we'll post protest results here and we'll print and mail to everybody a complete results book.


March 16 update:

Q65 was affected by protests: The atlas legend shows a river as a single squiggly blue line, not as a light blue area outlined by two squiggly blue lines; so arguably the Alabama and Tombigbee 'rivers' should not count as bona fide rivers. We scored 0 correct as well as the intended answer of 2.

Results books are going to the printer tomorrow.

Leg 1 Answer * Golden Gate Bridge to Warden, Washington*


b) 1

At the first interchange north of Golden Gate we do not see (SEE definition on page 22: be within 1/4 map inch of us) an unincorporated town (atlas legend: its symbol is an unfilled circle), so we continue to the next interchange, where we see unincorporated Marin City and go right on Bridgeway Blvd. for Instruction #2, then, back at the interchange near Fort Baker, #3 puts us north on state highway, i.e. California 1 (not U.S. 101: #3 says state highway; U.S. 101 and California 1 happen to share this section of road). Immediately we go through a U.S. 101 shield, but soon course-following rule b makes us leave 101 in order to stay on California 1 through Tamalpais Valley to the edge of the Bay Area map, where Basic Rule 3/b automatically takes us to the same point on the state map on page 12, where we continue on California 1 up the coast, going through no more U.S. 101 shields before ending our consideration of Q1 as #4 sends us left at California 128 just before Albion. [We would have gone the same way at that junction with rule b's keeping us on California 1, but rule a always trumps rule b – we use rule a whenever we can.]


c) 2

#5 is right not at the town of Mendocino (map legend: that's a gray 'other road', not the dashed gray 'unpaved road' that we're looking for) but just past Westport, then #6 is north at Laytonville and we see the printed number "101" (the quotation marks mean that we're looking for that number 101 printed on the map: B.R. 3/d), then after Rio Dell #7 sends us east on Calif. 36 by describing 36's type of road (narrow red other through highway), then rule b keeps us on Calif. 36 (regardless of road type) through Wildwood and Platina to get to the junction east of I-5 (still on 36), where #7's second action is right on Calif. 99 through Dairyville and we see the number "99", then we end #7 right on Calif. 32 near Chico, finally ending our consideration of Q2 (B.R. 2/a).


b) no

#9 is right not on Calif. 44 (which, being past its last identification near Shingletown [Named Highway def.], by Massacre rules ends at the interchange west of Millville where its type of road ends) but on Calif. 299 (which does not end short of I-5: it has 2 more identifications west of I-5, so it's continuous on both sides of I-5) through Bella Vista.


a) yes

#10 is southeast after Burney toward the town Hat Creek, which we see as well as the nearby blue Hat Cr., each of which we can call in part a Hat (B.R. 3/e), so we see plural Hats, which B.R. 3/f allows us to call lower-case hats.


c) 2

#11 sends us west through Paxton and eventually through the printed name (B.R. 3/d: quotation marks) "Paradise", then, since #11 used the word 'at', not 'on', it did not invoke rule b to keep us 'on' Calif. 70; therefore after Cherokee we use rule c to acutely stay upon our type of road [red principal highway] northwest onto Calif. 149 at interchange, and then again acutely south at the next junction onto southbound 99 through Live Oak (in part Live: B.R. 3/e) before #12 near Yuba City and Marysville.


c) 3

At the end of Calif. 20, rule d sends us ahead onto eastbound I-80, then B.R. 3/a takes us to the larger-scale Lake Tahoe Region map on p. 16 to go through one Interstate 80 shield, then B.R. 3/b takes us back to the Calif. state map briefly before B.R. 3/a takes us to the Reno city map on p. 65 for two more Interstate 80 shields.


a) desert

Since #13 sends us 'onto', not 'on', Nev. 447, rule b is not invoked for 447, so just before Nixon rule c sends us west to stay upon our red other through highway, then at the next junction south upon 445 to head back to the Reno map (with B.R. 3/a) for #14 west onto Nev. 659, then #15 is right on U.S. 395 at interchange, then soon we see Desert Research Institute, hence (B.R.s 3/e & 3/f) desert.


c) Talent

#18 places us 'on' Nevada 140, then at state boundary rule d sends us ahead into Oregon and onto Oregon 140, which (its being a different named highway from Nevada 140) rule b gives us no obligation to stay on, then just before U.S. 395 we reach the physical edge of our map, where B.R. 3/b sends us to the same point on p. 84, where our road hooks enough before U.S. 395 for rule d (change direction of travel upon a road as little as possible) to send us southward upon U.S. 395 through Lakeview to B.R. 3/b back to the Calif. map, where rules c and d send us west at Alturas and upon 299's road to end #18 north on I-5 after Bella Vista, then the first of Q8's towns that we see is Talent, shortly after B.R. 3/b has taken us back to the Oregon map on p. 84 near Oreg. 66.


c) 2

Immediately after #19 we're within range of Seavey Loop Rd. (shown on the Eugene map), but the Eugene map is a different map and B.R. 3/c doesn't let us use any information from it. Then rule d sends us down U.S. 97 to #20 west on principal highway (on which is Oreg. 138) at Diamond Lake Junction, then B.R. 3/a takes us to the Crater Lake map to see "Summit Rock", then B.R. 3/b brings us back to the state map where rule b ('description … of its road') keeps us on our named highway Oreg. 138 through Toketee Falls to see town name "Glide".


c) 2

Considering Q10 from #21's turn on U.S. 20 to #22's turn off U.S. 97 in Wasco Co. (B.R. 2/a), we see Three Fingered Jack mountain peak near Santiam Pass, then town Sisters, and in Deschutes County we see Pilot Butte State Scenic Viewpoint, Cline Falls State Scenic Viewpoint (along U.S. 97), and Peter Skene Ogden State Scenic Viewpoint, hence plural viewpoints.


c) 2

In Morrow Co. we go east through Cecil, then south through Ione across Oreg. 74, then ahead onto Oreg. 206 through Ruggs, then right before Heppner, then north to cross Oreg. 74 near Franklin Hill and arrive at Butter Creek, having seen Scenic route (atlas legend: series of green dots, as mentioned on p. 7 for Special Instruction A) and "Ukiah-Dale Forest State Scenic Corridor", hence (B.R. 3/e) "Scenic".


b) 1

Oreg. 11 ends at state boundary, where Wash. 125 begins and rule d sends us ahead (still on p. 85) onto 125 to College Place, which is not at a junction (Junction def.) so we can't end #25 there (Action def.: requires a junction), so we continue to Walla Walla where we do end #25 by turning left – rule c would have had us go in the same direction there to stay upon multilane, but rule a always trumps lower rules. Then immediately we travel upon other multilane highway to the next junction, where rule b sends us north to stay on 125 [we can't 'go left' at this junction, because there's no road that would give us a change of direction to the left] there, then #26 is left onto gray other road, then right onto 124, then right back onto 125, then #26 ends when we stop to sing, in sight of Walla Walla.


a) its Bessarabian German heritage

'Warden' comes from the town's Bessarabian German heritage.(Wikipedia cites the Protokol of the original local church, contradicting the city's website's stated name origin [which is not an OMCOM A answer choice]: the letters 'en' being added to the name 'Ward', the son of Warden's first civic resident.) Newbridge is County Kildare's most populous town.

Source: for Warden, Washington and Counties of Ireland; city website

Leg 2 Answer * Warden, Washington, to Peace River, Alberta *


b) 2

Northbound on Wash. 17 after #2, we go through the first Wash. 17 symbol before I-90, then the second before Soap Lake; #2 placed us 'on' Wash. 17, so rule b keeps us on 17 across U.S. 2 to go through 17's third symbol before #3 right on Wash. 174 near the number "46", then rule b keeps us on Wash. 174 as we go through one 174 symbol before Grand Coulee and then another 174 symbol before #4's east at Wilbur.


a) Cow

#5 is south on other through highway (narrow red road; odd Wash 231 is upon it) before Reardan, then #5 ends right on U.S. 395 at interchange 245, then we see the object Cow Cr. (in part, Cow: B.R. 3/e) first.


b) 1

#6 placed us 'on' Wash. 261, so rule b keeps us on 261 east after Washtucna to #7 right on U.S. 12, then #8 is west on Wash. 124, then south on Wash. 125, then left on U.S. 12, then we see "Lewis and Clark Tr. S.P.", in part (B.R. 3/e) "Lewis and Clark". [The black town name "Touchet" is over 1/4 map inch away [SEE def.]; and we saw a blue "Touchet" earlier, at #8's south, but not after #8's completion [B.R. 2/a].]


c) 2

We stay on the p. 109 Washington map through Lewiston and a U.S. 12 shield in Idaho before, at map edge, B.R. 3/b sends us to the same point on the Idaho map on p. 31, where after Lowell we go through another U.S. 12 shield before leaving Idaho at Lolo Pass.


d) U.S. High

B.R. 3/a sends us to the Missoula map, where the coördinates M-12 are specified for #9, but regular U.S. 93 makes its turn north sooner than that, at the coördinates N-12, so we can't do #9 yet but must keep going on U.S. 12 until we reach the coördinates M-12, where a different 93 (BR 93 [in part, 93: B.R. 3/e], as said on p. 5 for Alt 50 and Alt 95) goes north, so #9 is north on BR 93, then #9 ends at interchange 104, then B.R. 3/b takes us to the Montana state map, then on the Butte map with B.R. 3/a Mont. 2 is not at an even-numbered interchange so we keep going and see U.S. High Altitude Sports Center (hence U.S. High: B.R. 3/e), then back on the Montana map #10 is right on Mont. 2 at interchange 256.


a) Cascade

#11 does not place us 'on' U.S. 12 – it uses the word 'onto', not the magic word 'on' – so rule b is not activated for U.S. 12; instead, rule d sends us up to White Sulphur Springs, where rule c sends us east to stay upon our principal highway, then 3 miles later rule d sends us up U.S. 89 to #11 right on Mont. 3 before Armington (we must consider Mont. 3 to end at this junction, where, past its last identification [B.R. 3/c doesn't let us use contrary information from the Great Falls map] its road becomes the pathway of U.S. 89 [Named Highway def.], so 'right' is the only direction in which we can turn on Mont. 3 here), then immediately we see Cascade County, which we're in.


d) Vanguard

#13 is still on p. 61, where (B.R. 3/c) we have no evidence that Sask. 37 goes north from Sask. 18, so we continue on 18 to where 18 leaves the map, where B.R. 3/b takes us to p. 120, where #13 ends east on Sask. 13 at Robsart, then rule b keeps us on 13 through (Go Through def.) Shaunavon to #14 north onto 629 at Admiral, then #15 is north on Sask. 4, then east through Neville and we see Vanguard.


a) yes; Wartime

#17 is west on Sask. 44 (identified both east and west) through Cutbank, then rule b keeps us on 44 to #18 south at the junction after Hughton (rule a overrides rule b there, which would have had us jog south anyway), then #18 is west upon 44, through Wartime.


a) 0

#21 is south on Sask. 21 (identified both north and south) after Maidstone [we entered Mountain Time Zone before Paynton], then west on Sask. 14 through Unity [we see Adanac nearby, but backward it would be Canada, not Adanac], then where Sask. 14 ends rule c sends us ahead onto Alta. 13 through Provost.


a) Barlow

#24 is north after Barlow Trail onto Deerfoot Trail, then #25 is east onto 32 Av., then south onto Barlow Trail, where we do not arrive at interchange 258 (it's at Deerfoot Trail) but continue south to rule d east at T back to the province map with B.R. 3/b, where our road makes a bend northeastward to rule d onto road that bends back to the Calgary map upon limited-access highway again, where we cross Barlow Trail to arrive westbound at interchange 258 for #26, then continue west upon T-C 1 to end #26 at Lake Louise.


d) 3

After #28 we see town Tête Jaune Cache near B.C. 5 (where we do not do #29: B.C. 5 ends here, where [Named Highway def.] its road becomes the pathway of T-C 16); rule b keeps us on T-C 16 to #29 right on B.C. 97 at Prince George, then west onto gray other road toward "Reid Lake" and we see town Isle Pierre before #29's turn east toward Prince George, where rule d sends us north upon B.C. 97, along which we see Pt. Whiskers Prov. Pk. before completing #29 at B.C. 52.


c) 2

#29 ends south on B.C. 52 (seeing "Sudeten Prov. Pk."), at whose end rule d sends us ahead to Alberta through Elmworth and rule d northwest onto Alta. 43, seeing S. Peace Centennial Mus.


c) fly with three passengers

Dr. William Greene did so in 1911, according to the Peace River Record Gazette of Sept. 28, 2010. ['Twelve Foot Davis' was the gold miner.]

Sources: Peace River Record Gazette; town website

Leg 3 Answer * Peace River, Alberta, to Warroad, Minnesota *


b) 1

#3 is 'at' 744 through Girouxville, not 'on' 744, so rule b is not in effect to keep us on 744; rather, rule d sends us east onto 683 to Nampa to end #3, and then "Twelve Foot Davis Prov. Pk." is too far away (over 1/4 map inch) to see. Also, #3 ends 'at' Alberta 2, not 'on' it, so rule d keeps us going south ahead through Guy to #4. Also, #4 is 'at' 2A, not 'on' 2A, so near Hondo rule c sends us south onto 44, then we see Flatbush before ending #4 on Alberta 18.


b) no

Because of S.I. A, our #7 flight is roughly parallel to Alberta's eastern boundary, so we land on T-C 16 roughly midway between Alta. 36 and Lloydminster, staying in Mountain Time Zone for the whole flight.


b) 16 – 30

#7 ends 'toward' Edmonton, not all the way to Edmonton, so #8 is south onto 36, then east onto Alta. 9, then we start adding highway numbers: 9 + Sask. 7, then #9 is south onto Sask. 4, then east onto U.S. 2 to Williston: total 22.


c) White Earth

#10 did not place us 'on' either U.S. 2 or U.S. 85, so rule c keeps us upon orange multilane road east toward Ray and past town White Earth to #11 (rule a) right at U.S. 52 toward Burlington.


a) yes

#12 is west at N.D. 200, then west at (not 'on') N.D. 1806, then we see Three Affiliated Tribes (Fort Berthold), hence (B.R. 3/e & 3/f) three, then town Twin Buttes, hence Buttes, then Knife River at Marshall while southbound with rule d upon N.D. 8 to end #13 at interchange 84. [We see answer choice d's objects too, but its first word 'no' is not true.]


c) 2

We see the object Dickinson- Theodore Roosevelt Reg. airport from I-94, then Theodore Roosevelt Nat'l Park (South Unit). [Elkhorn Ranch is too far away to see.]


a) 0

#15 is 'at', not 'on', N.D. 18, so after Hoople rule d is onto eastbound U.S. 81 at Cavalier, then rule d keeps us upon 81 through Hamilton, then ahead at I-29 to Minn. 175 and rule d southeast onto U.S. 59 to #16 west on Minn. 11 at Karlstad, then #17 is north on U.S. 75 (beginning Q31 too late to count Karlstad), then east on Minn. 175 again, then south onto gray other road (from which we see end of 175 ahead at U.S. 59), then right on Minn. 11 again, again too far away to count Karlstad.


d) 5 or more

#19 ends at interchange 111 west on N.D. 200 (identified both west and southeast), then we count 200 miles with red numbers 18 + 83 + 24 + 75 = 200 to #20 northwest onto U.S. 83, along the way seeing at least Traill, Steele, Griggs, Foster, and McLean counties.


c) 2

Rule b keeps us on N.D. 53 in #21 through Kief to southeast on U.S. 52, then we stop at Drake, then it's 53 miles with black numbers 7 + 7 + 9 + 2 + 9 + 6 + 13 = 53 to N.D. 200, so we've already gone 52 miles when we reach there, so #22 is left on N.D. 200 (rule a overriding rule b, which would have sent us in the same direction with U.S. 52), then rule b keeps us on 200 through Carrington to #23 south on N.D. 20, then northwest on U.S. 281 at Jamestown.


a) "37th Av."

#25 is north at Arena after having gone through Kidder Co. (Go Through def.), then ruled is ahead onto N.D. 200 through Goodrich, then rule c keeps us going westbound through Denhoff to #26 northwest on U.S. 83, then on the Minot map we see "54th Av." first but then "37th Av." later, after the first U.S. 83 shield.


c) Stump

From the Souris River #28 takes us through only 8 towns – Carbury, Killarney, Calvin, Clyde, Langdon, Walhalla, Winkler, and Plum Coulee – to Altona, which therefore we reach southbound, so #29 is west on N.D. 18 toward Cavalier, where rule b keeps us on N.D. 18 south to end #29 north onto gray other road at N.D. 200 at Mayville, then #30 is west through Hatton, then we stop and continue at the next junction before ending #31 north on N.D. 1 after Jessie, then we see Stump Lake first.


a) yes

#34 ends southwest after "308" when we see Northwest Angle Prov. For., then we're within sight (1/4 map inch) of boundary with United States, then cease to be by the next junction (before seeing it again as we approach Man. 12 for #35).


c) Roseau

From the prairies of the Red River, the Sioux would invade Chippewa rice-field territory on the lake by way of the Red and Roseau Rivers.

Source: Warroad city history at

Leg 4 Answer * Warroad, Minnesota, to Salem, Nebraska *


c) no; see "Louis" but not Hockey

#2 puts us 'onto', not 'on', U.S. 53, so it does not invoke rule b for U.S. 53, so, before Virginia, rule c sends us northeast to stay upon our red principal highway through Florenton to end #2 south on Minn. 135 at Tower, then we see county name "St. Louis", in part (B.R. 3/e) "Louis".


b) Sturgeon

After #3, rule d sends us up U.S. 53 toward Virginia; for #4, U.S. 169 does not extend to U.S. 53 – by Massacre rules (Named Highway def.) 169, being past its last symbol, ends at Minn. 73 before the airport, where 169's orange type of road becomes the pathway of Minn. 73 going northward; so upon U.S. 53 we keep going with rules c and d to #4 northeast on Minn. 169 toward Florenton (again), then we end #4 left on Minn. 1, which rule b keeps us on up through Cook, then west to Linden Grove for #5 south onto Minn. 73, then we begin considering Q38 and go through town Sturgeon first.


d) 3

#11 is south on Manitoba 89, which ends at the national boundary and we have no obligation to connect with Minn. 89, so rule d at Fox sends us east upon Minn. 11 through Warroad to #11 south onto 2 at Williams, then rule c sends us east, then north to end #11 west on Minn. 11 at Pitt, then immediately we see Rainy River (identified near Loman; it flows between Rainy Lake and Lake of the Woods), then we see town Fox and, before #12, S. Br. Twos River.


c) 2

#13 places us 'on' Minn. 200, along which we see town name "Lake Itasca" and (near Lake George) Schoolcraft River, then rule b keeps us on 200 easterly to #14 after Jacobson.


b) no; see "North Dakota" but not "Goose"

B.R. 3/a takes us to the Grand Forks map just before #15, then B.R. 3/b takes us from the Grand Forks map to the N.D. state map, where we stay out of sight of any "Goose", but then B.R. 3/a takes us to the Fargo map and we see "North Dakota State Univ." there.


d) 3

U.S. 10 takes us through the St. Cloud map (also on page 55) where we see Golden Spike Rd., then back on the state map we see town Monticello, then, after going right on Minn. 25 at Big Lake, rule b keeps us on 25 to see town Norwood Young America just before ending #17 there.


a) "Epiphany"

#19 is at the interchange southeast of Mitchell (37 comes up from the south there), then #20 is immediately east on S.D. 38 (identified over near Salem) through Riverside to end #20 north on S.D. 25 through Farmer, then first seeing "Epiphany".


b) 1

During #22 B.R. 3/a takes us to the Pierre map, where the first 83 we reach is Byp 83, which we turn on to end #22, then see Elizabeth Rd.; then Byp 83 ends at regular U.S. 83, where rule d sends us northeast; back on the state map, since #22 didn't place us 'on' regular U.S. 83, rule b is not in effect for it and rule d sends us ahead through Blunt and across two county boundaries to #23 south near Ree Heights, then rule c sends us west to Stephan to end #23.


b) 1

#24 is 'onto' S.D. 44, so in Douglas County rule d sends us ahead onto principal highway, upon which rule c sends us south through Armour and eventually onto S.D. 50 to U.S. 81 near Yankton; upon 81 we go through "Hartington", then just after Nebr. 84 we reach the edge of our map, where B.R. 3/b sends us to the Nebraska map on p. 63, where #25 is east on 98, then north through Carroll, missing "Randolph".


b) Railroad

#27 is west onto I-80, then soon south onto gray other road at interchange 29, then #28 is southwest near Minden, then left through Neola (no interchange at I-80; B.R. 3/g), then after Weston B.R. 3/a takes us to the Omaha map, where we find that we're upon and see Railroad Hwy.


b) Norfolk

#33's "15"s are two Nebr. 15 numbers plus two mileage numbers both in Wayne Co., so #33 is west onto U.S. 275, then south on U.S. 81, then immediately we see Norfolk.


c) 3

#35's second U.S. 34 shield is on the Grand Island map, where we see L.E. Ray Lake Aquatic Pk., and also a Pioneer, but no state highway goes south there, so rule b keeps us on U.S. 34 back to the state map, where near Hastings we see DLD St. Rec. Area, then Harold's Warp's Pioneer Vil. before #35 south on Nebr. 10 at Minden to east on Nebr. 4.


c) a future U.S. President

Although Salem was founded in 1854 by Singleton, Roberts, and Hare, it was laid out in 1855 by J.C. Lincoln, Hare, and Roberts. Lincoln, a distant relative of the future President Lincoln, became Salem's first postmaster.

Sources: History of the State of Nebraska at; Nebraska…Our Towns at

Leg 5 Answer * Salem, Nebraska, to Guerra, Texas *


d) 3

#3 is south on Nebr. 99, then #4 is west on U.S. 36 still on p. 63 (B.R. 3/b), where we have no information that U.S. 77 or Kans. 15 go south (B.R. 3/c), so we must consider 77 and 15 to end at U.S. 36 (Named Highway def.), so #5 is south on U.S. 81, then B.R. 3/b takes us to the Kansas map to end #5 east on Kans. 9, then we see rivers Republican, Big Blue, and (as we stay on Kans. 9 to its end at U.S. 159) Delaware.


c) see Antelope

#7 ends after Fostoria, but a scenic route is not a named highway (addressed on p. 7 for Leg 1's S.I. A), so rule b does not keep us on scenic route (and, as for Kansas 13, it ends at U.S. 24); rather, rule d sends us ahead onto westbound U.S. 24 to #8 west on U.S. 77 toward Riley, then rule b keeps us on 77 down through town Antelope on the way to U.S. 160.


a) "Capitol"

On p. 41, I-35's toll limited-access, multilane highway's green type ends just past stateboundary (and on p. 41 we have no evidence of I-35 farther south), so (Named Highway def.) we must consider I-35 to have ended where its road type ends, so we continue on U.S. 177 at interchange 231 to the edge of the map, where B.R. 3/b sends us to p. 83; Cimarron Tpk. is not an Interstate highway so we continue on U.S. 177 across I-44 (no interchange there: B.R. 3/g) to #10 finally west on I-40, then northwest on U.S. 77 on the Oklahoma City map, then we see "State Capitol" first.


b) 1

During #13, rule b keeps us on Okla. 11 on the Tulsa map past U.S. 75 (not an interstate) to end #13 at interchange 12 B west on I-244 [which does not end 1 interchange to the west, where its road already is the pathway of U.S. 412], then rule b keeps us on I-244 through 5 unnumbered interchanges (at which point we're past a point where we could go west on U.S. 64 on the Tulsa map), so we keep going ahead toward interchange 222A with rule d onto I-44 and back to the state map and then to the Oklahoma City map, where rule d sends us ahead at interchange 138A and down to interchange 139, where rule d sends us east onto I-40, then after interchange 127 rule d sends us up I-35 and – depending on relative scale, either directly to the Edmond map, or first back to the state map, then to the Edmond map: in either case to go through the Edmond map's U.S. 77 shield – then back on the state map finally #14 is west on U.S. 64 at interchange 194.


a) Bear

Westbound on U.S. 64 from #14 at interchange 194 we see Black Bear Cr. first.


b) Red

Chisholm Trail Historical Mus. is not at Kingfisher but down in Jefferson Co., after which we see Red River first.


a) 1

#18 ends left on Texas 118 near Croton Pk. (already in Big Bend National Park, so we don't go through it [Glossary def.: enter and then leave] for Q55 after #18), then rule b keeps us on 118 into Jeff Davis Co. (but not through it before Q55 ends) and through town Fort Davis to #19 southwest onto Texas 166 at its northern end, then south on Texas 17 near Davis Mtns. S.P.


b) no

We see county seat Carrizo Springs and Meadow Av. (on the Laredo map), but not meadows.


a) El Colorado

They called it El Colorado because of the red sandy soil found in the area.

Source: Texas State Historical Association handbook at

Leg 6 Answer * Guerra, Texas, to Pace, Florida *


c) 3

Zapata County, county seat Zapata, and on the Laredo map (B.R. 3/a) Zapata Hwy.


c) no; only see Live Oaks

#5 ends on the first 281 we reach, which is Alt 281 at Whitsett, thenimmediately we see Live Oak County, which we're in; rule d puts us onto I-37 at interchange 92, then rule c keeps us upon limited-access highway to #6 at I-410's interchange 41 on the San Antonio map, then we circle upon I-410 to interchange 27, where rule d sends us up I-35 to see town Live Oak before ending #6 at interchange 172.


a) yes

#8 sends us south on Gen. McMullen Dr. to #9 west on Old Hwy. 90 W. (whose number 90's last digit is 0; also, Commerce St. to the east and W. Commerce St. to the west are different highways [like 50 and Alt 50 in Leg 1], and they don't connect), then rule c sends us south with other through highway at second interchange through both Lackland A.F.B. and "Lackland A.F.B." to another rule c southwest to end #9 at interchange 2.


d) 4

#11 puts us on Alt 77, at whose end at Alt 90 we go ahead with rule d onto Alt 90 (different from Alt 77; rule b doesn't apply for Alt 90), so after dropping off Colonel Hallett at Med. Ctr. we continue to Port of Houston, where rule c sends us acutely south to stay upon principal highway, then with rule d back onto southwestbound Alt 90 to end #12 right on I-610 after Reliant Stad., then with rule b we loop around I-610 and see "West Loop", "North Loop", "East Loop", and "South Loop" before #13.


b) 1

B.R. 3/a takes us to the Galveston map after #14, then #15 is left at interchange 1A, then northeast on Texas 3, then #16 is northeast on 197; then we see "Barge" as we approach 519 (whose junction also is shown on the Houston map, but B.R. 3/a does *not* automatically take us to the Houston map before 519: the Houston map's scale (approx. 6/32 inch per mile) is not larger but smaller than that of the Galveston map (approx. 7/32 inch per mile) – cf. the regular small-scale Texas state map, at approx. 1/32 inch per mile – to end #16 by continuing on 197 from 519 while still on the Galveston map, ending our consideration of Q61 (B.R. 2/a) [then B.R.s 3/b & 3/a take us to the state map and then to the Houston map for #17].


a) 1

Eastbound on I-10, we can't end #18 before Sulphur on p. 100, because there's no interchange (B.R. 3/g); continuing with B.R. 3/b to p. 44, #18 ends after Lake Charles, then #19 is east on U.S. 90, then south on La. 26, then we see L. Arthur as rule d sends us eastbound upon La. 14 to #20 south at Abbeville.


c) 2

From Jackson Av., #23 is left onto the road upon which B.R. 3/a takes us to Loyola Av. on the larger-scale Central New Orleans map, where due north is indicated at an angle toward the right of the map (B.R. 3/i), so #23 ends north upon Elk Pl. (heading approx. 35°, or north-northeast, vs. what would have been approx. 300° west-northwest upon Tulane Av.), then immediately we see nearby Lib., then we go ahead onto Basin St. and curve up onto Orleans Av., then B.R.s 3/b and 3/a take us back to the main New Orleans map, where we're upon the gray other road that's between and parallel to Canal St. and Esplanade Av., to #24 left at Broad, then right on Tulane Av., then north at interchange onto I-10, then we see Pontchartrain Blvd. ahead before ending #24 east onto I-610 at interchange 230.


d) Liberty

#26 ends as we go east on U.S. 90 at Gautier (already in Mississippi's Jackson County, so for #27 we still have to enter and then leave a Jackson County [Glossary's Go Through def.]), so rule b keeps us going on U.S. 90 for a long time, until finally we go through Florida's Jackson County on the Fla. panhandle map section on p. 27, then on the main Florida map section on p. 26 #27 is west on I-10 just before Tallahassee, then back on the panhandle map section for Q64 we see Liberty County, then Washington County, then town Liberty in Walton County.


d) Spanish in Pensacola

Chumuckla Indians in the Floridatown (Pace) area traded; nearby Pensacola was occupied by the Spanish prior to 1818.

Source: Pace …. A Historical Sketch at

Leg 7 Answer * Pace, Florida, to War, West Virginia *



After #2 we reach Florala, where we continue onto U.S. 331 with rule d – #3's word 'opp' is not defined as anything other than 'opp', so an opp is what we have to find, and B.R. 3/b takes us to the Alabama map, where we continue with rule d ahead after Onycha to the town of Opp (B.R. 3/f) for #3, then left on U.S. 84 eastbound, then #4 is south through Wicksburg on Ala. 123, which runs through Hartford upon gray other road to its end at Ala. 167, where rule d is south onto Ala. 167 and then Fla. 79, where back on the Florida map #5 is west onto U.S. 98 near Panama City Beach, then with rules c and d on the Pensacola map on p. 24 we travel upon BR 98, southbound 295, northbound 292, and northbound U.S. 29, then back on p. 27 up to Brewton, Ala., where rule d sends us ahead back to the Alabama map, where now we're upon U.S. 31 heading up to #6 northwest on U.S. 84 toward interchange 93, then we can't turn on Ala. 21 in Monroe Co. because 21 goes in two directions (not a sole one: B.R. 1), so we continue across Alabama River and Tombigbee River to right on 21 in Choctaw Co. toward Barrytown.


c) 2

#12 is not on Tenn. 64, which (Named Highway def.) ends where its gray road ends at 82's red road, but later, on U.S. 64 at interchange 127, then #13 is southwest on Tenn. 11 near Pulaski, then right (rule a) on Ala. 64, then south on Ala. 13, then rule d onto U.S. 72 to the Florence map for #14 left on Cox Creek Pkwy., then rule c is onto 133 and rule d is onto Veterans Dr. to #15 south on U.S. 72, then east on Wilson Dam Hwy., which rule b keeps us on where Wilson Dam Hwy. goes south at multilane (Wilson Dam Hwy. is identified south of 2nd St.) and to the state map, where immediately we see U.S. 43 shield and town Spring Valley before ending #15 southeast on Ala. 157 toward Lawrence Co.


a) 0

#17 ends by taking us off I-24 toward "Whiteside", then #18 is left at "Whiteside", then left at "Bridgeport" to cross both state boundary and time zone boundary (hence plural boundaries) to #19 left on Ga. 301, then #20 is left onto I-59 at interchange 11 [which is before U.S. 11], then right on I-24 two interchanges later.


b) "407"

After #23 west on U.S. 70 near Newport on p. 76, rule d is ahead southwest at Edgemont (thefog obscures the U.S. 70 shield near Knoxville, so we have no westward information about U.S. 70) to Tenn. 92 at Chestnut Hill, then we go to p. 74 and continue from Tenn. 92 and then start looking for a 92 to end #24, so rules c and d take us to the Knoxville county seat symbol (still on p. 74; Special Instruction A keeps us from going to the Knoxville city map), where westbound U.S. 70 goes southwest and eastbound U.S. 70 goes ahead north for a bit (so, since U.S. 70 goes in two directions at that junction [B.R. 1: rule b must specify 'travel in a sole, unique direction'], we can't use rule b for U.S. 70 yet but use rule d ahead onto U.S. 70), but then, where eastbound U.S. 70 veers northeast, we find that we're physically traveling upon U.S. 70 again and we've had no Action (Glossary def.) since #23 placed us on U.S. 70 near Newport, so rule b still is in effect for U.S. 70 and keeps us on U.S. 70 (along with 25W where they diverge from 11E) and we see nearby interchange number "407" before ending #24 northwest on Tenn. 92 just before Dandridge.


a) Dungannon

Along Alt 58 on the Virginia map during #27, we can't turn on Va. 63 at St. Paul because the Named Highway def. says that 63 ends where its orange multilane type of road ends (about midway between Trammel and Dante), so we continue on Alt 58 to Jonesville, where rule c sends us west to U.S. 25E for rule d down 25E to end #27 right on Tenn. 63, then B.R. 3/b takes us to the p. 95 Tennessee map and rule b keeps us on Tenn. 63 to #28 north onto Tenn. 29 (which has shared a road with U.S. 27 since Chattanooga, so its road has not just reached a junction where it has 'become' the pathway of 27), then at Pine Knot east on Ky. 92, which rule b keeps us on to #30 right onto U.S. 25E through Pineville and Cumberland Gap (where we can't go left on U.S. 58, because [Named Highway def.] 58 ends where its type of road ends, at limited-access highway) to rule d ahead at Tazewell to the eastern map section, then rule c east at "Clinch Mtn." through Kingsport (S.I. A's last paragraph keeps us off its map) to #31 left on U.S. 58 near Bristol, then right on Va. 65 (I-17), then, at map edge after Va. 72, B.R. 3/b sends us back to the Virginia map on p.106, where soon we go through Dungannon.


a) Bluefields

After #33 we cross county boundary, so #34 is west on Va. 42, then at county seatBland #35 is right at U.S. 52 (just before interchange 52; a tunnel is nearby to the south) onto U.S. 52 itself, then rule d is west onto gray other road at interchange after Rocky Gap, then #35 ends left on U.S. 19 in West Virginia (rule a, and canceling S.I. A), then immediately we see two towns each named Bluefield, hence plural Bluefields.


d) 4

#36 is northwest onto Va. 80 at Rosedale, then left on Va. 80 two junctions later (rule a) toward Honaker, then #37 is southwest on Ky. 197, then #38 is right on U.S. 23 at Jenkins, then southeast on U.S. 460, then we cross Levisa Fk. to #39 right on other through highway, then left at Ky. 197, then right on Va. 80 at Breaks (rule a), then we see Breaks Interstate Pk., then Va. 80 takes us to #40 southwest on Interstate 81 after Meadowview, then B.R. 4/a takes us to the Kingsport map (we ended #35 in West Virginia, so S.I. A is done) to see Interstate 381 and then Interstate 26 just before ending #40.


b) 1

#44 ends east at East Lynn, then, after #45, #46 is left on West Virginia 3, then we stop at Hamlin, then continue, then immediately end #46 south onto gray road toward Sias because we're in West Virginia (B.R. 3/e), then #47 is right on West Virginia 3 at Alkol, then south on U.S. 119, then we see town Lenore before #48 toward Chattaroy.


d) watercourse named by Indians more than 100 years before city's incorporation

Namesake War Creek was named by Indians about 1788; city was incorporated in 1920.

Source: City website at

Leg 8 Answer * War, West Virginia, to the Statue of Liberty *


c) 2

We weren't placed 'on' W.Va. 16 by an Action at a junction in West Virginia, so, after rule d onto principal highway toward Welch, rule c at Welch keeps us upon principal highway southeast to #2 on I-77 after Bluefield, then we see interchange 54 after having seen town Odd near interchange 28; near Beckley we see Exh. Coal Mine.



a) yes


The campsite Seneca Shadows, hence shadows (B.R.s 3/e & 3/f), is near the junction of W.Va. 28 & W.Va. 55 at Seneca Rocks. #5 is east on W.Va. 55 in Nicholas Co., then #6 (rule a over rule b) is east on W.Va. 55 at Fenwick, then rule b keeps us on 55 to #7 left on W.Va. 42 in Grant Co., then #7 ends right on U.S. 50 at Mount Storm, then #8 is left on W.Va. 29 after Augusta, then #9 is right on W.Va. 9 [9 and 51 are the only numbered highways in W.Va. that lead to the Shenandoah] before Paw Paw, then rule b keeps us on 9 to the Shenandoah River near Mannings: total 55 + 55 + 42 + 50 + 29 + 9 = 240. [The course would work with #6 on W.Va. 39 or #7 on W.Va. 28, but for a lower total; it could connect for awhile via W.Va. 92, but that would take us out of W.Va. when on U.S. 50.]


b) Pool

On p. 46 during #10, rule c at Va. 7 interchange sends us southwest to stay upon otherthrough highway through Purcellville to end #10 northeast on U.S. 340, which rule b keeps us on through interchange 15 on Frederick map, then 340 ends at interchange 16, where rule d sends us ahead onto other through highway to #11 left on Md. 144 (product is 16), then we stop when we see Waterford Pk., then continue, then we must consider 144 to end at Baltimore Nat'l Pike (B.R. 3/c and Named Highway def.), so rule d keeps us going onto Pike, then rule c is up U.S. 40 to rule d onto I-70 at interchange 48, then rules c and d keep us upon I-70 [Md. 144 exists on the Hagerstown map too, but we never can continue on 144 there] to #12 right on U.S. 40 at interchange 9, then we see nearby town Big Pool first.


c) Mills

After #14 on the Gettysburg map on p. 87, #15 is not on Pa. 34 (Named Highway def.: 34 ends where its road type ends at principal highway; ahead is BR 15) but back on the state map right on Pa. 234 after Hilltown, then rule b keeps us on 234 through Biglerville, seeing town Center Mills before #16 south on U.S. 15 after Heidlersburg.


b) Pillow

#19 put us 'onto' Pa. 147, not 'on' it, so rule c keeps us upon principal highway east at Millersburg to #20 northeast on Pa. 25, then #21 is north on Pa. 225 at Berrysburg and through town Pillow on the way to end #21 at Shamokin.


b) 1

#23 is when we go to the Allentown map, then #24 is when we go to the New York City map at J-1 on p. 72 [before interchange 40 – the position of the first point on p. 72 is what counts for B.R. 3/a, not the position of the gray outline on p. 66], so #25 is right onto Watchung Rd. at interchange 40 on p. 72, then we travel with rules c and d to see "Union Co." in Plainfield before ending #25 northeast on U.S. 1 through Bonhamtown.


c) 2

#26's first opportunity is U.S. 9, then its second is southeast on N.J. 35 to #27 east on N.J. 440 at N.J. 184, then we see Outerbridge Crossing and can't turn on Arthur Kill before Toll (B.R. 3/g) and don't stay on N.Y. 440 at interchange 2 (#27 placed us on N.J. 440, not N.Y. 440), so we continue ahead and see Foster Rd. before #28 northwest onto Arthur Kill Rd. at Richmond Av.