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HAM DNA Group #1

  ANCESTRAL Y-SEARCH Study for the HAM Surname DNA Project

This Group has been tested as I1a

    GOAL:   To determine the possible ancestral origins for the HAM DNA Group #1.

Date:      January  14,  2007



GOAL:    
To determine the possible ancestral origins for the HAM DNA Group #1.

PROCEDURE
      
Step 1:  Obtain Genetic Distance for Group #1, as given from Dean McGee's Utility:
      
Step 2:  Determine the ancestral haplotype for the group by use of Genetic Distance sums.
      
Step 3:  Deduce the Ancestral Haplotype by study of the changing (or mutating) markers for the Group.
      
Step 4:  Graph out the Ancestral Haplotype using PHYLIP to verify the age by comparison to the Group.
      
Step 5:  Search the YSEARCH Database (www.ysearch.org) for matches to this "Ancestral" Haplotype:

The results:    Group #1 Ancestral DNA Distribution (matches) throughout Europe

        Group #1 matches in England
        Group #1 matches in Ireland
        Group #1 matches in Scotland
        Group #1 matches in Germany
        Group #1 matches in Sweden
        Group #1 matches in Norway
        Group #1 matches in Denmark


The HAM DNA Group 1 Ancestral output from Dean McGee's Utility


                                                                                                          Group 001

GOAL:  

    To determine the possible ancestral origins for the HAM DNA Group #1.


PROCEDURE:


    1) Run Dean McGee's Utility to determine the Genetic Distance for the Group.
    2) Determine the ancestral haplotype for the group by use of Genetic Distance sums.
         The largest sums for the most markers tested should indicate the most ancestral haplotype(s).
    3) Deduce the Ancestral Haplotype by study of the changing (or mutating) markers for the Group.
    4) Graph out the Ancestral Haplotype using PHYLIP to verify the age by comparison to the Group.
    5) Search the Y-Search database for matches to the ancestral haplotype.
         - From this search, report out the percentage matches that do not exist in the US.

(Also see Marvin Hamm's web site for Y-Search results for a more recent time line.)

I believe these results could then be used to provide some direction for locating ancestors in future research.


Step 1:  Obtain Genetic Distance for Group #1, as given from Dean McGee's Utility:



Group #1 Genetic Distance SUMS:
ID4
0
7
7
7

W
m
V
A
6
8
1
4
0

W
m
V
A
5
8
5
5
9

W
m
V
A
7
0
4
5
0

W
m
V
A
2
1
5
5
4

A
r
t
h
4
2
3
7
0

W
m
N
C
4
6
2
4
6

G
e
o
r
5
5
3
3
0

W
m
N
C
2
7
8
1
4

V
a
l
n
40777 WmVA 67012034212
68140 WmVA 03712034212
58559 WmVA 11371045211
70450 WmVA 22137156312
21554 Arth 0001122121
42370 WmNC 33452673014
46246 Geor 44561337113
55330 WmNC 2223201123
27814 Valn 1212111211413337
SUM:
24
24
25
32
 7
34
37
15
78

Related Probably Related Possibly Related
FTDNA's Interpreting Genetic Distance for 12 Markers
FTDNA's Interpreting Genetic Distance for 25 Markers
FTDNA's Interpreting Genetic Distance for 37 Markers
- Infinite allele mutation model is used
- Values on the diagonal indicate number of markers tested


Step 2:  Determine the ancestral haplotype for the group by use of Genetic Distance sums.

Sorting the SUMS per participant in Group #2:


  Participant                       SUM     # of markers

27814  Valentine GE          78             37
46246  George  EN            37             37
42370  William  NC             34             67
70450  William  VA              32             37
58559  William  VA              25             37
40777  William  VA              24             67
68140  William  VA              24             37
55330  William  NC             15             12
21554  Arthur   WV               7             12


The largest sums should indicate the most genetically distant, and therefore the further back in time it takes to reach the Most Recent Common Ancestor.  Kit #27814 is actually Group #5, and relates to Group #1 some 1,500 years ago. We want something more recent than 1,500 years ago, so we want to find an Ancestral Haplotype somewhere between 27814 and the rest of Group #1. Preferably, closer to
Group #1 than to 27814 for this study.

Kits 
27814, 46246, 42370, and 70450 have the largest sums for Genetic Distance, which I am using as a definition for the term "Ancestral."

27814, 46246, 42370, and 70450 have at least 37 markers tested, which should be sufficient to examine for the Ancestral Haplotype.


Step 3:  Deduce the Ancestral Haplotype by study of the changing (or mutating) markers for the Group.

    We have the most ancient for the group, as determined by the sums from the Genetic Distance columns.
 Now, our task is to determine what the Ancestral haplotype should look like by comparing the mutating markers for these individuals.


 GROUP 1

  
 
               
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
 
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
2
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
0
G
A
T
A
H
4
Y
C
A
II
a
Y
C
A
II
b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y
 a 
 C
 D
 Y
 b 
 4
 4
 2
4
3
8

27814
Valentine HAMME (1723-1766 Elseheim, Germany) 13
22
14
10
13
15
11
14
11
14
11
30
15
8
9
8
11
23
16
20
30
12
14
14
16
10
10
17
21
16
15
17
20
34
37
12
10


46246
George  HAM, ( 1760 England -  ) 13
22
14
10
13
14
11
14
11
13
11
29
14
8 9 11
11
23
16
20
27
12
14
14
16
11
10
19
21
14
14 16
20
35
36
11
10


42370
William J. HAM ( 1819 NC - 1890 AL ) 13
22
15
10
13 14
11
14
11
13
11
29
14
8
9 8
11
23
16
20
27
12
14
15
16
11
10
19
21
14
14
16
20
35
36
11
10



70450
William HAM ( est 1755 - 1813 VA )
13
22
14
10
13
14
11
14
12
14
11
30
14
8
9 8
11
23
16
20
27
12
14
15
16
11
10
19
21
14
14
16
20
36
37
11
10




Out of the first 37 markers, the markers that are mutating for 46246, 42370, and 70450 (indicated with a cyan background) are:

The Mutating markers for these more distance kits:    

DYS19         DYS439       DYS389i     
DYS389ii       DYS455    DYS464c   CDYa        CDYb

Kit #
DYS19
DYS439
DYS389i
DYS389ii
DYS455
DYS464c
CDYa
CDYb
27814
14
11
14
 30
 8
14
34
37
46246
14
11
13
 29
11
14
35
36
42370
15
11
13
 29
8
15
35
36
70450
14
12
14
 30
8
15
36
37










In order to determine our Ancestral Haplotype, we will use what is most different for these three individuals and work our way up to 43250 (white background).  That is, we want to look for the markers that are different from the three colored in GREEN here.  We want to work toward the values for 27814, but keep in mind that we want to stay closer to the individuals with the green background.

First we can see that DYS19 is NOT mutating for 27814, but is only changing for one individual in green. We will use that value of "15" for DYS19 in our Ancestral Haplotype.
Next, we will select the value of 12 for DYS439, and so on.

Taking the values that are different for each of the rest of the mutating markers (cyan, above), then becomes:

                     
ANCESTRAL:           

           DYS19     = 15
           DYS439   = 12
           DYS389i  = 14
           DYS389ii = 30
           DYS455   = 11
           DYS464c  = 14
           CDYa   =  36
           CDYb   =  37

The rest of the markers will be taken from Group #1 (in GREEN).  That is, the remaining Ancestral Haplotype will then consist of the same values as the non-mutating markers for these three individuals in GREEN, since we want something closer to the individuals in GREEN.

ANCESTRAL     13    22    15    10    13    14    11    14    12    14    11    30    14    8    9   11    11    23    16    20   27    12    14    14    16    11    10    19    21    14    14    16    20    36    37    11    10


Step  4:    Graph out the Ancestral Haplotype using PHYLIP to verify the age by comparison to the Group.

Input data for
Dean McGee's Utility for Group #1 with the inclusion of the ANCESTRAL Haplotype:

ANCESTRAL     13    22    15    10    13    14    11    14    12    14    11    30    14    8    9    11    11    23    16    20    27    12    14    14    16    11    10    19    21    14    14    16    20    36    37    11    10
40777 WmVA    13    22    14    10    13    14    11    14    11    14    11    30    14    8    9    8    11    23    16    20    27    12    14    15    16    11    10    19    21    14    14    16    20    36    36    11    10    11    8    15    16    9    11    10    8    9    9     12    22    25    14    10    12    12    14    8    12    25    20    13    13    11    12    11    11    12    11
68140 WmVA    13    22    14    10    13    14    11    14    11    14    11    30    14    8    9    8    11    23    16    20    27    12    14    15    16    11    10    19    21    14    14    16    20    36    36    11    10
58559 WmVA    13    22    14    10    13    14    11    14    11    14    11    30    14    8    9    8    11    23    16    20    27    12    14    15    16    11    10    19    21    14    14    16    20    36    37    11    10
70450 WmVA    13    22    14    10    13    14    11    14    12    14    11    30    14    8    9    8    11    23    16    20    27    12    14    15    16    11    10    19    21    14    14    16    20    36    37    11    10
21554 Arth    13    22    14    10    13    14    11    14    11    14    11    30
42370 WmNC    13    22    15    10    13    14    11    14    11    13    11    29    14    8    9    8    11    23    16    20    27    12    14    15    16    11    10    19    21    14    14    16    20    35    36    11    10     11    8    15    16    9    11    10    8    9    9    12    22    25    14    10    12    12    14     8    12    25    20    13    13    11    12    11    11    12    11
46246 Geor    13    22    14    10    13    14    11    14    11    13    11    29    14    8    9    11    11    23    16    20    27    12    14    14    16    11    10    19    21    14    14    16    20    35    36    11    10
55330 WmNC    13    22    15    10    13    14    11    14    11    13    11    29
27814 Valn    13    22    14    10    13    15    11    14    11    14    11    30    15    8    9    8    11    23    16    20    30    12    14    14    16    10    10    17    21    16    15    17    20    34    37    12    10




After running Dean McGee's Utility for Group #1 with the inclusion of the ANCESTRAL Haplotype, the PHYLIP compatible TMRCA table comes to:

10
 ANCESTRAL 0 700 700 600 500 1800 800 700 1800 1600
40777_WmVA 700 0 200 325 400 775 375 600 1800 1475
68140_WmVA 700 200 0 325 400 775 500 600 1800 1475
58559_WmVA 600 325 325 0 325 775 600 700 1800 1350
70450_WmVA 500 400 400 325 0 1300 700 800 2350 1475
21554_Arth 1800 775 775 775 1300 0 1800 1300 1800 1300
42370_WmNC 800 375 500 600 700 1800 0 500 775 1725
46246_Geor 700 600 600 700 800 1300 500 0 1300 1600
55330_WmNC 1800 1800 1800 1800 2350 1800 775 1300 0 2350
27814_Valn 1600 1475 1475 1350 1475 1300 1725 1600 2350 0


And the resulting Graph looks like a reasonable choice for the Ancestral Haplotype:

HAM DNA Group01 Ancestral Haplotype Group

The "ANCESTRAL" location looks very similar to kit 46246, and only perhaps a generation out from 46246. 
(That is, if you didn't want to go through this Ancestral procedure, then 46246 would have been sufficient, as it is the most ancient.)

Kits 21554 and 55330 only tested for 12 markers, whereas the rest of the group have tested for more markers. They have not really tested enough markers yet to be included in the preparation.  It is OK that
21554 and 55330 appears to be more ancient here, as their chart will change if they test for more markers.

This should be far enough back in time, we wanted something close to the groups, yet not as old as 27814.

Having a suitable Ancestral Haplotype, now use it for the Y-Search for matches to the Ancestral Haplotype.



Step 5:

    Search the YSEARCH Database (www.ysearch.org) for matches to this "Ancestral" Haplotype:

ANCESTRAL     13    22    15    10    13    14    11    14    12    14    11    30    14    8    9   11    11    23    16    20   27    12    14    14    16    11    10    19    21    14    14    16    20    36    37    11    10


In effect, we are looking for the location to match this Group #1 some 700 years ago.

Matching entered genetic markers on at least 37 markers, allowing a genetic distance of 1 per marker matched above 15
I am looking for about 1500 matches, in an effort to improve the statistics.

This Y-Search on the "Ancestral" Haplotype, and got a search that yielded 1473 matches, using this search:

http://www.ysearch.org/search_results.asp?uid=&freeentry=true&L1=13&L2=22&L3=15&L4=0&L5=10&L6=13&L7=14&L8=11&L9=14&L10=12&L11=14&L12=11&L13=30&L14=14&L15=8&L16=9&L17=11&L18=11&L19=23&L20=16&L21=20&L22=27&L23=12&L24=14&L25=14&L26=16&L27=0&L28=0&L29=0&L30=11&L31=10&L32=19&L33=21&L34=14&L35=14&L36=16&L37=20&L38=36&L39=37&L40=11&L41=10&L54=0&L55=0&L56=0&L57=0&L58=0&L59=0&L60=0&L61=0&L62=0&L63=0&L42=0&L64=0&L65=0&L66=0&L67=0&L68=0&L69=0&L70=0&L71=0&L49=0&L72=0&L73=0&L51=0&L74=0&L75=0&L76=0&L77=0&L78=0&L79=0&L80=0&L43=0&L44=0&L45=0&L46=0&L47=0&L48=0&L50=0&L52=0&L53=0&L81=0&L82=0&L83=0&L84=0&L85=0&L86=0&L87=0&L88=0&L89=0&L90=0&L91=0&L92=0&L93=0&L94=0&L95=0&L96=0&L97=0&L98=0&L99=0&L100=0&min_markers=8&mismatches_max=0&mismatch_type=sliding&mismatches_sliding_starting_marker=15&haplo=&region=


I then searched through these matches for all of the "known" and NON-USA matches, and tallied up the totals (669 were non-USA), then worked out percentages of where this "Ancestral" Haplotype should be found in the world.

(Also see
Marvin Hamm's web site for Y-Search results for a more recent time line.)

The results:

Group #1 Ancestral DNA Distribution (matches) throughout Europe

1473 matches obtained.


669 returned a Country other than the US or "unknown"

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

England        261           39.0 %
Ireland             97           14.5 %
Scotland         96           14.4 %
Germany         59             8.8 %
Sweden           32             5.9 %
Norway           19              4.8 %
Denmark         18              2.7 %
France             14              2.1 %
Switzerland    10              1.5 %
Wales               10               1.5 %
Canada              8              1.2 %
Netherlands     8              1.2 %
Italy                    6               0.9 %
Spain                 5               0.8 %
                     ---------
                       643

OTHER (less than 1 % each):        26

Finland          4
Belgium         3
Poland           3
Austria           2
Lithuania       2
Nevis              2
Puerto Rico   2
Barbados      1
Belarus          1
Cuba              1
Jamaica         1
Romania       1
Russia           1
Slovakia        1
Ukraine         1



Presuming that we could determine something from these totals, I would guess that this group should be found mostly in England, with smaller portions from Ireland and Scotland. It would appear that they should be twice as likely to be from England than from either Ireland or Scotland, and over 4 times as likely to be from England than from Germany.

The problem that I am observing is the Genetic Distance, which appears to be larger than I would have wanted it to be. (Given the current search options from YSearch, I did not permit more than one mutation per marker, in an attempt to obtain some meaningful results. ) It has occurred to me that the search may have to be repeated or corrected.

Therefore, I did repeat the search (as a reality check) with a return of 1011 matches, which gave about the same percentages.

Very similar results as Group #2 (R1b1c as opposed to I1a), until the list falls below England, Ireland, Scotland, and Germany.
 
At the moment, our of Group #1, kit 46246 claims descent from England. Similar to Group #1 is kit #27814 (in Group #5), who claims descent from Elseheim, Germany.

More differences from Group #2 appear when the distribution is listed within each country (below).

It is interesting that for these countries, many give city or county locations.  It is almost as if I could see how many locations are in common for the majority matching in England, Ireland, or Scotland, for example.


ENGLAND:

From the totals that I have for England, and without going to very much trouble of attempting to determine the name of the County for the cities, I get a rough account of the results that look something like this:

Yorkshire                    11
London                         9   
Crewkerne                    9
Lancashire                   7
Cornwall                       6
Staffordshire               6
Herfordshire                6
Essex                            5
Northampton               5
Dorset                           4
Kent                               4
Leicestershire             4
Oxfordshire                 4
Berkshire                      3
Norfolk                          3
Isle of Man                    3
Sussex                          3
Devonshire                  2
Gloucestershire          2
Redditch                      2
Kingston, Somerset    2
Northumberland         2
Cumbria                        2

others (one each):            18

So, it is apparent that from the locations in England, the most likely locations of origin should be closely matched by Yorkshire, followed next by London, Crewkerne, Lancashire, Cornwall, and so on.  Group #1 appears to be distributed widely in England among at least the top 6 or 7 locations.  You can find a map of English Shires from the 10th century at:
 http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/shepherd_1911/shepherd-c-060.jpg
IRELAND:

From the results for Ireland, the obvious appears to be Northern Ireland.  Antrim and Ulster having the largest totals.

The totals as I have them:

Northern Ireland             12
Antrim            6
Ulster             6
Dublin            2
Lanarkshire  2
Waterford      2

Notice that the totals for Northern Ireland match what we might expect from Yorkshire.

SCOTLAND:

The totals as I have them for Scotland:

Shetland Isles   9
Lanarkshire       5
Aberdeen           3
Fife                       2
Glasgow             2
Hamilton             2

Notice that the Shetland Islands nearly match the totals from Yorkshire and London as well.

GERMANY

Prussia                          4
Alsace-Lorraine           3
Baden-Wurttenberg    2
Westphalia                    2

-----------------------------------------
SWEDEN

Ostergotland            4
Halland lan                3
Skaraborgs län        3
Stockholm                3

-----------------------------------------
NORWAY

Friedrikstad      3

-----------------------------------------
DENMARK

Aarhus               2
Randers Amt    2

-----------------------------------------
FRANCE

Lorraine        2


Also see Marvin Hamm's web site for Y-Search results for a more recent time line.


 - Dave Hamm    Jan 14th, 2007