Appendix A: Summary of the Mariner Program Missions
|2 (II)||Venus||1962||First successful encounter with another planet|
|3 (III)||Mars||1964||Failed - shroud did not open|
|4 (IV)||Mars||1964-65||First successful flyby of Mars|
|8||Mars||1971||Orbiter - failed|
Appendix B: Mariner IV Science Instruments
|Triaxial Helium Vapor (Proton Precession) Magnetometer||Resolution 0.35 gamma.|
|Plasma Probe||Flux density 5 x 105 to 2 x 109 and energy 30 ev to 10 kev, to measure the solar wind.|
|Trapped Radiation Detector||Electrons > 40 kev and protons >0.5 mev, to detect trapped radiation similar to Earth's Van Allen belts.|
|Cosmic Dust Detector||Momentum and quantity of micrometeoric particles.|
|Ion Chamber||Electrons > 500 kev and protons > 10mev|
|Cosmic Ray Telescope||Flux and energy of of alpha particles and protons from outer space.|
|Television Camera||20 images, one per minute, 40,000 elements per picture|
In addition there was to be an ultraviolet photometer, which wasn't completed in time for the mission. It was replaced by the non-functioning MESS (Mechanical and Electrical Subassembly Simulator Subsystem) which took the place of its electronics package and SPITS (Scan Platform Inertial and Thermal Simulator) which took the sensor's place on the scan platform, so as not to unbalance it mechanically or thermally.
Appendix C: DSIF Stations
During the Mariner IV mission, various receiving/transmitting stations were spaced about the Earth, so as to continually monitor the spacecraft. The set of DSIF (Deep Space Instrumentation Facilities) comprised the DSN (Deep Space Network). The primary locations used during our mission were DSIF 11, 41 and 51.
|11||Goldstone, California, "Pioneer" site.|
|12||Goldstone, California, "Echo" site.|
|13||Goldstone, California, "Venus" site.|
|14||Goldstone, California, "Mars" site.|
|42||Tidbinbilla (Canberra), Australia|
|51||Johannesburg ("Joburg"), South Africa|
|71||Cape Kennedy (Canaveral), Florida.|
Appendix D: Links
Piotr Masek's excellent Mariner site. A detailed description of the various experiments, instruments and their data, plus interpretation of significant cruise events in graphical form, extracted from original data. Also included are images from Mariners 6, 7, 9 and 10.
Models of Planetary Motions through the ages. Excellent animations depicting retrograde motion.
Hartmut Frommert's Mars page. Links to a large number of Mars-related sites.
NASA's Odyssey Mission home page. Odyssey started gathering data in February, 2002. The site features a "picture of the day" image.
Life on Mars, a bibliography of papers on the Viking lander experiments.
Early observations of Mars.
The Mariner missions (NASA document).
Mariner IV mission (NASA document).
The Viking life detection experiments (NASA).
On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet 1958-1978
Images taken by Mariner IV
Mars, by Percival Lowell, 1895 (Full text)
Mars Timeline, A list of all expeditions to Mars, including country. Brief description of hardware and mission results.
War of the Worlds, text of H. G. Wells' 1895 story of Martian invasion.
War of the Worlds, Orson Welles' radio broadcast of 1938, streaming audio (1 hour).
Gary Agranat's Astronomy page. Large list of links to the planets, space missions, etc.
Mars Pathfinder official page (JPL).
Mars Global Surveyor official page (JPL).
The Whole Mars Catalog Many links to Mars sites.
Appendix E: Further Reading
Note: Pay particular attention to release dates,
particularly if it is post- or pre-breakup of the U.S.S.R., where a co-operative
mission is discussed. Also, so much more has been discovered since their
Books of particular interest are marked "*".
Books of particular interest are marked "*".
Brandenburg, John E., Dead Mars, Dying Earth, The Crossing Press, Freedom, CA, 1999. A rather apocalyptic view of Earth's future if we don't stop burning fossil fuels. The author implies that Mars once had an ancient civilization (evidence: Cydonia "face") that was destroyed by a meteorite. Some good points about Earth's ecology, but overall, somewhat confusing.
Carr, Michael H., Water on Mars, Oxford University Press, New York, 1996. A thorough study of the possibility of water on Mars, and its effects on surface topology and the possibility of life on the planet. Profusely illustrated, with numerous graphs. Not for the casual reader, a knowledge of mathematics and physics is required. The author suggests mass wasting as opposed to fluvial erosion as an explanation for some of the "river valleys".
Cattermole, Peter, Mars, the Story of the Red Planet, Chapman & Hall, London, 1992. An exhaustive study of the various features on Mars, with their probable causes. Heavily illustrated and highly technical. For readers not bothered by terms such as "phreatomagmatic".
Collins, Michael, Mission to Mars: An Astronautís
Vision of our Future in Space, Grove Weidenfield, New York, 1990.
Collins, Gemini 10 pilot in 1966 and command module pilot of
moon-landing Apollo II, discusses the pitfalls and possibilities of a
manned mission to Mars, including costs, hazards, medical effects, various
mission profiles and the possibility of terraforming. Includes well-done tale of
a fictional manned lander to Mars. Stresses co-operation with Russia, but was
written before the USSR breakup and fiscal woes.
Corrick, James A., Mars, Franklin Watts, New York,
1991. Primarily focused on speculation of Marsí
astrogeology and climate. Interesting capsule summaries of Mars-oriented science
fiction. Easy reading.
Godwin, Robert (Editor), Mars -The NASA Mission Reports, Apogee Books, Burlington, Ont., Canada, 2000. A compilation of official NASA reports on Mars missions from Mariner IV through the Polar Lander. Included is a CD with numerous mpeg movies and images. (available from Amazon.com)
Goldsmith, Donald, The Hunt for Life on Mars, Dutton (Penguin) New York, 1997. The tale of ALH84001, a meteorite found in the Antarctic, which caused a sensation when it was shown to contain small tubelike constructs. Fossils or structures formed chemically? This exhaustive study of both possibilities shows that no conclusions can be drawn at this time.
*Ezell, Edward Clinton and Linda Neuman, NASA History Series, Washington, 1984. An official NASA history of the Viking program. Not easy reading, but an extremely detailed account of the difficulties, budgetary constraints, inter-service rivalries and interpersonal conflicts that beset the program. A good example of why space exploration programs and politics don't mix.
Ley, Willy, Mariner IV to Mars, New American Library (Signet), New York, 1966. Quite a bit about Mars, but only one chapter on Mariner IV. It is rather surprising that the author should still hold fast to his convictions about canals and vegetation, considering the images received.
**Raeburn, Paul, Uncovering the Secrets of the Red Planet: Mars, National Geographic Society, Washington, 1998. Magnificent pictures, some measuring 12" by 33", in 3-D (special viewers provided) highlight this "coffee table" book. Ground views from the pathfinder lander and orbiters of various Martian features are accompanied by explanatory text. Problems besetting missions are also discussed. Highly recommended!
Shehan, William, The Planet Mars, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1996. A thorough study of observers and their observations of the red planet over the centuries, including a summary of what was known or surmised at the time of publication. A talented amateur observer of Mars, Shehan offers tips for observing the planet.
*____ and O'Meara, Stephen James, Mars, The Lure of the Red Planet, Promethus Books, Amherst, New York, 2001. An excellent account of the history of Mars observation through the ages, with a description of surface features and how they may have been formed. Speculation on Martian life, present and past.
Walter, Malcolm, The Search for Life on Mars, Perseus Books, Cambridge MA, 1999. Not for the casual reader, the chemistry of life on Earth, and how it may have come about, are discussed in detail. The possibility of life, either extant or extinct, on Mars is studied as are techniques for either proving or disproving it.
Wilford, John Noble, Mars Beckons, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1990. A good summary of Mars missions and what we know about the planet. The Russian space program is summarized, and great hopes for a US-USSR joint missions suggested. The effect of politics (mostly negative) on attemps to reach Mars.*Zubrin, Robert, The Case for Mars, The Free Press, New York, 1996. A proposal to send a manned mission to Mars in 10 years for $20 billion. This approach relies on manufacturing fuel on the planet and developing closed life support systems. Discussion of methods, including mathematics and chemistry of systems that exist already. It assumes that adequate supplies of water will be found on Mars.
Appendix F: Activist Mars SocietiesNational Space Society, A society with 22,000 members "dedicated to creation of spacefaring civilization".
Planetary Society, Founded in 1986 by Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman "to encourage exploration of our solar system and the search for extraterrestrial life", they have 100,000 members worldwide.
SETI Institute( Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) "The mission of the SETI Institute is to explore, understand and explain the origin, nature, prevalence and distribution of life in the universe". They also run Seti@home, a program which links home computers to analyze signals from outer space. In my personal experience, their tech support is nonexistent.
Space Frontier Foundation "The Foundation believes the settlement of space is our human destiny, and is working to assure that any NASA Mars program is designed to support that goal from day one."
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