Note: This bibliography is one of a ten-part series of articles on Enigma, "Purple", "Magic", and the large part cryptography played in World War II. The series of articles originally appeared in Nautical Brass magazine, now no longer in print, but on the Web as Nautical Brass On-Line.
Questions? Comments? Email us at:
To see why we made it difficult to contact us click on the explanation. The articles are archived at the National Cryptologic Museum, Fort George G. Meade, Maryland, (301) 688-5489. The museum also has hands-on working enigma machines and cryptography exhibits. The articles may also be viewed at the Bletchley Park Museum in England.
La Coupole, open to the public, is the site of a German V2 launch facility, a giant dome 236 ft (72 m) in diameter, constructed of 18 ft (5.5 m) thick concrete, weighing 61,000tons (55,000 tonnes). The museum, at Saint-Omer, near Pas-de-Calais, has numerous programs and displays, including 4 miles (7 km) of underground passages to be explored, and displays of the manned landing on the Moon and life in occupied France. Fortunately, the launch complex was completed too late in the war to be used.
LINKS TO WEBSITES
Dirk Rijmenats' Enigma Cipher Challenge offers ten Enigma messages of increasing difficulty, which may be solved with any of the Enigma simulators (with some head-scratching).
Russell Schwager's Enigma simulator Enigma simulator applet.
Enigma Simulator by Dirk Rijmenats. Excellent realistic graphics. Allows for 3 or 4 rotor machines, thin, Beta and Gamma rotors, Steckers, etc. Received a best programming award.
Debbie Anderson's U. S. Navy's World War II Bombe project. Built by the National Cash Register Company's plant in Dayton, Ohio, this machine was vital in decoding German U-boat encrypted signals. Additional information on U.S. codebreaking operations, images and links.
Selling prices of Enigma and NEMA machines from 1994 to 1999, by David Hamer.
Camp X, excerpts and images from a book on intelligence organizations. Garat's Hay, a site dedicated to the Wireless Intercept Y Services. These were the men and women who, often in the face of great difficulty, plucked German coded messages off the airwaves. Without them, Bletchley Park would have had no raw intercepts to decode. A book has recently been published on the Beaumor wireless intercept station. For details see Beaumor.
"On Enigma and a Method for its Decryption", Harald Schmidl's very complete and well-written history and description of Enigma and the bombes. Enigma.c, his simulator, requires a c compiler.
POW - Behind Canadian Barbed Wire, (second edition) The stories of Canada's World Wars I and II prison camps including escape attempts, murders, trials and executions.
David Hamer's Enigma site,
with information about Enigma and other ciphering machines,
links, and downloadable simulators.
Andy Lauwers Enigma Simulator for Win95 & 3.1. Very nice graphic simulation of a three-rotor machine, with all parameters settable, including steckers.
Secrets of War, a 26 hour documentary series is airing on The History Channel (Sundays, 9 PM ET, 10 PM PT), and is slated for World-wide distribution at a later time. This is a must-see site, with links, information, literally hundreds of interviews with experts such as David Kahn, Józef Garlinski, Anthony Cave Brown (12 sessions!) and more. Transcripts of completed segments are posted on their site. Unfortunately, the series as aired on TV is sadly lacking, but the web site is highly recommended.
Bletchley Park web site, where the remarkable work of breaking the Axis codes took place during WWII. A tour of BP, images of equipment used, the current reconstruction of "Colossus" (the electronic computer used to break the codes) and more. Also links to cryptographic and World War II sites on the Web.
Enigma Resources, an excellent site, with many links to Enigma material.
Andy Carlson's Turing Bombe simulator, including Enigma info, and C++ source code for the bombe program.
Graphic Enigma simulators, available for downloading. Type in plaintext and watch the rotors move and the encode appear! Excellent! 3 programs: Enigma_w, Enigma22, and Enigma4j.
Carl Ellison's site, with various links to other cryptographic sites of interest. He has posted a puzzle page in which readers are invited to break the message keys, given data similar to that available to Rejewski.
National Cryptologic Museum web site. Images of the various exhibits on Enigma, Codetalkers, KGB exhibit, a Verdun Intercept Site, and more.
USS Pampanito, a WWII Balao class submarine. Extensive information, history and pictures of ECM (Electronic Cipher Machine) Mark II, known as SIGABA by the Army and CSP-888/889 by the Navy.
"The Enigma Machine" Mathematical description of Enigma, with diagrams.
The Alan Turing Home Page by Andrew Hodges, author of Alan Turing: The Enigma. A plethora of information about Turing, and many links to other places of interest.
Jerry Metzger's list of cryptography and Enigma links.
Honors Seminar in Cryptography, University of Illinois at Chicago. A number of papers on cryptography, Enigma, etc.
3-Rotor Enigma Encipherment Example, with rotor wiring and turnover notch locations identified.
World War II Resources, primary source materials on the Web, with links to sites covering many aspects of WWII, including Pearl Harbor.
ENIGMA97, a nice and compact Enigma simulator (including "double stepping") for windows. Kriegsmarine M4 simulator version to be posted soon.
" Enigma and the Turing Bombe", by Nik Shaylor. A lucid explanation of how the Turing Bomb and diagonal board operated. A simulator is available as an aplet, or as "C" source code.
Frode Weierud's Cryptology site, including links to Enigma, bombe, Tunny simulators, plus "Fish" and how the Swedes broke Geheimschreiber.
Virtual Enigma Aplet, with an explanation, history and links.
"The Enigma Cipher Machine, History of Solving", by Dr. Wladyslaw Kozaczuk. Unlike most sources cited here, which are written from the British point of view, it is refreshing to hear the Polish version.
Enigma links and photos (captioned, so you can download a particular view).
Paul Reuver's site, has a fully operational Enigma simulator written in RISC, including realistic graphics, sound, and simulations of all known models.
Savard's site with Enigma links, cryptology through the ages,
"Mèthode des Batons", Zygalski Sheets, Bombe, SIGABA, and more. Some material
not included on that site can be found at his
Cryptring, a "ring" which various cryptological sites may join.
Secret Code Breaker: A Cryptanalysts Handbook by Robert Reynard, a two volume set of books for the beginner, including computer programs on disk. Also available is a secret message kit. Makes an excellent child's gift. Order from the publisher.
Many thanks to Mike McDonald for pointing out some of these fine sites.
Sekret Enigmy (The Enigma Secret), directed by Roman Wionczek, 1979,
158 mins., color, Polish, with English subtitles. (Marian Rejewski was a
consultant on this motion picture, which displays the perforated sheets used
to determine the keys. This movie does more than tell the story of Enigma
and the Polish codebreakers, however. It is a poignant, thrilling and, at
times, frightening story of escape one step ahead of the Germans, detailing
the confusion and panic of an evacuation. Since the dialog is in Polish,
an English-speaking viewer can tell Americans, British, Germans and Poles apart
by paying careful attention to their uniforms. There is one puzzling sequence
that shows an Enigma lampboard lighting up without the keys being pressed;
somehow it must have made it past the technical consultants. Highly recommended.)
In England may be ordered over the Web from
Codebreakers, Nova Television Series. (If a picture tells a thousand words, a motion picture must tell tens of thousands. Cartoons trace electrical current flowing from the keyboard through the rotating scrambler, to emerge at the lampboard. Interviews with David Kahn and others. This one-hour program explores codebreaking from World War I and the Zimmerman telegram, through the end of World War II. The main emphasis is on the Japanese "Purple" code including William Friedman's construction of the machine which broke the code. How codebreaking shortened the war in both Atlantic and Pacific is explored. Highly recommended. The program airs on PBS from time to time, and is available from WGBH, 125 Western Ave., Boston MA 02134 (800) 255-9424 for $39.95 plus $3.95 shipping and handling.)
The Secret War, BBC Television Series. (Six episodes, two to a tape: "The Battle of the Beams" & "To See for a Hundred Miles"; "Terror Weapons" & "If ..."; "The Deadly Waves" & "Still Secret." (The last installment explores Enigma, but most of the segment is taken up by the painstaking dismantling of a magnetic mine. A less satisfying and somewhat unclear exposition of Enigma than "Codebreakers," partly because less time was devoted to it. Interviews with Gordon Welchman, Frederick Winterbotham and Prof. R. V. Jones. Brief coverage of "Fish," "Heath Robinson," and "Colossus".)
Aaseng, Nathan, Navajo Code Talkers, Walker, New York, 1992. (An overview of the Pacific campaign and the contribution to it by Navajo code talkers.)
Bacque, James, Other Losses, Prima Publishing, 1991. (Controversial account of maltreatment of German POW in American and French camps at the conclusion of World War II, which caused 1,000,000 or more deaths.)
Baldwin, Ralph B., The Deadly Fuze, Presidio Press, San Rafael, California, 1980. (An account of how the deadly proximity fuze was developed and manufactured by the Allies in WWII.)
Barak, Michael, (aka Michael Bar-Zohar), The Enigma, William Morrow, New York, 1978. (A fictional spy story, with references to Enigma. A strange mixture of truth and fantasy.)
Barnett, Correlli, Engage the Enemy More Closely, W. W. Norton, New York, 1991. (A comprehensive history of the Royal Navy in World War II. 1052 pages.)
Bar-Zohar, Michael: see Barak, Michael.
Beesly, Patrick, Very Special Intelligence, Doubleday, New York, 1978. (British Intelligence from 1939 to 1945, the use and misuse of intelligence with emphasis on the war at sea. Re-issued in 2000 with an excellent Afterword by Ralph Erskine outlining which British and German codes were broken and which were not.)
____, "Who Was the Third Man at Pyry?", Cryptologia, Vol. 11 #2, 65-77.
Bennett, Ralph, Ultra and Mediterranean Strategy, William Morrow, New York, 1980. (How the top brass used, misused or ignored Ultra, 1941- 1945.)
_____ Ultra in the West, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1979. (How Ultra was used from the Normandy landings to V-E Day. References in the margins tie the text to specific messages.)
Bertrand, Gustave, Enigma, Plon, Paris, 1973 (French text) (a rather self-serving account by Major Bertrand, who was the link between Asché and the Poles.)
Bloch, Gilbert, and Erskine, Ralph, "Enigma: The Dropping of the Double Encipherment", Cryptologia, July 1986, 97-118.)
Bixler, Margaret T., Winds of Freedom, Two Bytes Press, Darien, CT 1992. (More than an account of the World War II codetalkers, this book explores the Navajo culture.)
Botting, Douglas, The Seafarers, "The U-Boats," Time-Life Books, Alexandria, VA, 1979. (One in a series of books, this volume gives a good overview of submarine action in both World Wars.)
Bower, Tom, The Paperclip Conspiracy, Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1987. (How, after World War II, the Allies whitewashed the German scientists' Nazi backgrounds so they could be brought to the United States.)
Boyd, Carl, Hitler's Japanese Confidant, University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, 1993. (Unbeknownst to General Oshima Hiroshi, Japan's ambassador to Germany, his detailed reports of German strategy were being decoded by the Americans.)
Breuer, William, The Secret War with Germany, Presidio Press, Novato, CA, 1988. (Deception, espionage and dirty tricks in World War II. Passing references to Enigma are downright incorrect.)
Briggs, G. O., "WWII Japanese Balloon Bombs", The Noon Balloon, January 1994, 7. (This is a publication of The Naval Airship Association.)
Brown, Anthony Cave, Bodyguard of Lies, Harper & Row, New York, 1975. (The use of Ultra in the war of strategy, conspiracy and deception, including the story of the Schwarze Kapelle and the French Resistance. Note: this work was published in two versions; a single volume, and volumes I and II combined.)
____, Treason in the Blood, Houghton Mifflin, New York, 1994. (A fascinating, albeit somewhat tedious account of how Kim Philby, a Russian espionage agent, managed to operate in England's Secret Intelligence for 15 years.)
Budianski, Stephen, Battle of Wits: The Complete Story of Codebreaking in World War II, Free Press (Simon & Shuster), New York, 2000. (A very good, updated overview of the subject, with a thorough explanation of the codes used. Some bombe information details not found elsewhere, and details of the machines themselves.)
Calvocoressi, Peter, Top Secret Ultra, Cassell, London, 1980. (An
account by another BP participant. A good starting point, and easy reading.)
Carter, David, Behind Canadian Barbed Wire, Tumbleweed Press, Calgary, 1989. (German POWs imprisoned in Canada during World War II, with details of several executions, details of the camps, and personal vignettes. Illustrated.)
Casey, William, The Secret War Against Hitler, Regnery Gateway, Washington, 1988. (The story of OSS, fore-runner of the CIA; covert operations, bureaucratic wrangling, and dissension among factions. Casey was Director of the CIA.)
Clark, Ronald, The Man Who Broke Purple, Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1977. (A biography of William and Elizebeth Friedman, American premiere cryptanalysts.)
Coe, Lewis, The Telegraph, A History of Morse's Invention and its Predecessors in the United States, McGarland & Co., London, 1993, p. 67. (A biography of Samuel F. B. Morse, with particular attention to his work with the telegraph.
Costello, John, The Pacific War, Quill, New York, 1981. (An overview of war in the Pacific.)
Deacon, Richard, A History of the British Secret Service, Taplinger, New York, 1970. (An overview of Secret Service operations from the 16th through the Cold War.)
Deavours, Cipher A., Kahn, David, et. al., Cryptology: Machines, History & Methods, Artech House, 1989. (The second compilation of many articles from Cryptologia. Interviews with notable cryptologists, History, Analysis, Machines, and Ciphers. A great deal of interesting material.)
_____ Cryptology Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow, Artech House, 1987. (The first compilation of articles from Cryptologia, history, personalities, machines, mathematical approaches.)
_____ "La Methode des Batons", Cryptologia, Vol. IV #4, 240-247.
Deavours, Cipher A. and Kruh, Louis, Machine Cryptography and Modern Analysis, Artech House, 1985. (Rotor machines in general, and their solution. Includes material on Enigma, Japanese machines and the bombes.)
____, "The Turing Bombe: Was it Enough?", Cryptologia, XIV, #4, 331-349.
Denning, Dorothy S., "The Clipper Encryption System", The Science of Computing, July/August 1993, 319-323.
Dibner, Brent, "D-Day: Tugboat's Triumph", Tug Bitts, , Spring, 1944, 3-9.
Drea, Edward J., MacArthur's Ultra, University of Kansas Press, 1991. (The role of Ultra in the Pacific, with emphasis on MacArthur's use/misuse of this source of intelligence.)
Dull, Paul S., A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 1978. (A well-done and detailed account of Naval engagements in the Pacific.)
Enever, Ted, Britain's Best Kept Secret, (2nd ed) Alan Sutton, Dover NH, 1995. (History, physical description and tour of Bletchley Park as it is today. Minimal references to codebreaking, per se).
Epstein, Edward Jay, Deception: The Invisible War Between the KGB and the CIA, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1989. (Although primarily concerned with the post-WWII era, there is much useful information on disinformation techniques).
Erskine, Ralph, "Naval Enigma: An Astonishing Blunder", Intelligence and National Security, Vol. 11, No. 3, (July 1996), pp. 468-473.
Erskine, Ralph, "Churchill and the Start of the Ultra-Magic Deals",
Intelligence and Counterintelligence, X, #1, 1997, 57-74.
_____ and Weierud, Frode, "Naval Enigma: M4 and Its Rotors", Cryptologia, XI, #4, pp. 235-244.
Farago, Ladislas, The Broken Seal, Random House, New York, 1967. (Japanese diplomacy, codes and Magic, with special emphasis on the Pearl Harbor attack.)
Garlinski, Józef, The Enigma War, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1979. (An excellent narrative story of Enigma, spies, and intelligence from the Polish point of view. An appendix gives the mathematical methods used by the Poles to decipher Enigma messages.)
_____ Hitler's Last Weapons: The Underground War Against the V-1 and V-2,
Times Books, New York, 1978. (Reading almost like a novel, this is a complete
account of Hitler's vengeance weapons from the inside. Illustrated)
Gillogly, James J., "Ciphertext-only Cryptanalysis of Enigma", Cryptologia, XIX #4, 405-412. (No cribs needed! Applying the Index of Coincidence to recovering Enigma keys, with test run results on messages of different lengths.)
Haldane, R. A., The Hidden War, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1978. (An overview of intelligence in World War II. Light on physical details, and fuzzy understanding of Enigma.
Haines, William Wister, Ultra and the History of the United States Strategic Air Force in Europe vs. the German Air Force, Greenwood Press, Westport CT, 1980 (How Enigma messages reporting on German shortages of manpower and equipment were taken advantage of by the U.S. Air Force).
Hamer, David H., "Enigma: Actions Involved in the 'Double Stepping' of the Middle Rotor", Cryptologia, Vol. XXI, #1, 47-50.
____, Sullivan, Geoff, & Weierud, Frode, "Enigma Variations: an Extended Family of Machines", Cryptologia, Vol. XXII, 211-230.
Hansen, Peter, "Peter's Page" (column), KTB, various issues 1993-1994.
Harris, Robert, Enigma, Random House, New York, 1995. (Although a fictional novel, this story has been highly researched and, with the exception of two minor errors, can be relied on as a good description of Enigma. An exciting mystery/adventure story and a good description of the work done at Bletchley Park.)
Hayden, Edward L., "The Greatest Convoy Battle of All Time", Sea Classics, June 1993, 22-31.
Hinsley, F. H., and Stripp, Alan, (editors) Codebreakers, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1993. (A late-comer in the plethora of Ultra books, this work is a compilation of interviews with BP personnel. It is difficult to understand how the editors managed to conclude that Ultra was of little or no value in the Battle of Britain, the invasion threat, or the Blitz in view of the overwhelming evidence to the contrary from most other sources. A compilation of interviews with various codebreakers is its forte.)
Hodges, Andrew, Alan Turing: The Enigma, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1983. (A biography of the "Father of the Computer," including his work at BP.) The book was reprinted in 2000. Click here for more details.
Honan, William H., Visions of Infamy, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1991. (The story of Hector C. Bywater, naval strategist and journalist, who in the 1920s predicted the course of war in the Pacific during World War II with remarkable accuracy. Apparently Yamamoto based his plan for the attack on Pearl Harbor on this strategy.)
Holmes, W.J., Double-Edged Secret, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 1979. (U.S. Naval Intelligence operations in World War II, covering Pearl Harbor, Midway, Japanese aircraft carriers, American Anti-Submarine Warfare, and the downing of Yamamoto's plane.)
Hughes, Terry, and Costello, John, The Battle of the Atlantic, Dial Press, New York, 1977. (A good account of this part of the War, although there are several errors regarding Enigma.)
Hunt, Linda, Secret Agenda: The United States Government, Nazi Scientists, and Project Paperclip, 1945 to 1990, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1991. (In spite of President Truman's directive, Nazi scientists, some of whom had been convicted at Nuremburg, were smuggled into the United States, and their criminal activities expunged from the records.
Irving, David, The German Atomic Bomb, Simon & Schuster,
New York, 1967. (At the start of World War II the Germans were far
ahead of the Allies in nuclear research. This account of their activities
reveals the reasons for their failure to perfect atomic weapons.)
____, The Mare's Nest, Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1964. (An account of Hitler's secret vengeance weapons; V1, V2, the atom bomb, etc., and Allied countermeasures.)
____, The War Path: Hitler's Germany 1933-1939, Viking Press, New York, 1978. (Adolph Hitler's rise to power; how and why he dragged the world into another global conflict.)
Johnson, Brian, The Secret War, Methuen, New York, 1978. (An excellent account of the scientific weapons and countermeasures. Profusely illustrated, unlike most of the other sources. Highly recommended.)
Jones, R. V., Most Secret War, Hamish Hamilton, London, 1978. Also published as The Wizard War, Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, New York, 1978. (This should have been titled "The Battle of the Beams," an account of Knickebein, Woltan and Freya, the beams which guided German bombers and guided missiles to their targets and the British countermeasures which foiled their plans.)
____ Reflections on Intelligence, Heinemann, London, 1989. (A long postscript to Most Secret War, plus his post-war experiences. Of particular interest is how, through an incredible series of coincidences, and with the help of a yellow, pneumatically-activated toy monkey, he tracked down the author of the Oslo Report.)
Kahn, David, Seizing the Enigma, Houghton Miflin, Boston, 1991. (Emphasis on the Naval Enigma.)
____ The Codebreakers, Macmillan, New York, 1968 (A comprehensive account of cryptography through the ages. Well worth it if you can work your way through 1000 pages. This book was published in 1968, before Magic and Ultra were de-classified. A revised edition was printed in 1996, but is rather disappointing; there is very little about Enigma, and no details on how it was broken.)
____Hitler's Spies, Macmillan, New York, 1978 (From spies on a U-boat landing in Maine through inter-service rivalries, methods of
codebreaking, how the spies operated , through discounting intelligence
reports, a comprehensive analysis of the subject. 671 pages, including notes,
bibliography and index.
Kleiner, Kurt, "Engineer tries to Preserve Computer Privacy", Mother Jones, Jan/Feb 1994.
Körner, T. W., The Pleasures of Counting, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1996. (Seemingly an unlikely place to find Enigma material, this book on higher math for high school students has many applications related to Enigma and the bombes.)
Kozaczuk, Wladyslaw, Enigma (Original Polish title W kregu Enigmy), 1979, translated by Christopher Kasparek in 1984, University Publications of America, 1984. (From the horse's mouth - breaking Enigma, as related by the Poles who did it. Appendices by Marian Rejewski include his formulas and reasoning.)
Lewin, Ronald, The American Magic, Farrar Strauss Giroux, New York, 1982. (War in the Pacific, "Purple," Midway, the Japanese merchant ships, interservice rivalries, MacArthur's ego, and the delicate relationship between Japan and Russia.)
____ The Other Ultra, Hutchison, London, 1982. (Whereas "Magic" referred to the breaking of diplomatic messages enciphered on a "Purple" machine, "Ultra" included the many operational codes the Japanese used in the Pacific during World War II.)
____ Ultra Goes to War, McGraw Hill, New York, 1978. (Probably the best starting place, detailing the use of Ultra and its application to wartime operations.)
Loman, David D., MAGIC: The Untold Story of U.S. Intelligence and the Evacuation of Japanese Residents from the West Coast During WWII, Athena Press,2000. Each previously interned Japanese still alive in 1988 was eligible for $20,000.00 and an official apology from the U.S. government. The author demonstrates how MAGIC decodes show there was good reason to fear potential espionage and sabotage. More information at: Athena Press
Lord, Water, Lonely Vigil, Viking Press, New York, 1977 (The story of
the Coastwatchers of the Solomons, who effectively spied on the enemy, and
rescued many downed flyers. Fascinating, and easy reading.)
Magiera, Robert, "Privacy", New Media, April 1994, 65-68.
Mason, Herbert Molloy, Jr., The Rise of the Luftwaffe, Dial Press, New York, 1973. (The story of how the German Air Force was built up from 1918 to its strength prior to and during World War II, examining the effects that bureaucracy had on the machines, designers and production facilities. Easy reading.)
Mayer, Stefan, The Breaking up of the German Ciphering Machine "Enigma" by the Cryptological Section in the 2nd Department of the Polish Armed Forces General Staff, Pilsudski Institute, New York, May 1974, pp 1-19. (Primarily of historical significance, this article may have been the first to point out that Polish contributions to breaking Enigma were vastly understated by Bertrand and Winterbotham.)
Montagu, Ewen, The Man Who Never Was, J. B. Lipincott, New York, 1954. (The story of Operation Mincemeat's "Acting Major William Martin," how misinformation which deceived the Germans about the Allied Sicilian offensive was floated ashore on the Spanish coast. Easy reading.)
____ Beyond Top Secret Ultra, Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, New York, 1978. (Disinformation, and "turned" German spies (double agents) distributing misinformation to the Germans.)
Morison, Samuel Eliot, The Two-Ocean War, Little, Brown, Boston, 1963. (A condensation of his 15 volume History of the United States Navy in World War II.)
Neufeld, Michael J., The Rocket and the Reich: Peenemünde and the Coming of the Ballistic Missile Era, The Free Press, New York, 1995. The German V2 program, from interest in space flight in the 1920s through its development in World War II. Disorganization and inter-service rivalry slowed development until it was too little, too late.)
Okumiya, Masatake, and Horikoshi, Jiro, Zero!, E. P. Dutton, New
York, 1956. (More than the story of this famous fighter, whose performance
far outstripped that of any Allied plane in early World War II, this account
tells of war in the Pacific from the Japanese point of view,
and why they lost. Horikoshi designed the Zero fighter.)
Parrish, Thomas, The Ultra Americans, Stein & Day, New York, 1986. (Co-operation between British and American codebreakers, something never seen before among nations.)
Popov, Dusko, Spy Counterspy, Grosset & Dunlap, New York, 1974. (Autobiography of "Tricycle", a British/German double agent, who blames J. Edgar Hoover for the Pearl Harbor disaster. Easy reading.)
Prados, John, Combined Fleet Decoded, the Secret History of American Intelligence and the Japanese Navy in World War II, Random House, New York, 1995. (A very long-winded account of War in the Pacific, not very specific as to coding methods, but valuable for insights into the Japanese psyche and personalities.)
Prange, Gordon W., At Dawn We Slept, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981. (One of the more factual accounts of the Pearl Harbor attack, with much attention given to the psychology of the participants, both Japanese and American. The cause of the disaster was due to misinterpretation, indirection, and hubris on both sides of the fence.)
Pritchard, David, The Radar War, Patrick Stephens, 1989. (Very detailed technical descriptions of a great many types of German radar sets. Excellent photographs, and schematics.)
Rejewski, Marian, "How the Polish Mathematicians Deciphered the Enigma", Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 3, #3, July 1981, 213-234.
Richelson, Jeffrey T., and Ball, Desomond, The Ties That Bind, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1990, (2nd ed.). (A very detailed account of the organization and structure of the British and American intelligence agencies, principally post World War II.)
Rohwer, Jurgen, and Hummelchen, G., Chronology of the War at Sea 1939-1945, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 1992 (2nd ed.). ("Chronology" says it all - a day-by-day account of the deployment, mission and loss of every ship which took part in WWII.)
Rusbridger, James and Nave, Eric, Betrayal at Pearl Harbor, Summit Books, New York, 1991. (Did Churchill, knowing of an impending attack on Pearl Harbor, keep it a secret from the Americans, to draw them into the war against Germany? In this book, undocumented speculation is inserted amidst well-documented citations. An interesting thesis, but untenable in view of the facts.)
Russell, Francis, The Secret War, (One volume in the series World War II), Time-Life Books, Alexandria, Virginia, 1981. (A good overview of the role of espionage and sabotage in World War II.)
Skillen, Hugh, Enigma and its Achilles Heel, Hobbs, Southampton, 1992. (A bit of a hodge-podge, including a number of misconceptions, but worthwhile reading on Enigma and the naval special rotors.)
Smith, Bradley I., The Ultra-Magic Deals, Presidio Press, Novato, California, 1993. (Never before had two countries shared intelligence secrets; cooperation triumphed over divisiveness, doubts and suspicions.)
Smith, Michael, Station X: Decoding Nazi Secrets, TV Books L.L.C., 1999 (Based on the BBC production for TV, a comprehensive overview of Enigma, although nothing new is revealed. There aren't many errors, but can you spot them?)
Stevenson, William, A Man Called Intrepid, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,
New York, 1976. (As Lewin comments, "This book's grasp of facts is wayward
and uncertain." For example, he refers to "Mademoiselle" Rejewski - historical
Stripp, Alan, Codebreaker in the Far East, Oxford University Press, New York, 1995 (2nd ed.). (A rather disappointing account. The first half details the author's personal experience, the third quarter a rehash of material better dealt with elsewhere. The last quarter has some useful insights into the Japanese codes and language, with emphasis on the Burma campaign.)
Tanenhaus, Sam Whittaker Chambers, Random House, New York, 1997. (In 1939 Nazi Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union. Chambers, member of a Russian spy ring in the United States, worried that secrets passed on to the Russians would be given to Germany and decided to break up the ring. Not much was done with his information until the House Unamerican Activities Committee investigation of 1948 which resulted in Alger Hiss being convicted of perjury.)
Theobald, Radm. Robert A., The Final Secret of Pearl Harbor, Devin-Adair, New York, 1954. (Admiral Theobald was Commander, Destroyers, Battle Force during the Pearl Harbor attack. Admiral Kimmel and General Short were martyred for their unpreparedness. Theobald's thesis is that President Roosevelt and others in the White House deliberately withheld warnings of the impending attack. Although it is true that Short and Kimmel were not given sufficient information, it appears that incompetence, not a conspiracy, as Theobald asserts, was to blame. Forewords by Admirals Kimmel and Halsey do not necessarily agree with the author's conclusions.)
Toland, John, Infamy. Pearl Harbor and its Aftermath, Doubleday & Co., Garden City, NY, 1982. (Another of the "revisionist" theses, that Roosevelt and the White House knew of the coming attack on Pearl Harbor, but did nothing. The author stops short of suggesting that Roosevelt deliberately planned the attack.)
Tuchman, Barbara W., The Zimmermann Telegram, McMillan, New York, 2nd ed. 1966 (1st ed. 1958.) (A message from Germany offered to restore New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona to Mexico if they would fight on the German side in World War I. Decoded, this ensured America's entry into the War. The story of how this information was used, yet keeping the Germans from realizing their codes were broken. Easy reading.)
Tucker, Dundas P., "Rhapsody in Purple: A New History of Pearl Harbor", Cryptologia, VI, 3, July 1982, 193-228 (part I) and VI, 4, October, 1982 (part II).
van der Rhoer, Edward, Deadly Magic, Scribners, 1978. (How "Magic" decoded Japanese messages and helped defeat the Japanese in the Pacific.)
van der Vat, Dan, The Pacific Campaign, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1991. (Japan versus America in World War II - from politics to combat, and the importance of intelligence.)
Volkman, Ernest, Espionage, the Greatest Spy Operations of the Twentieth Century, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1995. (There are so many blatant errors regarding operation and construction of the Enigma machine, (Chapter 6, "The Bronze Goddess") that the veracity of the rest of this book is highly suspect.)
Watson, Bruce, "Jaysho, moasi, ...", Smithsonian, Aug. 1993, 34-40. (Navajo Code Talkers.)
Welchman, Gordon, The Hut Six Story, McGraw Hill, New York, 1982. (Deals mostly with Luftwaffe codes; an excellent account of how BP was set up and specific details of how the codes were broken.)
Wilcox, Robert K., Japan's Secret War, Morrow, New York, 1985. (Japan's desperate race to develop an atomic bomb in the closing days of World War II.)
Winterbotham, F. W., The Nazi Connection, Harper & Row, New York, 1978. (In 1934 Hitler was anxious to keep England out of his planned invasion of Russia. As an emissary of England, Winterbotham was welcomed with open arms, became a confidant of Hitler and his minions, and was shown their secrets, although they never realized that he was a spy. Unfortunately, his reports of German military build-up fell on deaf ears.)
____ The Ultra Secret, Harper & Row, New York, 1974. (The first published book on Ultra. Winterbotham was primarily responsible for the safe dissemination of Ultra.)
Winton, John, Ultra at Sea, William Morrow & Co., New York, 1988. (A very detailed account of Ultra in naval engagements.)
____, Ultra in the Pacific, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 1993. (An overall view of how Ultra affected naval operations against Japan, 1941-45.)
Wohlstetter, Roberta, Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision, Stanford University Press, 1962. (A sober, well thought-out account of what led to the Pearl Harbor disaster.)
Woytak, Richard A., On the Borders of War and Peace: Polish Intelligence 1937-1939 and the Origins of the Ultra Secret, East European Quarterly, Boulder, 1979. (An insight into the Poles' socio-economic relationships with their allies and enemies in the period between World Wars.)
Yardley, Herbert O., The American Black Chamber, Bobbs-Merrrill, Indianapolis, 1931. (Miffed at termination of U.S. codebreaking activities, Yardley made public the secrets of the Black Chamber. Quite a sensation in its day!)
Zorpette, Glenn, "The Edison of Secret Codes", Invention & Technology, Summer 1994, 34-43.