Moreno Valley Trekkers


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(A Brief Summary of Basic Emergency Medical Care & Getting Help ASAP)  

Assessment: Determine problem.  (Spend only a few seconds!)

Is the scene safe? (animals, insects, lightning, fire, gas, electrical wires, weather, etc.)

Is patient conscious? (alert or unresponsive?)

Is patient breathing? (rate & depth?)             

Is there a pulse?

Is there external bleeding?

Is there a possibility of broken bones?   internal bleeding?         further danger?

Are there signs of shock? (bluish skin, weak pulse, dizzy, faint, not breathing)

What else?  

Call for help:  Call 911 for Fire, EMS , or Police.

Give general location and assessment of the emergency.  Report your exact location: Street address, mile marker, latitude & longitude from GPS, or compass bearings from known landmarks.  Or, give directions to your trailhead, and distance/time you walked from trailhead. Give condition of trail (accessible by truck, 4-wheeler, or snowmobile?).  Answer Dispatcher’s questions.  (Note: satellite GPS units are relatively accurate;  GPS on cell phone may not be.)

Ask others nearby, if there is anyone with medical training, who will help?  Some others might be sent back toward trailhead to direct medical professionals to scene, or to continue trying to call 911, if unreachable from the scene.


Do not call or drive to Fire Station; there may be no one there until 911 is activated.   

Initiate First Aid: Assure breathing and stop external bleeding until EMTs arrive.
CPR:  If not breathing or only gasping, and no pulse, American Heart Association says:  Give 100 chest compressions/minute, 2” deep for adults,
            2” for children, 1 1/2” deep for infants and mouth-to-mouth respiration, (2 breaths/30 compressions) if you are comfortable doing so.
(Clear throat, tilt head, pinch nostrils, blow into mouth twice every 30 seconds.)

            Stop External Bleeding: Direct pressure; clean area & bandage, maintaining pressure until EMTs arrive.  Arterial blood loss is life threatening-- bright red, spurting; Vein blood loss is less severe--darker with steady flow; Capillary loss oozes from skin.  Do not move patient if doing so might endanger patient.        

            Shock: Inadequate circulation of oxygenated blood to tissue—increased respiration and heart rate, with skin cool & clammy—patient may be thirsty, nauseous, vomiting, drowsy.  Untreated shock leads to death.  Elevate feet & legs (6” -12”); cover to prevent heat loss; give no fluids; stop external bleeding; monitor breathing and pulse; get medical help ASAP.

            Know Signs & Symptoms and Actions to Take For:  stroke, heart attack, bites and stings, choking, drowning, electrical shock, altitude sickness, hypothermia, heat stroke, frostbite, fractures & dislocations, sprains & strains, splinters, blisters, burns, poisons, ….

Have Available for Emergencies (On the trail, in car, & at home):   Phone, flashlight, personal prescriptions, and a first aid kit.