More detail on the Los Angeles and Oakland homicide increase in 2002 can be found at, Males M. (2002, 15 Dec.), “Forget the 'Youth Menace': Crime, It Turns Out, Is a Grown-Up Business,” Los Angeles Tiimes, Sunday Opinion; (2002, Nov. 27) “Oakland murders not ‘youth violence’,” San Francisco Chronicle, p A25.
California crime figures are from Criminal Justice Statistics Center, Crime & Delinquency in California, 1970-2002, and its supplement, California Criminal Justice Profiles, 1977-2002 (annual).Sacramento: California Department of Justice.
Orange and Los Angeles County crime figures are from Criminal Justice Statistics Center, California Criminal Justice Profiles, Orange County, Los Angeles County, 1978-2002 (annual). Sacramento: California Department of Justice.
For more extensive discussion of Orange County youth crime and gang issues, see Males, M. (1999, May 6). “Down these mean equestrian trails.” Orange County Weekly (http://www.ocweekly.com).
School violence, media depiction, and polling data are from Donohue E, Shiraldi V, Ziedenberg J (1998). Schoolhouse Hype: School Shootings and the Real Risks Kids Face in America. Washington DC: Justice Policy Institute.
Information on Proposition 21 can be found in Jones B, Voter Information Guide, March 7, 2000, Primary Election. Sacramento: California Secretary of State.
National youth crime statements are from Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (2000). Juvenile Offenders and Victims, 1999 National Update. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
National crime and victimization data are from :
Federal Bureau of Investigation (1970-2002). Uniform Crime Reports for the United States. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
Bureau of Justice Statistics (1973-2002). Criminal Victimization in the United States. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
Bureau of Justice Statistics (1973-2002). Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
California crime data and Proposition 21 information: see Chapter 1.
Drug abuse data are from:
National Center for Health Statistics (1968-2001). Vital Statistics of the United States, Part I, Mortality (annual report), and U.S. Mortality Detail File (electronic data file). Washington DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Drug Abuse Warning Network (1980-2002). Annual Emergency Department Data, and Annual Medical Examiner Data. Washington, DC: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
National Institute on Drug Abuse (1975-2002). National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Johnston L et al (1975-2003). Monitoring the Future. Ann Arbor MI: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.
Center for Health Statistics (1965-2002). Vital Statistics of California (annual report), and Microcomputer Injury Surveillance System (electronic data file). Sacramento: California Department of Health Services.
Drug Abuse Warning Network (December 2000). Club Drugs: The DAWN Report. Hyattsville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, at http://www.samhsa.gov/oas/clubdrug.pdf
National Campaign to Prevent Youth Violence information can be found at http://www.youthviolence.org.
National School Safety Center (2004) information, including the School-Associated Violent Deaths report, can be found at http://www.nssc1.org.
A list of multiple shootings in the United States in 1999 is maintained and updated by the Coalition to Stop Gun Violence, at http://www.gunfree.org.
Children’s Defense Fund information can be found at http://www.childrensdefense.org.
Gun-death data for the United States and California: see vital statistics sources for drug deaths, Chapter 2.
History of the juvenile court and prevention efforts can be found in Lundman, RJ (2001). Prevention and Control of Juvenile Delinquency, Oxford Press.
Juvenile justice system changes, juvenile sentencing, and evaluations of adult-court sentencing can be found in Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (2000), op cit.
Crime and gun death figures: see sources cited in Chapter 2.
Information on video game sales and playing is taken from Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.
Bill Strauss and Neil Howe’s comments are from 13th Gen: Abort, Retry, Ignore, Fail? New York: Vintage Books, 1993. See also (2000). Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation. New York: Vintage Books.
The Colorado Trust controversy is detailed in Krajicek DJ, “Anti-gun youth programs shoot blanks, funders seek new tactics.” Youth Today, July/August 2000.
The Santa Cruz cops-in-schools story is detailed in the Santa Cruz Sentinel, June 14 and 15, 2000; local crime figures are from the Criminal Justice Statistics Center, California Criminal Justice Profiles, Santa Cruz County, 1990-2002 (annual), Sacramento: California Department of Justice; for county drug and other deaths, see California sources cited in Chapter 2.
Carnegie Corporation on Adolescent Development’s comment is from its 1995 report, Great Transitions: Preparing Adolescents for a New Century. New York: Carnegie Corporation.
Males, M. (2000, September). “Vernon, Connecticut’s, juvenile curfew: The situations of youths cited and effects on crime.” Criminal Justice Policy Review, 11:3, 254-267.
For more on biological determinism argument, see Males M. (2002, Feb. 17 ). “The latest assault on teens: It’s their brains.” Los Angeles Times, Sunday Opinion.
Elliot Aronson’s interview was broadcast on “Talkabout,” KZSC-FM, May 10, 2000.
Grisso T et al (2003). Juvenile competence to stand trial: a comparison of adolescents’ and adults’ capabilities as trial defendants. Law & Human
Behavior, in press. MacArthur Foundation.
School profiling is discussed in “Anti-violence programs raise questions.” ABC News, August 24, 2000 ().
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