1. "The present era". The libretto was published in 1892. [Go back.]

2. "Gittano". Archaic variant spelling of "gettano". [Go back.]

3. "Dee", "dèi". Archaic variant spellings of "deve", "devi". [Go back: a b c d e ]

4. "A ventitré ore". Literally, "at twenty-three hours", this phrase has been the source of much confusion. Indeed, in the translation (by Joseph Machlis) published by Schirmer, the line is rendered as "tonight at eleven". In fact, the hour here is reckoned according to an agricultural clock commonly used in rural Southern Italy at the time, in which the hours are counted beginning at sunset. Thus, the play is to begin an hour before sunset. [Go back.]

5. "La commedia è finita". In an early version of the libretto, the final line was to be spoken by Tonio. Published scores and librettos, however, gave the line to Canio, and that is how it is usually performed. In some productions, the earlier concept is revived, and the line is spoken by Tonio. [Go back.]

Pagliacci: Index -- Personaggi -- Prologo -- Atto I -- Atto II -- Footnotes

Go back to libretto/texts index.

March 13, 1999