words and music by


The original libretto was written in 1892 and includes many archaic spellings, some of which I have modernized. Within the stage directions, all spellings are modernized. Within the sung text, all j's are changed to i's, and è's are changed to é's where appropriate. Otherwise, spellings in the sung text are left unaltered. Where an old spelling is likely to cause confusion, a footnote is provided. (See footnotes [2] and [3].)

The editor thanks Davide Astuti for assistance with spelling and proofreading.

This project is incomplete. The stage directions in some places don't match what I've seen (in English) in the score. Further research on this is needed. Some day I hope to write an English translation, and to format the libretto as a convenient booklet, in PDF format, ready to download and print.

Update [June 16, 2004]:
It's been nearly three years since I wrote the paragraph above. I leave the libretto online, but I now have no plans to expand upon it.

Go back to libretto/texts index.

August 23, 2001