J. Marshall Bevil, Ph.D. 
a Select List of Documents and Presentations


                    This list of writings and presentations is provided as a starting point for those interested in learning more about the Welsh crwth. It is drawn in considerable measure from the bibliography of the compiler's 1973 M.Mus-Musicology thesis (University of North Texas), but it also cites the compiler's post-degree presentations and a small number of other efforts from after 1973-1974.
                    Many years of activity as a research scholar have shown the compiler that no initial effort - or, for that matter, even a follow-up effort or two or three - can generate a truly comprehensive list. Further, even the most comprehensive of lists soon becomes dated and hence loses any cutting-edge status that it may have enjoyed. In addition, the task of compiling and keeping updated such a list is, for any one individual, onerous to the point of being impossible or very nearly so, especially when that person has been somewhat removed from the subject at hand for a number of years. Hence the compiler actively solicits contributions from other investigators concerning both their own efforts and labors by others that are deemed worthy of inclusion in a central index of references. All forms of presentation are valid, but online documents are of particular interest. To facilitate the continuous updating of this list, an e-mail link is provided at numerous points throughout this online document.
                    It also should be noted that not all works cited in this list contain direct references to the crwth, although a majority of them do. However, each listed work contains information that bears indirectly, if not directly, on the organological and/or social history or pre-history of the crwth.


Part 1: Works by the Compiler (Online Abstracts Highlighted)

Writings and Recordings:
e-mail link

"The Welsh Crwth, Its History, and Its Genealogy" (Houston: Author, 1973); text of M.Mus-Musicology thesis,
                    University of North Texas, 1973.       ABSTRACT  AVAILABLE

"The Welsh Crwth, Its History, and Its Genealogy - Companion Recording" (Houston / Denton: Author, 1973 /
                    1974); tape accompanying M.Mus thesis (two editions).

"The Welsh Crwth, Its History, and Its Genealogy: Errata and Addenda" (Houston: Author, 1974-1977)
                    - running supplement.

Oral Presentation:

"Some Observations Regarding Crwth Performance," read at the October, 1976 meeting of the Southwest
                    Regional Chapter of the American Musicological Society, Southern Methodist University.     ABSTRACT AVAILABLE


Part 2: Works by Other Writers

e-mail link

Aldis, Elijah. Carvings and Sculptures of Worcester Cathedral. London: Bemrose and Sons, 1873.

Andersson, Otto E. The Bowed Harp, trans/ed. Kathleen Schlesinger. London: New Temple Press, 1930.

Bachmann, Werner. The Origins of Bowing, tr. Norma Deane. London: Oxford University Press, 1969.

Baines, Anthony. "Ancient and Folk Backgrounds," Chapter 9 of Musical Instruments Through the Ages,
                    ed. Anthony Baines. London: Faber and Faber, 1961, pp. 200-236.

__________. European and American Musicakl Instruments. New York: Viking Press, 1966.

__________. Non-Keyboard Instruments, Vol. 2 of Catalog of Musical Instruments in the Victoria and
                    Albert Museum, 2 volumes. London: Her Majesty's  Stationery Office, 1968.

Bingley, William. A Tour Round North Wales, 2 volumes. London: Smeeton, 1800.

Bodley, Nicholas Bessaraboff. Ancient European Musical Instruments. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
                    Press, 1941.

Borrow, George. Celtic Bards, Chiefs, and Kings. London: John Murray, 1928.

Bradley, Arthur. Owen Glyndwr and the Last Struggle for Welsh Independence (New York: G.P. Putnam's
                    Sons, 1901).

Chambers, Edmund K. The Medieval Stage. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1903.

Chappell, William. The Ballad Literature and Popular Music of the Olden Time, Vol. 1 of 2. London: Chappell, 1855-1859.

Chaucer, Geoffery. Canterbury Tales, trans. R. Lumiansky. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1948.

e-mail link

Clancy, Joseph. Medieval Welsh Lyrics. London: Macmillan, 1965.

Clark, Henry. The History of English Nonconformity, Vol. 1 of 2. New York: Russell and Russell, 1965.

Crossley-Holland, Peter. "The Growth of Music in Wales," in Music in Wales, ed. Peter Crossley-Holland.
                    London: Robert Stockwell, 1948, pp. 11-23.

Davey, Henry. History of English Music. London: Curwen, n.d.

Dimond, Sydney. The Psychology of the Methodist Revival. London: Oxford University Press, 1926.

Donington, Robert. The Instruments of Music, 2nd. edition. London: Methuen, 1951.

Edgerly, Beatrice. From the Hunter's Bow, 2nd. edition. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1942.

Ellis, Alexander. "The History of Musical Pitch in Europe," Appendix, Section H, of Hermann L.F. von Helmholtz, On the Sensations
                    of Tone as a Physiological Basis for the Theory of
Music, 2nd. English edition, trans/ed. Alexander Ellis.
                    New York: Dover, 1954, pp 493-513.

Engel, Carl. A Descriptive Catalog of Musical Instruments in the South Kensington Museum, 2nd. edition.
                    London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1874.

__________. The Music of the Most Ancient Nations. London: William Reeves, n.d.

__________. Researches into the Early History of the Violin Family. London: Novello, 1883.

Fleischman, Aloys. Music in Ireland. Oxford: B.H. Blackwell, 1952.

Flood, William H. Grattan. A History of Irish Music, 4th. edition. Dublin: Browne and Nolan, 1905.

e-mail link

__________. The Story of the Harp. London: William Reeves, 1905.

Galpin, Francis W. Old English Instruments of Music. London: Methuen, 1932.

__________. A Textbook of European Musical Instruments. London: Williams and Norgate, 1932.

Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald of Wales). The Itenerary Through Wales and the Topography of Ireland,
                    trans. J. Forester. London: Bonn, 1893.

Halevy, Elie. The Birth of Methodism in England, trans/ed. Bernard Semmel. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971.

Hawkins, John. A General History of the Science and Practice of Music, Vol. 2 of 5. London: T. Payne, 1776.

Halliday, P.E. An Illustrated Cultural History of England. New York: Viking Press, 1967.

Harrison, Frank. Music in Medieval Britain. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1958.

Hayes, Gerald. Musical Instruments and Their Music, Vol. 2 of 2. London: Oxford University Press, 1930.

de Hen, Ferdinand J. Musical Instruments in Art and History, trans. B. Hopkins. New York: Viking Press,

Hipkins, A.J. Musical Instruments, Historic, Rare, and Antique. Edinburgh: A. and C. Black, 1888.

Hugues-Hughes, Augustus. Instrumental Music and Treatises, &c., Volume 3 of 3, Catalog of
                    Manuscript Music in the British Museum. London: William Clowes and Sons, 1909.

Jones, Edward. Musical and Poetical Relicks [sic] of the Welsh Bards. London: 1874.

e-mail link

Joyce, P.W. A Social History of Ancient Ireland, Vol. 1 of 2. London: Benjamin Blom, 1968.

Kinsky, Georg. A History of Music in Pictures. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1937.

Lewis, Henry, ed. Musica. Facsimile reprint of British Library (formerly British Museum) MS Additional 14905 (MS Robert ap Huw),
                    with introduction by Henry Lewis. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1936.

Lhuyd, Edward. Archaelogia Britannica. Menston: Scolar Press, 1969.

LLoyd, John Edward. A History of Wales., 3rd. edition. London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1939.

Lowery, Harry. A Guide to Musical Acoustics. New York: Dover, 1962.

McLean, Magnus. The Literature of the Celts. London: Blackie and Son, 1902.

Mynors, R.A.B. Durham Cathedral Manuscripts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1939.

Noppen, J.G. The Chapter House [of] Westminster Abbey, revised S.E. Rigold. London: Her Majesty's
                    Stationery Office, 1953.

O'Curry, Eugene. Lectures on the Manuscript Materials of Ancient Irish History. New York: Burt Franklin,

__________. On the Manners and Customs of the Ancient Irish, ed. W.K. Sullivan. London: Williams
                    and Norgate, 1873.

Owen, Robert. Collections, Historical and Archaelogical, Relating to Montgomeryshire and Its Borders.
                    Welshpool: Powys Land Club, 1928.

e-mail link

Panum, Hortense. The Stringed Instruments of the Middle Ages, trans/ed/revised Jeffrey Pulver.
                    London: William Reeves, n.d.

Playford, John. Musick's [sic] Recreation on the Viol, Lyra-Way, 2nd. edition. London: 1682.

Porter, Arthur Kingsley. The Crosses and Culture of Ireland. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1931.

Reese, Gustave. Music in the Middle Ages. New York: W.W. Norton, 1940.

Rensch, Roslyn. The Harp: Its History, Technique, and Repertoire. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1969.

Roda, Joseph. Bows for Musical Instruments of the Violin Family. Chicago: William Lewis and Sons, 1959.

Rosen, George. Madness in Society. New York, Harper and Row, 1968.

Rud, Thomas. Codicum Manuscriptorum Ecclesiae Cathedralis Dunelmensis. Durham: Payne and Foss, 1825.

Sachs, Curt. Handbuch der Musikinstrumentenkunde. Leipzig: Breitkopf und Haertel, 1937.

__________. The History of Musical Instruments. New York: W.W. Norton, 1940.

Sandys, W., and S.A. Forster. The History of the Violin. London: William Reeves: 1864.

Saxl, Fritz, and Hans Meir. Verzeichnis Astrologischer und Mythologischer Illustrierter Handschriften des
                    Lateinischen Mittelalters, ed. Henry Bober. London: Warburg Institute, 1953.

Schlesinger, Kathleen. Instruments of the Modern Orchestra and Early Records of the Precursors of the
                    Violin Family, 2nd. edition. London: William Reeves, 1969.

e-mail link

van der Straeten, A. The History of the Violin. London: Cassell, 1933.

Thomas, Hugh. A History of Wales, 1485-1660. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1972.

Vertkov, K.A., G. Blagodatov, and E. Iazovitskaya. Atlas of Musical Instruments of the Soviet Peoples.
                    Moscow: Gosudarstwjennoje Moozikal'noje Izdatjel'stwo, 1963.

Williams, W.S. Gwynn. "Traditional Music," in Music in Wales, ed. Peter Crossley-Holland. London:
                    Robert Stockwell, 1948, pp. 23-29.

__________. Welsh National Music and Dance, 4th. edition. Llangollen: Gwynn Publishing Co., 1971.

Winternitz, Emanuel. Musical Instruments of the Western World. New York: McGraw-Hill, n.d.

Young, Percy. A History of British Music. London: Ernest Benn, 1967.

Encyclopedia Articles:
e-mail link

Anonymous. "Crwth," Geilyfr Cerddol (title page missing, est. ca. 1830).

Apel, Willi. "Bard," Harvard Dictionary of Music, 2nd. edition. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1969.

__________. "Crwth," Harvard Dictionary of Music, 2nd. edition. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1969.

__________. "Instruments," Harvard Dictionary of Music, 2nd. edition. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1969.

__________. "Lyra," Harvard Dictionary of Music, 2nd. edition. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1969.

Carter, Henry. "Croude," A Dictionary of Middle English Musical Terms. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1961.

__________. "Crowdere," A Dictionary of Middle English Musical Terms. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1961.

Crossley-Holland, Peter. "Welsh Folk Music," in "Folk Music,"  Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, fifth edition, ed. Eric Blom,
                    Vol. 3 of 10. London: Macmillan, 1954.

Donington, Robert. "Instruments,"  Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, fifth edition, ed. Eric Blom,
                    Vol. 4 of 10. London: Macmillan, 1954.

Ellis, Osian. "Ap Huw, Robert," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Vol. 1 of 20., ed. Stanley
                    Sadie. Washington, DC: Grove's Dictionaries of Music, 1980.

Galpin, Francis W. "Chorus,"  Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, fifth edition, ed. Eric Blom, Vol. 2
                    of 10. London: Macmillan, 1954.

__________. "Crwth," Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, fifth edition,  ed. Eric Blom, Vol. 2 of 10.
                    London: Macmillan, 1954.

e-mail link

__________. "Timpan,"  Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, fifth edition, ed. Eric Blom, Vol. 8
                    of 10. London: Macmillan, 1954.

Jones, Thomas. "Violin," Geiriador Saesonaeg a Chymraeg. Denbigh: Clwydian Press, 1826.

Kurath, Hans, ed. "Crouden," Middle English Dictionary, Part D.1.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
                    Press, 1959.

Marcuse, Sybil. "Crwth," Musical Instruments: a Comprehensive Dictionary. Garden City, NY: Doubleday,

Riemann, Hugo. "Crowd," Dictionary of Music, trans. J.D. Shedlock. London; Augenor, n.d.

Rimmer, Joan. "Crwth," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Washington, DC: Grove's
                    Dictionaries of Music,  1980.

Sachs, Curt. "Crwth," Real-Lexikon der Musikinstrumente zugleich ein Polyglosar fuer das Gesamte
                    Instrumentengebiet. Berlin: Julius Bard, 1913.

Schlesinger, Kathleen. "Crowd," Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 8 of 29. New York: Encyclopaedia
                    Britannica, 1910.

Wilson, Richard M. "English Language," Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 8 of 24. London: William
                    Benton, 1962.

Wright, Joseph. "Crowd," English Dialect Dictionary, Vol. 1 of 6. London: H. Frowde, 1898-1905.

Periodical Articles:
e-mail link

Anonymous. "Of the Welsh Music," Cambrian Register (1775), 385-391.

Crossley-Holland, Peter. "Secular Homophonic Music in Wales in the Middle Ages," Music and Leters
                    23 (January-October, 1942), 135-162.

Dolmetsch, Arnold. "Concerning My Recent Discoveries," The Consort 3 (June, 1934), 1-11.

Hayes, Gerald. "Notes on the Crwth," Y Cerddor, Series Z (1931), 417-419, 451-453.

Jones, J. Morgan, ed. "The Treveca Letters," Journal of the Calvinistic Methodist Society 1 (1917), passim.

Jones, T. Gwynn. "The Carols and Ballads," Welsh Folk Song Society Journal 2/4 (1925), 214-284.

Linehan, Edward. J. "Czechoslovakia, the Dream and the Reality," National Geographic 132 (February, 1968), 151-193.

Publications of Learned Societies:
e-mail link

Andersson, Otto E. "The Bowed Harp of  Trondheim Cathedral and Related Instruments in East and West,"
                   Galpin Society Journal 23 (August, 1970), 4-34.

Barrington, Daines. "Some Account of Two Musical Instruments Used in Wales," Archaeologia 3 (1775),

Peate, Iowerth. "Welsh Musical Instruments," Man (1947), 21-25.

Remnant, Mary. "Rebec, Fiddle, and Crowd in England," Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association
                    95 (1968-1969), 15-28.

__________. "Rebec, Fiddle, and Crowd in England: Some Further Observations," Proceedings of the Royal
                    Musical Association 96 (1969-1970), 150-151.

e-mail link

British Library (formerly British Museum) MSS Additional 14385, Additional 14905 (MS Robert ap Huw), Additional 14970,
                    Additional 15021, Additional 15036, Additional 35166, Claudius B.4,
Cotton Vespasian A.1, Harley 603, Tiberius C.6

Durham Cathedral Library MSS Durham B.2-30, Hunter 100

National Library of Wales MSS 168.C, Additional 37.B, Mostyn 145, Peniarth 71, Williams 316

Trinity College, Dublin, Library MS 53 (The Dublin Apocalypse).

Welsh Folk Museum (Sain Ffagan, Glams., U.K.) - Meredith Morris, "The Crwth," holograph, ca. 1920.

Museum Records:
e-mail link

County Borough of Warrington (Lancs., U.K.) Museum and Art Gallery, Acquisition Card 655.

Welsh Folk Museum Acquisition Card 13.76 (P).

Welsh Folk Museum Acquisition Card 21.299.1 (G).

Welsh Folk Museum Acquisition Card 35.211.1 (L).

Welsh Folk Museum Acquisition Card 123.80 (P).



Dr. J. Marshall Bevil is a native of Houston, where he also currently lives. He is both a string music educator and a musicologist (B.Mus. with honors, Oklahoma Baptist University, 1970; M.Mus. - Musicology, University of North Texas, 1973; Ph.D. - Musicology, University of North Texas, 1984) with specialization in the history of bowed string instruments, oral-aural musical transmission, British and British-American folk music, and British academic music of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. His doctoral dissertation has been published by University Microfilms, International (UMI No. 8423854, "Dissertation Services"), and he has published post-doctoral studies in professional journals and presented papers in his areas of specialization at regional, national, and international academic convocations in both the United States and Great Britain. He also is the author of encyclopedia articles on John Avery Lomax, Alan Lomax, and Percy Aldridge Grainger; and he has published on the Internet. In addition to his pedagogic and academic pursuits, he is a performer on the crwth, a composer and arranger for string and vocal ensembles (publications on Sibelius.com, from December of 2004), and a forensic musicological consultant and expert witness  in copyright and intellectual property misappropriation disputes ( links:  1    2  ). 

THESIS ABSTRACT   ("The Welsh Crwth, Its History, and Its Genealogy")
, "Some Observations Regarding Crwth Performance" (derivative paper)