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Endnotes

1 Douglass C. North, The Economic Growth of the United States 1790-1860, New York; W.W. Norton & Company, 1966, pp. 17-23. For another overview of early national economics see Atack, Jeremy and Peter Passell, ed., A New Economic View of American History Second Edition, New York; W.W. Norton and Company, 1994, chapters 3 and 5.

2 Tench Coxe as quoted in North, The Economic Growth of the United States 1790-1860, pp. 33-34.

3 Ibid., p. 49. The population of New York grew from 33,131 in 1790 to 96,373 in 1810.

4 Gray, Lewis Cecil, History of Agriculture in the Southern United States to 1860 Volume II, Washington D. C. ; The Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1933, p. 760.

5 Ibid., pp. 673-683.

6 Ibid., pp. 691-693.

7 North, pp. 6, 51, 114, 122, 196. The multiplier effect idea says that total income produced from the sale of an export (in this case, cotton) will actually be greater than the original sale price. Since people’s marginal propensity to save is very small, the initial income will be spent and filtered through the economy acting as revenue for those who come in contact with it; a multiplying of the original income will occur and the total product to the society will be greater than the initial income.

8 North, pp. 52-3, 67-8, and pp. 101-121.

9 Jeremy Atack and Peter Passell, ed., A New Economic View of American History Second Edition, New York; W.W. Norton and Company, 1994, pp. 88-107. For an overview of the national bank struggle see Peter Temin, The Jacksonian Economy, New York; W.W. Norton and Company, 1969

10 See Allen Kulikoff, "Uprooted Peoples: Black Migrants in the Age of the American Revolution 1790-1820." in Slavery and Freedom in the Age of the American Revolution, Ira Berlin and Ronald Hoffman ed., Charlottesville, VA.; University of Virginia Press, 1983, pp. 143-171. Kulikoff discusses the existence of a migration to the west in the period 1790-1810, but the numbers were much smaller compared with the migration after 1810.

11 North, pp. 125-129, 256-257. For a good overview of the economic growth of the antebellum South see Ransom, Roger L., Conflict and Compromise: The Political Economy of Slavery, Emancipation, and the American Civil War, New York; 1989, pp. 47-53.

11 Tadman, Michael, Speculators and Slaves: Masters, Traders, And Slaves In The Old South, Madison, WI.; University of Wisconsin Press, 1989, p. 12.

12 Bancroft, Frederic, Slave Trading In The Old South, Baltimore, MD.; J.H. Furst and Company, 1931, p. 406.

13 Ibid., p. 19.

14 Ibid., p. 21.

15 Tadman, pp. 13-14. A discussion of the economics of the sale South of Northern slaves can be found in Fogel, Robert W. and Stanley L. Engerman, "Philanthropy at Bargain Prices: Notes on the Economics of Gradual Emancipation", The Journal of Legal Studies, vol 3, 1974, pp. 381-383.

16 Gray, pp. 811-819.

17 City Gazette., January 7, 1791, as quoted in Morgan, Phillip D., "Black Society in the Lowcountry 1760-1810", in Slavery and Freedom in the Age of the American Revolution, Ira Berlin and Ronald Hoffman ed., Charlottesville, VA.; University of Virginia Press, 1983, p. 114.

18 Record from April 27, 1818 in box 1 folder 23 in Stampp, Kenneth M., ed. Records of Ante-Bellum Southern Plantations From The Revolution Through The Civil War (Selections From The Shirley Plantation Collection 1650-1888), Bethesda, MD.; University Publications of America, 1993.

19 Orleans Gazette & Commercial Advertiser (For the Country), New Orleans, Louisiana, June 18, 1807. Emphasis included in original advertisement.

20 Southern Patriot, and Commercial Advertiser, Charleston, South Carolina, September 7, 1814.

21 His ad read "Samuel Brown . . . Continues the Commission and Brokerage Business, in disposing of Lands, Houses, Vessels, Goods, Negroes, Produce, Bonds, Bank Stocks, Notes, Carriages and Horses . . ." Southern Patriot, and Commercial Advertiser, Charleston, South Carolina, September 7, 1814.

22 Southern Patriot, and Commercial Advertiser, Charleston, South Carolina, May 9, 1814.

23 Southern Patriot, and Commercial Advertiser, Charleston, South Carolina, September 9, 1814.

24 Southern Patriot, and Commercial Advertiser, Charleston, South Carolina, November 9, 1814.

25 Ransom, p. 47.

26 Atack and Passell, pp. 84-91.

27 Ransom, pp. 42-53. and Inscoe, John C., Mountain Masters, Slavery, and the Sectional Crisis in Western North Carolina, Knoxville, TN.; University of Tennessee Press, 1989, pp. 81-86.

28 Russell, Thomas David, Sale Day In Antebellum South Carolina: Slavery, Law, Economy, And Court Supervised Sales, Ph.D. diss., Stanford, 1993, pp. 23-27, 42-47, 73 and 239. Russell writes that there were a total number of 115,702 sales by law between 1820-1860 and 116,605 not by law in the same period. Of those numbers, 23,040 of the sales by law were interregional while 79,380 of other sales were interregional.

29 Edmund L. Drago, ed., Broke By The War: Letters Of A Slave Trader, Columbia, SC.; University of South Carolina Press, 1991, p. 115.

30 Frederick Law Olmsted, Slave States (Before the Civil War), New York; Capricorn Books, 1959, p. 48.

31 Ibid., pp. 52-53.

32 Charleston Mercury, Charleston, South Carolina, January 19, 1853. The same terms appear in dozens of advertisements in the issues of the Charleston Mercury that I looked at from 1853 and 1857. Some variety does occur like the preference of half cash instead of one third, but the terms were reasonably standard.

33 Charleston Mercury, Charleston, South Carolina, January 19, 1853

34 Charleston Mercury, Charleston, South Carolina, October 19, 1853

35 Olmsted, p. 195.

36 Rosenberg, Charles E., The Cholera Years, Chicago, IL.; University of Chicago Press, 1962, p. 116.

37 Genovese, Eugene D., Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made, New York; Vintage Books, 1974, p. 416.

38 Bancroft, pp. 328-330.

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Bibliography

Atack, Jeremy and Peter Passell, ed., A New Economic View of American History Second Edition, New York; W.W. Norton and Company, 1994.

Bancroft, Frederic, Slave Trading In The Old South, Baltimore, MD.; J.H. Furst

Company, 1931.

Charleston Mercury, Charleston, South Carolina, 1853-57.

Fishel, Jr., Leslie H. and Benjamin Quarles, The Negro American: A Documentary History, Glenview, IL.; Scott, Foresman, and Company, 1967.

Fogel, Robert W. and Stanley L. Engerman, "Philanthropy at Bargain Prices: Notes on the Economics of Gradual Emancipation", The Journal of Legal Studies, v3, 1974.

Genovese, Eugene D., Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made, New York; Vintage Books, 1974.

Gray, Lewis Cecil, History of Agiculture in the Southern United States to 1860 Volume II, Washington D. C. ; The Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1933.

Inscoe, John C., Mountain Masters, Slavery, and the Sectional Crisis in Western North Carolina, Knoxville, TN.; University of Tennessee Press, 1989.

Kulikoff, Allan, Tobacco And Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures In The Chesapeake, 1680-1800, Williamsburg, VA.; University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Kulikoff, Allan, "Uprooted Peoples: Black Migrants in the Age of the American Revolution 1790-1820." in Slavery and Freedom in the Age of the American Revolution, Ira Berlin and Ronald Hoffman ed., Charlottesville, VA.; University of Virginia Press, 1983.

McElveen, A. J., (Edmund L. Drago, ed.), Broke By The War: Letters Of A Slave Trader, Columbia, SC.; University of South Carolina Press, 1991.

Morgan, Phillip D., "Black Society in the Lowcountry 1760-1810." in Slavery and Freedom in the Age of the American Revolution, Ira Berlin and Ronald Hoffman ed., Charlottesville, VA.; University of Virginia Press, 1983.

North, Douglass C., The Economic Growth of the United States 1790-1860, New York; W.W. Norton & Company, 1966.

Olmsted, Frederick Law, Slave States (Before the Civil War), New York; Capricorn Books, 1959.

Orleans Gazette & Commercial Advertiser (For the Country), New Orleans, Lousiana, June 11, 1805-Jan 5, 1816.

Phillips, Ulrich Bonnell, The Slave Economy of the Old South, Baton Rouge, LA.; Louisiana State University Press, 1968.

Pritchett, Jonathan B. and Herman Freudenberger, "A Peculiar Sample: The Selection Of Slaves For The New Orleans Market." Journal of Economic History v52, March 1992.

Ransom, Roger L., Conflict and Compromise: The Political Economy of Slavery, Emancipation, and the American Civil War, New York; Cambridge University Press 1989.

Rosenberg, Charles E., The Cholera Years, Chicago, IL.; University of Chicago Press, 1962.

Russell, Thomas David, Sale Day In Antebellum South Carolina: Slavery, Law, Economy, And Court Supervised Sales, Ph.D. diss., Stanford, 1993.

Southern Patriot, and Commercial Advertiser, Charleston, South Carolina, July 28, 1814-Dec 30, 1814.

Stampp, Kenneth M., ed. Records of Ante-Bellum Southern Plantations From The Revolution Through The Civil War (Selections From The Shirley Plantation Collection 1650-1888), Bethesda, MD.; University Publications of America, 1993.

Tadman, Michael, Speculators and Slaves: Masters, Traders, And Slaves In The Old South, Madison, WI.; University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.

Temin, Peter, The Jacksonian Economy, New York; W.W. Norton and Company, 1969.

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