Man'yōshū Best 100   Explanations Page 2

Man'yōshū Page   *   Explanations:   [ Intro.   p.1   p.3   p.4   p.5   p.6  p.7]


Poem No. 2-85    Four Poems of Empress Iwanohime Longing for Emperor Nintoku (1)

君が行き 日長くなりぬ 山たずね 迎へか行かむ 待ちにか待たむ
Kimi ga yuki ke nagaku narinu yama tazune mukae ka yukan machini ka matan

君が行き きみがゆき = あなたが行かれてから; あなたが旅立(たびだ)たれて以来 (いらい) = Since you were gone; since you left on your journey

長くなりぬ けながくなりぬ = 日数(ひかず)が 長(なが)く経(た) った =  many a day have passed; it has been many days

山たずね やまたずね = 山を尋(たず)ねて =  search (for you) in the hills/mountains

迎へか行かむ むかえかゆかん = 迎えに行こうか = Shall/should I go to meet you?

待ちにか待たむ まちにかまたん = 待ちに待とうか; ひたすら待つべきだろうか = Shall/should I wait and wait (for you)?  Shall/should I single-mindedly await you?

あなたが行かれてから日数が長く経ちました。 山を尋ねて迎えに行きましょうか。(それとも)待ちに待つべきでしょうか。

Since you were gone, my Lord, many a day have passed. Shall I go to meet you, searching for you in the hills, or should I just wait and wait for you here?

Notes:
* Four Poems:  Although these four poems have been attributed to Empress Iwanohime of the fifth century, it is likely that they were acutally written by anonymous poets of later centuries.
* (け) = 「日(ひ)」 の複数形(ふくすうけい) = In ancient Japanese, 日(け)」 was the plural form of 「日(ひ)」, and meant "many days," or "two days or more."


Poem No. 2-86    Four Poems of Empress Iwanohime Longing for Emperor Nintoku (2)

かくばかり 恋いつつあらずは 高山の 岩根し枕きて 死なましものを
Kaku bakari koitsutsu arazu wa takayama no iwane shi makite shinamashi mono o

かくばかり = こんなにも; これほどにも = to this extent; as much as this

恋いつつあらずは = 恋い続(つづ)けていないで =  without being ardently in love with; than burning with passion for

高山の  たかやまの = 高い山の = on high mountains; on a steep hill 

岩根し枕きて いわねしまきて = 岩(の根本(ねもと))を枕(まくら) にして = pillow my head on the foot of a large rock; with a rock for pillow

死なましものを = 死んでしまいたいものだ = I would rather die; I would sooner die

こんなにも恋い続けているくらいなら、(いっそのこと、あなたを尋ねて)高い山の岩を枕にして 死んでしまいものです。

I would rather die with a rock for pillow (while searching for you) on a high mountain than continue living (while waiting in vain) with so much yearning for you.

Notes:
* 〜ずは ... 〜 まし  =  I would rather than


Poem No. 2-87    Four Poems of Empress Iwanohime Longing for Emperor Nintoku (3)

ありつつも 君をば待たむ うちなびく わが黒髪に 霜の置くまでに
Aritsutsu mo kimi o ba matan uchinabiku wa ga kurokami ni shimo no oku made ni

ありつつも = 居続(いつ)づけて = stay on; live on; continue to abide

君をば待たむ きみをばまたん = あなたを待ちましょう = (and) I will wait for you

うちなびく = (風などに)靡(なび)く; 流れるような = waving; streaming

わが黒髪に わがくろかみに = 私の黒髪(くろかみ)に = on my black hair

霜の置くまでに しものおくまでに = 霜が置くまで; 霜が生(しょう)じるまで;  霜のように白くなるまで = till frost lies/forms; till (it) becomes white with frost

このままずっとあなたを待ちましょう。 流れるような私の黒髪が霜のように白くなるまでも。

I will live on and wait for you, even till my waving black hair turns white with frost.


Poem No. 2-88    Four Poems of Empress Iwanohime Longing for Emperor Nintoku (4)

秋の田の 穂の上に霧らふ 朝霞 何処辺の方に わが恋い止まむ
Aki no ta no ho no he ni kirau asakasumi izuhe no kata ni wa ga koi yaman

秋の田の あきのたの = of the rice field in autumn

穂の上に霧らふ ほのへにきらう = 稲穂(いなほ)の上にかかった =  (a haze) hanging over the ears of rice; (a mist) that covers the ears of rice

朝霞 あさかすみ = 朝霧(あさぎり); 朝霞(あさがすみ)  = a morning mist/haze

何処辺の方に いずへのかたに = どちらの方向(ほうこう)に = whither; in which direction

わが恋い止まむ わがこいやまん = 私の恋は消(き)えてゆくのだろうか = will my love vanish; will my passion (for him) fade away

秋の田の稲穂の上にたちこめている朝霞のような私の恋心の霧は、どちらの方に消えてゆくのだのだろうか。

Whither will the fog of passion for him vanish, as does the morning mist hanging over the rice ears in the autumn field?


Poem No. 2-92   Poem by Princess Kagami in response to a farewell poem by Emperor Tenji

秋山の 木の下隠り 行く水の われこそ益さめ 思ほすよりは
Akiyama no konoshitagakuri yuku mizu no ware koso masa me omōsu yori wa

秋山の あきやまの = 秋の山の = of the autumn mountain

木の下隠り このしたがくり = 木の下に隠(かく)れて;  木の葉隠れ(このはがくれ)に = concealed/invisible beneath the trees

行く水の ゆくみずの = 流れて行く水の(ように) = like the flowing water; like the stream

われこそ益さめ われこそまさめ = 私の [思慕(しぼ)の] 方がずっと大きいでしょう =  mine [my yearning toward you] will be much greater than

思ほすよりは おもおすよりは = (あなたが私を)思ってくださるよりは = your longing for me

秋の山の木の下を流れる水のように、隠れてはいても、私の思慕の方が、あなたの私への思いよりもずっと大きいでしょう。

Though hidden like the stream flowing beneath the trees on the autumn mountain, my yearning toward you will be much more than yours for me.


Poem No. 2-103   A poem written by Emperor Temmu and sent to Lady Fujiwara, one of his consorts, who was visiting her parents' home at Ōhara, a short distance away from the palace in the village of Asuka

わが里に 大雪降れり 大原の 古りにし里に 落らまくは後
Wa ga sato ni ōyuki fureri Ōhara no furinishi sato ni furamaku wa nochi

わが里に わがさとに = 私の里に = in my village

大雪降れり おおゆきふれり = 大雪が降った = there has been a heavy snowfall

大原の おおはらの = 大原の = of Ōhara

古りにし里に ふりにしさとに = 古(ふる)びた里に = in the weathered village

落らまくは後 ふらまくはのち = 降るのは後のことだろう; 降るならもっとあとだろう =  (it) might fall later, if at all.

私の里は大雪だけれど、あなたが今いる大原の古びた里に降るのは、もっとあとだろうね。

We have had a heavy snowfall here in my village. But in the weathered village of Ōhara where you are, snow will fall later, if at all.

Notes:
* Note the alliterations of "ō" (ōyuki and Ōhara) and "fur" (fureri, furinishi and furamaku).
* Lady Fujiwara returned a witty envoy (2-104), saying: "It was I who commanded the god of these hills to send down the snow; what you had over there were perchance a few fragments of it."


Poem No. 2-133    Poem by Kakimoto Hitomaro on leaving his wife as he set out from the province of Iwami for the capital

小竹の葉は み山もさやに さやげども われは妹思ふ 別れ来ぬれば
Sasa no ha wa miyama mo saya ni sayage do mo ware wa imo omou wakarekinureba

小竹の葉は ささのはは = 笹(ささ)の葉(は)は =  bamboo grass leaves

み山さやに みやまもさやに = 山全体 (やまぜんたい)をざわざわと = noisily on the whole mountainside

さやげども = ざわめいているけれども; ざわざわと風(かぜ)に鳴 (な)っているけれども = though (they are) rustling noisily/uneasily (in the wind)

われは妹思ふ われはいもおもう = 私は妻(つま)のことを思う = I think of my wife

別れ来ぬれば わかれきぬれば = 別れて来たので = for I have left her behind

笹の葉は山全体にざわざわと風に鳴っているが、私はただいちずに妻のことを思っている。 別れて来たので。

The bamboo grass leaves on the whole mountainside are rustling uneasily in the wind; but I only think of my wife, for I have left her behind.

Notes:
* み山 みやま・御山 = 山の美称(びしょう) =  a poetic name for mountain
* さやに = 「さや」な状態(じょうたい)であること。  「さや」= noisy; uneasy


Poem No. 2-141    A poem by Prince Arima, lamenting his plight

岩代の 浜松が枝を 引き結び ま幸くあらば またかへり見む
Iwashiro no hamamatsu ga e o hikimusubi masakiku araba mata kaerimin
岩代の いわしろの = of/at Iwashiro

浜松が枝を はままつがえを = 浜の松の枝(えだ)を = the branches of a pine tree on the beach

引き結び ひきむすび = 引き結(むす)んで; 引きよせて結んで = I pull and tie (them)

ま幸くあらば まさきくあらば = 幸(さいわい)に無事(ぶじ) であれば = if I should be fortunate to be safe

またかえり見む またかえりみん = また帰ってきて見るだろう = I shall be back and see (them) again

岩代の浜の松の枝を引きよせて結んでおくが、もし幸いに無事であれば、また帰って来て見られるだろうな。

I pull and tie the branches of the pine tree of Iwashiro Beach. If I should be fortunate to be safe, I shall pass this way and see them again.

Notes:
* Poems 2-141 and 2-142 were written by Prince Arima shortly before his death at age 19 in the eleventh month of 658. Having been arrested for plotting a coup against the government, he was being taken to the hot springs of Muro in the province of Ki for questioning by Prince Naka no Ōe. At Iwashiro on the coast of Ki, he tied the branches of a pine tree as a good luck charm, praying for his safety. He was released after the inquisition, but was caught again on his way back home and was executed by forced self-strangulation.
* Travelers used to pray for a safe journey by tying the branches of pine trees.


Poem No. 2-142   Another poem of lamentation by Prince Arima

家にあれば 笥に盛る飯を 草枕 旅にしあれば 椎の葉に盛る
Ie ni areba ke ni moru ii o kusamakura tabi ni shi areba shii no ha ni moru
家にあれば いえにあれば = 家にいるときは = when I am at home

笥に盛る飯を けにもるいいを = 器(うつわ)に盛(も) って食(た)べる飯(めし)を =  the rice that I eat served in a bowl

草枕 くさまくら = 「旅」の枕詞(まくらことば) (草を枕とする) =  makurakotoba for 旅(たび)   (grass for pillow)

旅にしあれば たびにしあれば = 旅の途中(とちゅう)なので = since I am away on a journey

の葉に盛る しいのはにもる = I heap it on a leaf of shii.

家にいるときは器に盛って食べる飯だけれど、草を枕とする旅の途中なので、椎の葉に盛って食べる。

When I am at home, I eat my rice served in a bowl. Now that I am on a journey, grass for pillow, I heap it on a leaf of shii.

Notes:
* 椎・しい; shii = an evergreen tree resembling the oak, but with thick oblong leaves.


Poem No. 2-150  A poem composed by a Lady of the Court upon the death of Emperor Tenji   (her name is unknown)

うつせみし 神に堪へねば 離れ居て
朝嘆く君 放り居て 我が恋ふる君
玉ならば 手に巻き持ちて 衣ならば 脱く時もなく
我が恋ふる 君ぞ昨の夜 夢に見えつる
Utsusemi shi kami ni aeneba hanareite
asa nageku kimi sakariite a ga kouru kimi
tama naraba te ni makimochite kinu naraba nukutoki mo naku
a ga kouru kimi zo kizo no yo ime ni mietsuru

うつせみ = 生身(なまみ) の人間である(私は) = as a flesh-and-blood person 
神に堪へねば かみにあえねば = 神(の力)には逆(さか) らえないので = as I am powerless aginst the will of the gods 
離れ居て はなれいて = 離れていて = separated from you 
朝嘆く君 あさなげくきみ = 朝に私が慕(した) い嘆く君 = Lord whom I grieve for in the morning
放り居て さかりいて = 遠くにいて = kept away from you
我が恋ふる君 あがこうるきみ = 私が恋い焦(こ) がれる君 = Lord whom I yearn for 
玉ならば たまならば = (もしもあなたが)玉であったなら = if you were a jewel
手に巻き持ちて てにまきもちて = 手に巻きつけて持ち = I would wrap you round my wrist
衣ならば きぬならば = 着物(きもの) であったなら = if you were a robe
脱く時もなく ぬくときもなく = 脱ぐときもない = I would never take you off
我が恋ふる あがこうる = (それほどに)私が恋い慕う = whom I long for (so much)
君ぞの夜 きみぞきぞのよ = 君が昨夜(さくや) (の) = Lord, last night
夢に見えつる いめにみえつる = 夢に現れました = I saw in a dream; appeared in my dream

生身の人間である私は神の力(ちから) には逆らえず、君から離(はな) されて、朝にも君を慕い嘆き、遠く君に恋い焦がれる。もしもあなたが玉であったなら、手に巻き付けて持ち、着物だとしたら脱ぐときもない。それほど私が恋い慕う君が、昨夜の夢に現(あらわ) れました。

As a flesh-and-blood person, I am powerless against the will of the gods. Separated from you, I grieve for you in the morning. Kept away, I yearn for you. If you were a jewel, I would wrap you round my wrist. If you were a robe, I would never take you off. Lord whom I long for so much, last night I saw you in my dream.

Notes:
* :  強意の副助詞。 An adverbial particle stressing the word preceding it.
* 堪へ (あえ)  ← 堪ふ(あう) = 敵う・かなう =  match [equal] somebody;  be a match for something
* 放り(さかり) ← 放る(さかる) = keep distance from
* (きぞ) = 昨夜(さくや) = yesterday evening.


Poem No. 3-251   Three Poems of Travel by Kakimoto Hitomaro (1)

淡路の 野島の崎の 浜風に 妹が結びし 紐吹きかへす
Awaji no Noshima no saki no hamakaze ni imo ga musubishi himo fukikaesu

淡路の あわじの = at/in/of Awaji (Island)

野島の崎の のしまのさきの = 野島の岬(みさき)の = at/of the Point of Noshima

浜風に はまかぜに = 浜の風が; 浜の風に = (in) the beach breeze/wind

妹が結びし いもがむすびし = 妻が結んでくれた = that my wife tied (for me)

紐吹きかへす ひもふきかえす = (風が)衣(ころも)の紐 (ひも)をひるがえす = (the wind) flutters the belt; (the breeze) blows the sash back and forth

淡路の野島の岬の浜風が、妻が結んでくれた衣の紐を吹きひるがえしている。

The beach breeze on the Point of Noshima on Awaji Island flutters the sash my wife tied for me.

Notes:
* 妹が結びし: In olden days lovers used to tie the belts of each other's clothing before parting.


Poem No. 3-254   Three Poems of Travel by Kakimoto Hitomaro (2)

灯火の 明石大門に 入る日にか 漕ぎ別れなむ 家のあたり見ず
Tomoshibi no Akashi ōto ni iru hi ni ka kogiwakarenan ie no atari mizu

灯火の ともしびの = 「明石」の枕詞 = "torch-lit," a makurakotoba  for あかし・明石

明石大門に あかしおおとに = 明石海峡 (あかしかいきょう)に = to/into the (great) Akashi Strait

入る日にか いるひにか = 入(はい)る日には; 入って行こうとする日には  = on the day (my boat) enters/is about to enter

漕ぎ別れなむ こぎわかれなん = 漕いで別れて行くのだろうか = Will I row on, parting? (I wonder)

家のあたり見ず いえのあたりみず = 家のあたりを見ずに; 家のあたりも見えなくなって = seeing my home no more; my home area falling out of sight

舟が明石海峡に入る日には、家のあたりも見えなくなって、いよいよ大和とも漕ぎ別れて行くのだろうか。

The day my boat enters the great Akashi Strait, will I row on, finally parting from Yamato -- my home area falling out of sight?

Notes:
* 明石海峡・あかしかいきょう:   The Akashi Strait lies between present-day Akashi City and Awaji Island.


Poem No. 3-255   Three Poems of Travel by Kakimoto Hitomaro (3)

天離る 鄙の長道ゆ 恋ひ来れば 明石の門より 大和島見ゆ
Amazakaru hina no nagaji yu koikureba Akashi no to yori Yamatoshima miyu

天離る あまざかる = 天のように遠く離(はな)れた; 遠い果 (は)ての  <「鄙」の枕詞 > = "under distant skies," a makurakotoba   for (ひな)

鄙の長道ゆ ひなのながじ = 田舎(いなか)の長い旅路 (たびじ)を経(へ)て  = passing through lengthy country roads and many islands

恋ひ来れば こいくれば = 恋しく思いながらやって来ると = as I come yearning for (home/Yamato/the capital)

明石の門より あかしのとより = 明石海峡から = from the Strait of Akashi

大和見ゆ やまとしまみゆ = 大和の陸地 (りくち)・山々(やまやま)がみえる。  = the land of Yamato comes into view; the mountains of Yamato loom in sight

遠い果てからの長い旅路にずっと大和を恋しく思いながらやって来ると、明石の海峡から大和の山々が見える。

From beyond distant skies I have journeyed by land and sea ever yearning for home. Now, through the Strait of Akashi, the mountains of Yamato loom in sight.

Notes:
* 鄙・ひな: 田舎(いなか) = the country(side)
* : = 〜を、〜を通って = (passing) through; by way of
* 島・しま: (水に浮かんだ)陸地(りくち)  = land area/mountains seen from the sea


Poem No. 3-266   A Poem by Kakimoto Hitomaro

近江の海 夕波千鳥 汝が鳴けば こころもしのに いにしへ思ほゆ
Ōmi no umi yūnami chidori na ga nakeba kokoro mo shino ni inishie omōyu

近江の海 おおみのうみ = 琵琶湖(びわこ) = "Sea of Ōmi," present-day Lake Biwa

夕波千鳥 ゆうなみちどり = 夕波の上を飛(と)ぶ千鳥  = plovers flying over the evening waves

汝が鳴けば ながなけば = おまえが鳴けば = when you cry

こころもしのに = 心が萎(しお)れて; 気が滅入 (めい)って = feeling my heart drooping; feeling dispirited/downhearted

いにしへ思ほゆ いにしえおもおゆ = 昔(むかし)のことが 思(おも)われる; 昔が偲(しの)ばれる = (I) cannot but remember the by-gone days; my thoughts go back to the old days

近江の海の夕波をかすめて飛ぶ千鳥よ。 お前が鳴くのを聞くと気が滅入り、昔のことが偲ばれてならない。

O plovers skimming the evening waves of Lake Biwa.   When I hear your cries, my drooping heart turns to the thoughts of long ago.

Notes:
* いにしへ・古(いにしえ):   近江の都(みやこ)の栄(さか)えた昔のこと。   The capital city of Ōtsu in the Province of Ōmi was laid waste by the War of Jinshin in 672. The capital was moved back to Yamato in the following year.


Poem No. 3-270   Two Poems of Travel by Takechi Kurohito (1)

旅にして もの恋しきに 山下の 赤のそほ舟 沖へ漕ぐみゆ
Tabi ni shite monokohoshiki ni yamashita no ake no sohobune oki e kogu miyu

旅にして たびにして = 旅に出ていて; 旅にあって = being away from home; while on a journey

もの恋しきに ものこほしきに = 物恋しいのに;  なんとなく恋しいのに = feeling somehow melancholy (on a journey); feeling unaccountably sad/lonely/nostaligic

山下の やましたの = 山の下の; 山の下に見える = (seen) under the mountain

赤のそほ舟 あかのそほぶね = 赤い粘土(ねんど) を塗(ぬ)った船 = a ship stained with red clay

沖へ漕ぐみゆ おきへこぐみゆ = 沖へ漕(こ)いでゆくのが見える  = is seen rowing out offshore

旅にあって何となくもの恋しいのに、山の下に見える赤く塗った船が沖へ向かって漕いで行くのが見える。

Away on a journey and feeling somehow melancholy, I see a red-stained ship under a mountain rowing out offshore.

Notes:
* 物恋しい・ものこいしい:  もの = なんとなく = somehow      恋しい = ひどく懐(なつ)かしい = long for (some distant person, place, affair or thing)
* そほ: 塗料(とりょう) に用いた赤い色の土  = red-colored clay used as a paint. Government ships were painted red. The poet, being an official, must have felt homesick at the sight of such a ship.


Poem No. 3-273   Two Poems of Travel by Takechi Kurohito (2)

磯の崎 漕ぎたみ行けば 近江の海 八十の港に 鶴多に鳴く
Iso no saki kogitamiyukeba Ōmi no umi yaso no minato ni tazu sawa ni naku

磯の崎 いそのさき = の先を = (around) the rocky headland 

漕ぎたみ行けば こぎたみゆけば = 漕ぎ回(まわ)って 行くと = as I/we row around

近江の海 おおみのうみ =  琵琶湖(びわこ) = Lake Biwa

八十の港に やそのみなとに = 多くの入り江(いりえ)に  = in many inlets

鶴多に鳴く たずさわになく = 鶴(つる) がたくさん鳴いている = cranes cry in large numbers

磯の先を漕ぎ回って行くと、琵琶湖の多くの入り江に、鶴がたくさん鳴いている。

As we row around the rocky headland, cranes are crying in flocks in the many inlets of Lake Biwa.

Notes:
・いそ = a rocky beach; a rocky area along the shore 
漕ぎたむ・漕ぎ回む・こぎたむ = row along the shore, around the curved beach
八十・やそ = many, a large number of.   The number 8 often signifies "a large number."
さわに・多に: 数多く、たくさん = in large numbers; numerously


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Last Updated:   21-Jan-05   *   Copyright 2005-2006   Kanji Haitani