Daniel Qumran 2

Daniel Manuscripts at QumranDead Sea Scrolls Quoting Daniel •  Dead Sea Scroll NomenclatureLinks12/01/06

Qumran 2
Qumran Links
Scroll Nomenclature
Qumran Dating

The Book of Daniel & The Dead Sea Scrolls (continued…)

Other Manuscripts Referring To Daniel, Links, Nomenclature

“…and their God became angry at them and said to give them into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar” —4QpsDan arb (frag. 2)

Secondary writings with a dependence upon the book of Daniel are abundantly represented in the materials found at Wadi Qumran. The text of Daniel must have been established as authoritative well before this time, as these secondary documents lean on the Book of Daniel’s laurels. For an excellent discussion of this topic by Christian ThinkTank see: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/qwhendan3a.html

Other Manuscripts Referring To Daniel




1QWarScroll (1QM)

War Scroll

“More allusions from a single section of Daniel are woven together in the first column of the War Scroll than in any other place in Qumran.”1

~50 BC–50 A.D.

(Introduction to 1QM…)

(Dualism and 1QM…)

(The War Scroll)


4QFlor (4Q174)


Quotes Dan 11:32(?); 12:10

“…Dan 12:10 is quoted in the Florilegium (4Q174), which explicitly tells us that ‘it is written in the Book of Daniel the Prophet.’ ”

~50 A.D.?

4QPrNab (4Q242)

Prayer of Nabonidus Text

Consists of non–canonical material. Some scholars see a dependence upon Daniel chapter 4; others suggest this is an independent ‘Daniel’ tradition. Confirms that Nabonidus was away at Teima, which accounts for Belshazzar's presence as acting king in Daniel.

75–50 B.C.

4QPsDan ara (4Q243)


(40 Aramaic fragments)

Daniel at the royal court of Belshazzar.

~25 A.D.

4QPsDan arb (4Q244)


(14 Aramaic fragments)

Daniel at the royal court of Belshazzar.

~25 A.D.

4QPsDan arc (4Q245)


(Aramaic fragments)

Mentions the Hasmonean priests Jonathon and Simon (see Flint, p. 53–54)

~25 A.D.

4QApocDan (4Q246)

‘Son of God’ Text or Aramaic Apocalypse

Text & Commentary 2

Col. 2, line 5 “His kingdom will be an eternal kingdom;” Col. 2, line 9 “His rule will be an eternal rule.”3

Compare Daniel 2:44, 7:14, 7:27, 7:44.


4Q529, 6Q23

Words of Michael

“…Michael said, "I have located there an army of angels…” Builds on the theme of Michael as the protector of God’s people.

Compare Daniel 12:1 (10:13, 21)


Visions of the Four Kingdoms

(aka Four Visions of Amram)

This text represents four kingdoms as trees. The first tree is Babylon.4 Compare to Daniel chapter 4.

11QMelcha (11Q13)

Coming of Melchizedek Text 2nd Text

“…And this messenger is the anointed of the spirit about whom Daniel spoke.”5

See: Melchizedek in the Dead Sea Scrolls


11QPsa (11Q5)

Psalms Scroll (Tehillim)

Text and Photo 2ndText

Shows influence from Daniel chapter 9.6

30–50 A.D.

Drawn heavily upon: Daniel by John J. Collins. And Daniel at Qumran by Matthias Henze appendix to The Madness of King Nebuchadnezzar: The Ancient Near East Origins and Early History of Interpretation of Daniel 4. ©1999 by Koninklÿke Brill nv, Leiden, The Netherlands. Peter W. Flint, “The Daniel Tradition at Qumran,” in Eschatology, Messianism, and the Dead Sea Scrolls, editors, Craig A. Evans and Peter W. Flint (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1997), pp. 41–60. See also, Messianic Texts at Qumran by Paul Sumner.

1G.K. Beale, The Use Of Daniel In Jewish Apocalyptic Literature And In The Revelation Of St. John. (New York: University Press of America, 1964), p 42.

2 Florentino Garcia Martnez, Messianic Hopes in the Qumran Writings, chapter five of LDS Perspectives on the Dead Sea Scrolls, edited by Donald W. Perry and Dana M. Pike.

3 Robert Eisenman and Michael Wise, The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered. (Rockport, MA: Element, Inc., 1992), pp. 68–71.

4 Eisenman and Wise, pp. 71–74. Also, Milik, J. T., 4Q Visions de Amram et une citation d'Origène. RB 79 (1972): 77–97.

5 We gratefully acknowledge Christian ThinkTank for this reference.

6 John Goldingay, Daniel Word Bible Commentary Series. (Dallas, Texas: Word Books, 1989), p. xxvii. Goldingay cites M. Delcor, L’Hymne à Sion RevQ 6 (1967-69) 71-88.




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This site was last updated 02/12/06