b) Monetary wealth
c) Naval forces
d) Professional army
ii) 30,000 Hessians
iii) 30, 000 American Loyalists
b) British government inept and confused, led by King George III and Lord North
c) Lack of British desire to crush American cousins. Whigs cheered American victories.
d) Military difficulties
ii) Brutal treatment of soldiers (one lashed 800 times for striking an officer)
iii) Inadequate, poor provisions (old, rancid, wormy)
iv) Need for clear victory. A draw would be a colonial victory.
v) Armies were 3000 miles from home. Orders took months to reach the front.
vi) Vast colonial territory (1000 by 600 miles) to subdue. No urban nerve center to conquer.
iii) European imports--Lafayette, Kosciuzko
c) Self-sustaining agricultural base
d) Colonists were better marksmen (Americans accurate at 200 yds.)
e) Moral advantage. Americans were supporting a just cause with a positive goal.
b) Continental Congress debated, but took little action and exercised less leadership
c) Written constitution (Articles of Confederation) not adopted until 1781.
d) Colonies were jealous of Congress, each other's region
e) Economic difficulties
ii) Fearful of taxation, Congress issued virtually worthless Continental currency
iii) Inflation led to increased prices, desertions from army.
ii) Clothing and shoes scarce. At Valley Forge, 2800 men barefooted
h) Profiteers used greed and speculation to weaken morale and aid the British
2) He refused to be paid, though his records indicate expenses of over $100,000
3) Shrewd political choice by Congress: Virginian, wealthy, aristocratic, above reproach.
C. Thomas Paine published Common Sense, a pamphlet selling 120,000 copies.
2) King George was brutish and undeserving of colonials' respect
3) America had a moral obligation to the world to be independent and democratic.
b) When a government abuses rights, the people have a right to "alter or abolish" it
c) King George has acted tyrannically. Long list of wrongs done by King to colonists.
d) The colonies are independent.
B. Americans victorious at Trenton and Princeton
C. British plan to control Hudson River Valley, sealing off New England. Three-part strategy:
2) Col. St. Leger to move east from Lake Ontario
3) Gen. Howe to move north from New York City.
2. First entangling alliance for America.
3. Colonial fight begun at Lexington & Concord was now a European war with Spain and Holland joining France.
F. Yorktown. Cornwallis moved to Chesapeake Bay to await supplies and reinforcements.
2. Washington's army marched from New York area to join French army. 3. Cornwallis surrendered 7,000 men on October 19,1781.
B. Major provisions
2. Boundaries set from Great Lakes on the North to the Mississippi River on the West to Florida on the South
3. No further persecution of Loyalists and restitution for confiscated
property "recommended" to states.
Feldmeth, Greg D. "U.S. History Resources"
http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html (31 March 1998).
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