I. Common Characteristics of Colonists
B. Colonial America was overwhelmingly Protestant. Dominant groups: Puritanism in New England, Dutch Reformed and Presbyterian in Middle Colonies, Anglican in South
C. Most came with similar economic and social backgrounds. Lower and middle class stock usually from rural areas of England.
II. Four Major Regions (Plantation South, Middle Colonies, New England, and Frontier)
b) As indentured servants became harder to obtain (and retain), demand for slaves increased (400,000) in colonies by 1776.
3. Plantation owners became the leading economic, political, and social forces of the South. Democracy limited to wealthy landowners.
B. Middle Colonies--farming, manufacturing center
2. Large numbers of immigrants
b). Germans in Pennsylvania
c). Scotch-Irish in Pennsylvania
2. Came in groups and settled in self-governing towns. New England town meeting as center of power at first, but shifted to selectmen in time.
3. Occupations included farming (scarce labor, tough conditions), fishing, and commerce
b) Slavery, rum and the triangular trade with West Indies and Africa brought economic wealth to New England
D. Backcountry/Frontier--continually moving region: "The West."
2. Religious dissenters, immigrants, and criminals all found "refuge" in the West.
3. Vigorous spirit of democracy and emphasis on individual freedom
b) Anti-aristocratic tradition and resentment of urban east
2. Governor's council
3. Colonial assembly
b) Growth in power
B. British governing bodies
3. Board of Trade
2. Trade must pass through home country
3. Create a self-sufficient economy
B. Navigation Acts
2. Board of Trades' efforts to enforce
C. Triangular Trade
2. Many did not attend any church
B. Anglican Church weak in colonies
2. Ordination of priests only in England
C. Presbyterian Church--Scotch-Irish
2. Calvinist and democratic in organization
D. Baptist (Anabaptist in Europe). Fastest growing among poor
2. Complete separation of church and state--Roger Williams
E. Great Awakening--1730s and 1740s.
2. George Whitefield--emotionally intense, dynamic preacher
3. New Lights--supported revival, new churches
4. Educational revival--Dartmouth, Princeton, Brown all formed to supply New Light preachers
VI. Wars with France (King Wiliiams's, Queen Anne's, King George's Wars)
b) Warring Indian allies
c) Fear of France taking control of Spanish throne
d) Frontier fighting between settlers
2. Causes of the French & Indian War
b) Series of French forts in Pennsylvania
c) Washington's ill-fated mission
3. Results of the French & Indian War
b) Spain loses Florida
c) Britain's national debt doubled
d) Cost of governing colonies multiplied
e) Increased trouble with Indian tribes
f) Series of restrictive laws to control colonists and raise revenues
Feldmeth, Greg D. "U.S. History Resources"
http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html (31 March 1998).
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