I. Postwar American Attitudes
2. Sense of personal alienation
3. Americans were obsessed with materialism and outmoded moral values
B. Fear of Bolshevism
2. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer arrested 6000 suspected radicals and deported many following several bombings
2. To preserve the northern European racial composition of America, quotas were set up to restrict new immigration in a series of acts, including the National Origins Act of 1924 which cut immigration to 2% of each nationality from the 1890 census.
3. Sacco and Vanzetti, two Italian anarchists, were executed in 1927 for murder despite protests from within and outside the U.S. that anti-immigrant attitudes prejudiced their trial.
b) By 1925, 5 million members had joined to march in parades, burn crosses, and hold secret meetings
2. Movement lost strength, particularly after it was exposed as a money-making scheme by organizers
2. Saloons were replaced by illegal "speakeasies" serving high proof alcohol
3. Home-made alcohol (bathtub gin) sometimes resulted in blindness and death
4. Organized crime stepped in, most famously in Chicago, to meet consumers' needs to drink
b) Gangsters used Prohibition profits to move into prostitution, gambling, and narcotics sales
B. Fundamentalism vs. Modernism
2. Modernist Christians, mainly urban and better educated, attempted to adapt religion to the teachings of modern science and a changing world
3. Scopes Trial, Dayton, Tennessee, 1925
b) William Jennings Bryan assisted prosecution while Clarence Darrow defended Scopes
c) Scopes found guilty (conviction later overturned), but Darrow's cross-examination of Bryan exposed narrowness of fundamentalist position as anti-science and anti-progress
b) Gross national product (total of goods and services) rose 5% a year
c) Industrial output per worker grew 33%
d) Per capita income grew 30% with virtually no inflation
b) Technology allowed for expansion, particularly in the auto industry
d) Cheap, readily available energy sources (coal, oil) made expansion affordable
e) Scientific management techniques promoted by Frederick Taylor were adopted widely in an attempt to improve efficiency
b. Harding, largely unaware of the corruption that was riddling his administration, died in August 1923 on a trip to the West
3. Hoover--1929-1933-- was much more progressive than his predecessors and actively ran the Department of Commerce in the 1920s. (See "Great Depression" outline for Hoover's programs and demise)
Feldmeth, Greg D. "U.S. History Resources"
http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html (31 March 1998).
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