Key Events & Battles, French & Indian War

The Death of Wolfe by Benjamin West,1770
(National Gallery of Canada at Ottawa)

 Event Date Location Notes/Significance
 British defeated at Ft. Duquesne 1755 Western Pennsylvania (present-day Pittsburgh) Gen. Braddock's force of 1450 men surrounded and defeated by Indian and French-Canadian forces
American colonists refuse to serve under British commander 1757 American colonies New British commander (Lord Loudoun) closely managed the war effort, demanding exact numbers of recruits and money from colonies. Colonial assemblies began to refuse to cooperate.
French take Ft. Osage 1756 Upstate New York French commander Montcalm takes fort, but is horrified to discover that his Indian allies kill wounded soldiers, take scalps, and make slaves of captives.
Massacre at Ft. William Henry 1757 Upstate New York Following surrender of British and colonial garrison to Montcalm (who promised safe passage back to England), Indians killed 185 and took 310 British captive.
William Pitt guides British war effort 1757-1761 London As Secretary of State, Pitt sought to reduce tension with colonists by promising payment in proportion to support of war effort, giving colonial assemblies control of recruitment, sending thousands more British soldiers, and replacing Lord Loudoun with a more reasonable commander
 Louisbourg and Ft. Duquesne captured by British 1758 Quebec & Western Pennsylvania British-American-Indian forces overwhelm French who abandon Louisbourg and burn Ft. Duquesne before retreating north.
Battle of Quebec 1759 Quebec Through British commander Gen. Wolfe is killed (along with French commander Montcalm), British forces sieze Quebec in dramatic uphill attack.
Battle of Quiberon Bay 1759 Off France British victory restricted French navy's ability to resupply forces in Canada.
Iriquois join British-American alliance 1760 American colonies Balance of power tips towards British with this addition
French surrender Montreal 1760 Quebec Greatly outnumbered French forces are defeated in war's final battle in the Americas.
British capture Havana, Manila from Spain 1762 Cuba, Philippine Islands As Spain enters the war as a French ally, it suffers defeats from British naval forces.
Treaty of Paris 1763 Paris, France France gives up claims to all of its North American possessions. All land west of the Mississippi and New Orleans goes to Spain. All land east of the Mississippi River and Canda goes to England.

Major Results of the French & Indian War

1. British territorial claims greatly expanded in America.

2. British debt grew in an attempt to finance an ever-expanding war.

3. Resentment towards American colonists grew in Parliament among those who saw Americans as unwilling to financially support a war on their behalf.

4. American colonists unified for the first time against a common enemy.

5. Colonial militias saw themselves as volunteers or a "people's army" in contrast to the authoritarian and coercive British army.

6. France's influence in development of North American dwindled mightily.