|Mexico snubs Slidell||November 1845||Mexico City||Pres. Polk instructs John Slidell to offer up to $25 million for New Mexico and California. Insulted Mexicans refuse to see Slidell.|
|Polk orders troops to southern Texas||January 1846||Rio Grande River||Zachary Taylor and 4000 men are sent to disputed territory, expecting attack. Conflict with Mexican troops results in 16 American casualties.|
|Congress declares war on Mexico||May 1846||Washington, D.C.||Polk asks for war with Mexico. Northern Whigs fear victory would add more slave states to U.S. Declaration passes 40-2 in Senate, 174-14 in House. Whig Congressman Lincoln asks for the spot on American soil where American blood was shed.|
|Bear Flag Republic established||June 1846||Northern California||John C. Fremont and volunteers capture town of Sonoma and hoist Bear Flag.|
|Americans capture Monterey||July 1846||Monterey, California||250 sailors capture Mexico's California capital without a shot.|
|Kearny takes Santa Fe||August 1846||New Mexico||Marching from Kansas to California, Stephen Kearny's 1700 men take key Mexican trading post.|
|Battle of San Pascual||December 1846||San Diego, California||In fierce fighting, Kearny's forces barely survive attack of Mexican lancers.|
|Battle of San Gabriel||January 1847||San Gabriel, California||Californio forces retreat as American forces cross San Gabriel River and take Los Angeles|
|Battle of Buena Vista||February 1847||Central Mexico||With a much larger army (20,000 to Taylor's 5,000), Santa Anna is unable to defeat Taylor's American forces.|
|Veracruz||March 1847||East coast of Mexico||Winfield Scott and 14,000 men capture port and begin following Cortez's route to Mexico City|
|Mexico City||September 1847||Central Mexico||U.S. captures city. Santa Anna loses 4,000 of his 25,000-man army, while Scott loses 900 of his 10,000.|
|Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo||February 2, 1848||Central Mexico||Mexico gives up all claim to Texas. U.S. pays Mexico $15 million and agrees to assume American citizens' claims ($3,250,000) against Mexico. Expansionists call for "All Mexico." Senate passes treaty 38-14.|
Northern Mexico and Texas added to United States (virtually half of Mexico's territory).
In Congress, the Wilmot Proviso was introduced beginning in 1846. It stated that slavery should not be allowed in any territory acquired from Mexico. While it never passed, the Wilmot Proviso provided a well-defined proposal that allowed the free-soil forces to attract thousands of followers.
Feldmeth, Greg D. "U.S. History Resources"
http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html (31 March 1998).
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