The Trains of 1825

by Lou Jerkich

The train cards of the various 18xx games vary in style and in their relationship to the railways depicted in the game.  In some games, many of the locomotives depicted on the train cards were not historically owned by the companies that one can operate in the course of the game.  In others, the locomotive choices do reflect those historically run by the railways of the game.  Some train cards have photographs or paintings of well known locomotives depicted.  Other games depict the locomotives as silhouettes that represent a type of locomotive without showing the full details of the engine.  Such is the case with the train cards of the 1825 game.  Moreover, in 1825, the caption under each locomotive's depiction on a train card indicates the designer or head of the locomotive works of the company that used that particular type of engine at the specified period of time.  For example, the type 4 train has the caption "Francis Webb, 1891."  This is an unusual method of captioning the train cards.  Most 18xx games indicate a particular locomotive design by the customary designation of that class or by some famous or well known named locomotive of the design shown.  A few games (1856 and 1870, for example) have no caption at all.  Although the 1825 caption is much better than having no caption, it requires some digging into the history of railroading in Great Britain to determine what specific class of locomotives is represented on the card.  In doing this research, one discovers that the locomotive builders of the various competing railways of Great Britain made a tremendous contribution to the development of steam locomotives.  This article, therefore, is my effort to identify the locomotives depicted on the train cards of 1825 and to shed some light on those designers and engineers who built them. 

I am open to additions or corrections to the information given below, so please contact me, especially if errors are found.

Type 2 Train (£180)  - Matthew Kirtley, 1856

Twenty-fives Class 2-2-2, Midland Railway's Derby Works, 1862.

Matthew Kirtley was born in Tanfield, County Durham on 6 February 1813.  Note that his birthplace is the location of the Tanfield Wagon Way which is one of the private companies of the 1825 Unit 3 game.  He worked on the Stockton and Darlington Railway when he was 13 and later served as a fireman on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.  Eventually he became a driver for the London and Birmingham Railway, and may have driven its first train into London.  In 1841 he became the  locomotive superintendent of the Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway which eventually became part of the Midland Railway.  He served as the first superintendent of the Midland Railway from 1844 to 1873.  During this period he made Derby a center for repair and maintenance of the Midland Railway's locomotives.  Although at first employing the designs of others, the self-educated Kirtley later came to design his own locomotives for the Midland.  He designed the Midland Railway's 0-6-0 heavy freight engines introduced in 1852.  In 1856 Kirtley's engineer, Charles Markham, introduced a new firebox for efficiently burning bituminous coal with less waste and smoke.   The firebox included an inclined brick arch below the boiler's tube plate plus a deflector plate on the fire-door.  This enabled coal, rather than coke, to be used as locomotive fuel.  By the end of 1859, Markham had perfected this firebox.

In 1862 Kirtley built the first of his 2-2-2 locomotives, which was numbered '25,' and consequently this type came to be called the Twenty-fives.  After the St. Pancras station opened in London in 1868, traffic soon became so heavy on the Midland's line that the 2-2-2s often needed to be double-headed.  So Kirtley created his 2-4-0 engines of the 800 class, the first of which ran in June of 1870.  The driving wheels of these 2-4-0s had a diameter of 6 feet 8 inches.  The Scots firm of Nelson's of Glasgow built 30 of them and another eighteen were made at the Midland's Derby works.  Many of these remained on the line for years.  They were a match for the single drivers of the Great Western Railway's broad gauge expresses.  Matthew Kirtley held this post as superintendent until his death in 1873.  Many of his locomotives remained in use fifty years later.

References:
1. Kay, F. George.  Steam Locomotives. New York: Gallahad Books, 1974, pp. 65, 67, 80.
2. Allen, G. Freeman.  Railways: Past, Present, & Future.  New York: William, Morrow & Company, 1982, p. 104, photo pp.106-107.
3. The Encyclopedia of Trains and Locomotives: The Comprehensive Guide to over 900 Steam, Diesel, and Electric Locomotives from 1825 to the Present Day.  General Editor: David Ross.  San Diego, California: Thunder Bay Press, 2003, p. 30.
4. Wikipedia: Matthew Kirtley  .
.

Type 3 Train (£300) - Patrick Stirling, 1870

Stirling 8ft. Single Class 4-2-2, Great Northern Railway's Doncaster Locomotive Plant, 1870.

Patrick Stirling was born 25 June 1820 at Kilmarnock in Scotland and died 11 November 1895.  He came of a family of engineers.  Starting off as an apprentice in a foundry in Dundee, he eventually became the foreman at Glasgow's Nielson's Locomotive Works.  After a two year stint starting in 1851 as a superintendent for a short railway line, in 1853 he became the Locomotive Superintendent of the Glasgow and South Western Railway.  Thirteen years later, in 1866, he came to the Great Northern Railway's Doncaster Locomotive Works to be its Chief Mechanical Engineer.  He was still in this position at his death in 1895. 

After studying a single-driver model of the Great Eastern Railway, he designed his own engine with a single driving wheel.  Thus, in 1870 appeared the forerunner, GNR No. 1, of his most famous engine type, the "Stirling Single."  This engine was also called an "eight-footer" due to the size of its drivers and was expressly designed for high speed traffic between London and York.  It was a 4-2-2 locomotive with a single 8 ft., 1 in. driver on each side preceded by a four-wheeled bogie for front end stability and a trailing wheel on each side below the cab.  He used outside cylinders to avoid having the boiler too high due to the size of the wheels.  In using the leading bogie and the outside cylinder, Stirling was one of a couple of trend-setters for express passenger locomotives.  The Stirling single was noted for speed and was used heavily on the East Coast Route's express trains, which in that era were among the fastest trains in the world.  These expresses ran from the London Kings Cross north to Grantham, where the engine was changed out for the final run to York.  (The East Coast Route then used NER and NBR trains to complete the run to Edinburgh.)  The average speed for this distance of 188.2 miles was 55 mph (90 kph).  In the famous 1895 "race to the north" (London to Edinburgh) in competition with the London and Northwestern Railway, the Stirling Singles attained speeds up to 83 mph (133 kph).  With the help of Stirling engines, the sleeper express traveled from London to Edinburgh in 6 hours and 19 minutes on the night of August 21-22, 1895.  When pushed to its limit by driver and fireman, the Stirling Single "trailed a shower of sparks and glowing coal fragments as it roared along," giving it a 'volcanic' impression to observers who watched as it passed by. 

The Stirling Single carried a weight of some 15 tons on each driver. This weight actually helped in adhesion since there was a tendency for single-driver engines to slip on wet or greasy rails.  Until an engineer at the Midland Railway contrived a device to shoot sand on the tracks ahead of the wheels, the single-driver engines had this deficiency for which increased weight was a help.  Due to this traction problem and other reasons, other nations at this time were favoring multiple-coupled drivers.  But the insularity of Britain's mechanical engineers who usually worked in company shops, the relatively short distances to be traveled, the high quality track, the lightweight carriages, and the less expensive cost of building an engine with one drive axle all made the single-driver engine feasible and practical.  Since Stirling himself disliked extra appendages and favored simplicity, his locomotives generally lacked domes.  Despite his preference for inside cylinders (which were in normal use at that time) and his dislike of leading bogies, the huge 8 ft. drivers made both of those necessary on his "eight-footer", which came to be his favorite creation.  Among rail enthusiasts, it is also a favorite. 

F. George Kay wrote that 53 of these locomotives were running by 1895, but another source says that forty-seven of these locomotives were made--the last in 1893, and in 1916 the last of them was retired.  Stirling's GNR Engine No.1 was itself retired in 1907 but has been preserved in working order at the National Railway Museum in York.

References:
1. Kay, F. George.  Steam Locomotives. New York: Gallahad Books, 1974, pp. 80-81.
2. Allen, G. Freeman.  Railways: Past, Present, & Future.  New York: William, Morrow & Company, 1982, p. 105.
3. Hollingsworth, Brian and Cook, Arthur F.  The Great Book of Trains.  London: Salamander Books, 1996, pp. 48-49.
4. The Encyclopedia of Trains and Locomotives: The Comprehensive Guide to over 900 Steam, Diesel, and Electric Locomotives from 1825 to the Present Day.  General Editor: David Ross.  San Diego, California: Thunder Bay Press, 2003, p. 35-36.
5. Ross, David.  The Encyclopedia of Trains and Locomotives from 1804 to the Present Day.  San Diego, CA: Thunder Bay Press; c. Amber Books, Ltd., 2007, pp. 36-37.
6. Wikipedia: Patrick Stirling .
7. The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia: Engineers - Patrick Stirling 

Type 4 Train (£430) - Francis Webb, 1891

Improved Precedent Class 2-4-0, London and North Western's Crewe Works, 1887-1901.

Francis William Webb was born in Staftford on 21 May 1836 and by age 15 was an apprentice at the London and North Western's (LNWR's) Crewe Works, serving under Francis Trevithick.  Later in 1861 he became the Works Manager at Crewe and also Chief Assistant to John Ramsbottom, the Northern Division Superintendent of the LNWR.  His move to the Bolton Iron and Steel Co. in 1866 may have been at the behest of the LNWR to gain steel making experience. Five years later, in 1871, Webb bacame the Locomotive Superintendent (Chief Mechanical Engineer) of the LNWR.  From then until his retirement in 1903, Francis Webb built large numbers of a wide variety of  locomotive classes including 2-4-0, 0-6-0, 0-6-2, and 0-8-0 classes, as well as four classes (Experiment, Dreadnought, Teutonic [all 2-2-2-0s] and Greater Britain [2-2-2-2]) of compound engines.  However none of his compound engines were as successful as he had hoped and after he retired they were quickly abandoned.  He also remodeled Crewe Station.  Francis Webb died in 1906, three years after his retirement, at the age of 70.

Given its date of 1891, the type 4 train depicted on the 1825 game card appears to be one of Webb's "Improved Precedent" class 2-4-0s which were built from 1887 to 1901.  This class was actually a "renewal," chiefly with larger boilers, of all 96 of the Newton Class created by John Ramsbottom and 62 of the original "Precedents."  Eight more of the Precedents were rebuilt for this class.  They were popularly known as "Large Jumbos" because their 6ft. 6in. wheels were larger than a similar model with smaller wheels and also because of their ability to haul large heavy trains. One of these engines was the Lucknow which in May of 1891 replaced an earlier "Newton" engine of the same name and number.  The engine No. 790 Hardwicke of this class became famous for an average speed record of  67.2 mph on the LNWR's difficult  Crewe-Carlisle section in the Races to the North (London to Aberdeen) on the night of August 22/23 of 1895.  For one 30-mile stretch it attained speeds of 85 to 90 mph.  Another of these improved Precedents was No. 955 Charles Dickens which ran from London to Manchester and back for nearly every day of a 20 year period, achieving an unbroken record of 2 million miles traveled by a steam locomotive.  The LNWR, under John Ramsbottom and then Francis Webb, was "the one major British railway to persevere with series after series of 2-4-0s as express passenger engines right up to the 1890s."  The Precedent class as a whole was successful and outlived Webb's compounds.

References:
1. Kay, F. George.  Steam Locomotives. New York: Gallahad Books, 1974, pp. 78, 88-9, 91, 101.
2. Allen, G. Freeman.  Railways: Past, Present, & Future.  New York: William, Morrow & Company, 1982, pp. 106, 114-116.
3. The Encyclopedia of  Trains and Locomotives: The Comprehensive Guide to over 900 Steam, Diesel, and Electric Locomotives from 1825 to the Present Day.  General Editor: David Ross.  San Diego, CA: Thunder Bay Press; c. Amber Books, Ltd., 2003, p. 38
4. LNWR Locomotives: Ramsbottom and Webb Designs  - Improved Precedent/Large Jumbo
5. LNWR Improved Precedent Jumbo (includes pictures and a short history).
6. Wikipedia: Francis Webb; LNWR Improved Precedent Class; Locomotives of the London and North Western Railway .

Type 5 Train (£550) - John McIntosh, 1900

Dunalastair III Class 4-4-0, Caledonian Railway, St. Rollox Works in Glasgow, 1900.

John Farquharson McIntosh was born 28 February 1846 in Haugh of Kinnaird.  By the age of 14 he was an apprentice for the Scottish North Eastern Railway at the Abroath workshops.  He moved on to become a fireman in 1865.  A year later the Scottish North Eastern Railway was absorbed into the Caledonian Railway and then in 1867 McIntosh became qualified to be a locomotive driver.  About ten years later he had lost his right hand in an accident but also had become one of the Caeldonian's Locomotive Inspectors.  He went on to become a Locomotive Foreman and then, under Locomotive Superintendent Dugald Drummond [see Type 3T train below], he was Chief Inspector.  On 1 February 1895, McIntosh became the Caledonian's Chief Mechanical Engineer.  After holding this position from 1895 to 1914, John McIntosh died on 6 February 1918 when not quite 62 years of age.

Possibly spurred on by the 1895 "Race to the North" between the West and East Coast routes running from London to Edinburgh, less than a year later, in January of 1896, CR No. 721, the first of his famous "Dunalastair" class of 4-4-0 locomotives, was completed at the St. Rollox Works in Glasgow, Scotland.  McIntosh had used a design by Drummond and substantially increased the boiler size to 4 feet 8 inches in diameter while reducing the chimney size.  This was larger than any existing British locomotive boiler and the firebox and grate size were also larger.  The inside cylinders were also slightly enlarged.  These first Dunalastair engines regularly ran an average of 57 mph on the heavy expresses that ran from Carlisle to Stirling and they hauled twice the load of previous locomotives.  They were also used on the main express lines from Glasgow to Perth and Aberdeen and from Glasgow to Edinburgh.  McIntosh produced four series of Dunalastairs (I through IV) with the last type (IV) appearing in 1904.  Type II appeared in 1897.  Presumably type III was produced in 1900.  Before 1914 they were painted in the Caledonian's blue livery.  Most of them continued on after the 1923 amalgamations in the service of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) and some lasted past 1948 in the era of the British Railways.

A Dunalastair 4-4-0 was displayed at the Brussels Exhibit of 1897 where it won a gold medal.  This led to an initial order by the Belgian State Railways (SNCB) for five of these large Caledonian locomotives, with the result that up to 185 of this type were employed in Belgium from 1898 to 1906, most of which were manufactured in Belgium.  (The Belgians also used the McIntosh 0-6-0 design for their goods trains.)

References:
1. Hollingsworth, Brian and Cook, Arthur F.  The Great Book of Trains.  London: Salamander Books, 1996, pp. 58-59.
2. Kay, F. George.  Steam Locomotives.  New York: Gallahad Books,  1974, p. 97.
3. The Encyclopedia of  Trains and Locomotives: The Comprehensive Guide to over 900 Steam, Diesel, and Electric Locomotives from 1825 to the Present Day.  General Editor: David Ross.  San Diego, CA: Thunder Bay Press; c. Amber Books, Ltd., 2003, pp. 59-60.
4. Ross, David.  The Encyclopedia of Trains and Locomotives from 1804 to the Present Day.  San Diego, CA: Thunder Bay Press; c. Amber Books, Ltd., 2007, pp. 58.
5. Caledonian Railway Company, McIntosh Class 812 Locomotive No. 828John Farquharson McIntosh 
6. Caledonian Railway 4-4-0 Express Passenger Locomotive #721 - Dunalastair: Caledonian Railway Locomotives  
7. Wikipedia: John F. McIntosh 

Type 6 Train (£650) - Sir Vincent Raven, 1911

NER Class Z (LNER Raven C7) 4-4-2 Atlantic, North Eastern Railway, built by North British Locomotive Co., 1911.

Born in Norfolk on 3 December 1859, Vincent Litchfield Raven became an apprentice engineer with the North Eastern Railway (NER) in 1876.  Working his way up through the ranks as Assistant Locomotive Superintendent and then Chief Assistant Locomotive Superintendent, he finally became Chief Mechanical Engineeer (CME) for the NER in 1910.  He began using steam and electric propulsion, and then in 1912 he began to add superheating to some of his steam engines.  During World War I he was Superintendent of a Royal Arsenal and later was assigned to the Admiralty.  After the war, in 1919 Raven returned to the NER in his previous position as CME where, as an enthusiast of electric traction, he was instrumental in attempting to electrify the NER's main passenger line from York to Newcastle.  However the 1923 groupings which placed the NER in the new London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) resulted in the York-Newcastle electrification project being dropped.  In 1922 Raven resigned as the NER was about to become part of the new LNER.  However, he took the position of Technical Advisor to the LNER in 1923.  Sir Vincent Raven died in 1934.

The Type 6 train of the 1825 game is a NER Class Z 4-4-2 Atlantic type of steam locomotive designed by Sir Vincent Raven in 1910.  The North British Locomotive Company built  the first twenty of Raven's Atlantics in 1911.  These locomotives had three cylinders and, after some experimentation, they were also fitted with superheated boilers.  Between 1911 and 1918 fifty of these Class Z locomotives were built in five batches.  These were initially used as express passenger locomotives on the NER lines.  After the 1923 groupings they were known as LNER Raven C7s.  Some 30 were used in the area of the river Tyne (Newcastle, Sunderland, Tynemouth), while the reminder shifted to other locations:York, Haymarket and Neville Hill.  In the 1920s, the A2 Raven Pacifics and the Gresley A1, A3, and A4 Pacifics gradually superceded the Raven C7s which might be double-headed as replacements for the Pacifics.  They were also to be found running expresses on the more notable branch lines, such as York to Hull, York to Scarborough, and Newcastle to Carlisle.  As Gresley's V2 2-6-2 Prairie 'Green Arrow' Class of mixed traffic locomotives appeared in greater numbers in the late 1930s, the days of the C7s were numbered. World War II delayed their withdrawal, but the last was withdrawn from service in December 1948 under British Railway.

References:
1. Hollingsworth, Brian and Cook, Arthur F.  The Great Book of Trains.  London: Salamander Books, 1996, pp. 229, 238-239.
2. The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia: Engineers - Sir Vincent Raven  
3. The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia: The Raven C7 (NER Class Z) 4-4-2 Atlantics  

Type 7 Train (£720) - George Churchward, 1907

4000 Star Class 4-6-0, Great Western Railway, Swindon, 1907.
4073 Castle Class 4-6-0, Great Western Railway, Swindon, 1923.


Born 31 January 1857 in South Devon, George Jackson Churchward left school at the age of 16 to work under the Locomotive Superintendent for the South Devon Railway (SDR).  When, in 1876, the SDR was absorbed by the Great Western Railway (GWR), Churchward, now nineteen, was transferred to the drawing office of the GWR at Swindon.   Churchward became Assistant Works Manager in 1895 and then in 1902 succeeded William Dean as Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Superintendent.  This title was changed to Chief mechanical Engineer in 1916.  Restricting the number of engine classes to less than a dozen, Churchward also standardized the components (boilers, wheels, cylinders, tenders, etc.).  From France he took his cylinder and  valve configurations.  His most recognizable design feature was the tapered boiler of his new engines, something he borrowed from American practice.  The degree of  standardization Churchward introduced was new in Britain at that time and it significantly reduced the GWR's costs.  Some 1,100 locomotives were built at Swindon to Churchward's designs before his retirement in 1921.  Churchward remained involved at the Swindon works in his post-retirement years, but was killed near there by a fast express train when crossing the London to Bristol main line on a foggy December day in 1933.

Churchward created nine new locomotive types for the GWR and it has been said that they were for the most part superior to the locomotives of other British rail companies.  His first series was the City Class of 4-4-0s which entered production in 1903.  Of these, the City of Truro in May of 1904 became the first steam engine in the world to haul a load at a speed over 100 mph.  The 4-4-0 County Class followed in 1904.  Another Churchward design of 1903, his 2800 Class 2-8-0, was the first 2-8-0 running in Britain and it became the pre-eminent type of freight locomotive until the last days of steam in Britain.

Meanwhile, from 1902 Churchward was experimenting with 4-6-0 engines and introduced his Saint Class.  Further testing of his designs against French compound 4-4-2s showed the value of their four cylinder engines.  In the end his test engine, North Star, was such a success that in 1907 he began production of the Star Class series of 4-6-0 locomotives with four cylinders.  The North Star was rebuilt as a 4-4-2, but the new Star Class series of 1907 began with Dog Star.  Churchward's Star Class is considered to be a masterpiece of locomotive development.  Each year's new batch of engines in this class was given a new type of name.  The engines with "Star" in their name came first in 1907, followed by the Knights, Kings, Queens, Princes, Princesses and finally the Abbeys (1922-23).  By 1914 sixty of these locomotives were hauling passenger expresses from London to Exeter non-stop at 58 mph or were running non-stop to Plymouth.  From 1908 this class received superheated engines and were unequaled in Britain for power and economy until the 4-6-2 Pacifics appeared in the 1920s (see the 4+4E Type below).  It should be noted that Churchward himself in 1908 built a one-of-a-kind Pacific 4-6-2 engine, the Great Bear, which was a stretched version of a Star Class engine.  However, it was too heavy for most of the GWR lines so it was confined to the London-Bristol portion of the GWR routes.

By name and date (Churchward, 1907) on the Type 7 Train card of the 1825 game, the Type 7 Train should be a Star Class locomotive.  However, the photos I have seen of the Star Class engines show a concave side but no windows on the cab as are depicted in the silhouette on the Train card.  However, the successor class to the Star 4-6-0s was the Castle Class 4-6-0s, introduced under Churchward's successor, Charles Collett, in August of 1923.  These were essentially a glorified Star Class design with both a larger boiler and a slightly larger cab that included two windows on each side of the cab.  I suggest that the Churchward, 1907 Type 7 Train card is supposed to represent the Star Class 4-6-0 locomotive, but the silhouette of the card is actually that of the successor to the Star design, the Castle Class.  (See Hollingsworth, pp. 110-111 for a picture that closely matches that of the card.)  It should be noted that the locomotive number of the first Castle Class, No 4073 Caerphilly Castle, immediately follows that of the last Star Class, No. 4072 Tresco Abbey, also produced in 1923.  So the Type 7 Card represents both the Star and the Castle Classes, which takes the game's locomotive development to the time when Britain's many railways were reorganized in 1923 into four large systems, of which one retained the name Great Western Railway.

References:
1. Allen, G. Freeman.  Railways: Past, Present, & Future.  New York: William, Morrow & Company, 1982, p. 162.
2. The Encyclopedia of  Trains and Locomotives: The Comprehensive Guide to over 900 Steam, Diesel, and Electric Locomotives from 1825 to the Present Day.  General Editor: David Ross.  San Diego, CA: Thunder Bay Press; c. Amber Books, Ltd., 2003, pp 70-71, 86.
3. Garratt, Colin and Wade-Matthews, Max.  The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Steam & Rail.   New York: Hermes House, 1999, pp. 62-63.
4. Herring, Peter.  Ultimate Train.  New York: Dorling Kindersley, 2000, p. 147.
5. Hollingsworth, Brian and Cook, Arthur F.  The Great Book of Trains.  London: Salamander Books, 1996, pp. 78-79, 110-111.
6. Kay, F. George.  Steam Locomotives.  New York: Gallahad Books,  1974, pp. 98-101.
7. Ross, David.  The Encyclopedia of Trains and Locomotives from 1804 to the Present Day.  San Diego, CA: Thunder Bay Press; c. Amber Books, Ltd., 2007, pp. 71, 86.
8. Gloucestershire Warwickshire RailwayG J Churchward (includes a photo of a Star Class 4-6-0 locomotive)
9. The Great Western Archive: G. J. Churchward4073 Castle Class Introduction   
10. Wikipedia: George Jackson ChurchwardGWR 4000 Class 

Type 3T Train (£370) - Dugald Drummond, 1897

M7 class 0-4-4T, London and South Western Railway, 1897.

Born in 1840, the Scotsman Dugald Drummond served as an apprentice for the North British Railway (NBR) before moving with his mentor, William Stroudley,
to the Highland Railway where he served as a foreman at Inverness.  He then switched to the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway to be manager of the Brighton Works before returning in 1875 to be the Locomotive Superintendent at the NBR's Cowlairs shops.  Although following Stroudley's designs for express engines and tankers at first, in 1876 he unveiled his own 4-4-0 design for an express locomotive.  These engines picked up the London passenger expresses at Carlisle and took them to their ultimate destination of Edinburgh.  This engine performed so well that it became a standard design not only in Scotland but elsewhere in the country wherever Drummond worked.  In June 1882, Drummond became the locomotive superintendent for the Caledonian Railway, left it in 1890 for private business, and then in 1895 took the position of Locomotive Superintendent for the London and South Western Railway (LSWR).  In 1905 his title was changed to Chief Mechanical Engineer.  Following an accident at the LSWR's Eastleigh Works, he died in November 1912.

In 1877 Drummond built some Class P 0-4-2T tank engines for the North British Railway's Glasgow to Helensburgh run.  It appears that between 1881 and 1882, he fitted a rear bogie to these engines, turning them into the Class P (later, LNER G8) 0-4-4T engines.  There were only six of these Class P engines built but their rear bogie permitted them to carry a larger load of coal and water.  After initially working the Clyde Coast they were moved to the Fife and Northern Districts for main line work.  During the 1890s they were moved back to the Glasgow area.  Before being retired in 1924 and 1925, four had been relocated to Dundee and one each to Stirling and St. Margaret's.

In 1897, while working for the LSWR, Drummond built
the first M7 class 0-4-4T mixed traffic steam locomotive, derived from his NBR Class P from 1877.  Further batches were constructed until by 1911 a total of 105 of these M7 Tank engines had been built.  Some five design variants took place during that time.  Upon their introduction, several were assigned express passenger routes between Exeter and Plymouth.  Eventually this engine was commonly used on local main lines and branches as well as on London Suburban services.  The driving wheels were 5 ft. 7 in. and the trailing wheels 3 ft. 7 in.   An M7 engine carried 3 tons of coal and 1300 gallons of water.  The M7s survived the grouping into the Southern Railway in 1923 and eventually all but two lasted into the conversion to British Railways in 1948.  In May of 1964 the last of the M7s were retired.   The 3T engine in the 1825 game's Kit K2 (Advanced Trains) is this M7class tank engine. 

References:
1. Kay, F. George.  Steam Locomotives.  New York: Gallahad Books,  1974.
2. Southern E-Group: Drummond M7 class 0-4-4T
3. The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia: Engineers - Dugald Drummond 
4. The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) EncyclopediaDrummond G8 (NBR Class P) 0-4-4T Locomotives  

Type U3 Train (£410) - William Adams, 1894

395 Class 0-6-0 Goods Locomotive, London & South Western Railway, 1894.

William Adams was born in London in 1823.  After his apprenticeship he served for several years in posts in France and Italy, where in the latter case he was in effect the "superintendent engineer" of the Royal Sardinian Navy.  From 1855 to 1873, Adams was superintendent of the North London Railway's locomotive works and designed 4-4-0 tank locomotives for that railway.  While he was with the NLR he also patented and popularized a bogie with a sliding pivot.  In 1873 he began a five year stint in a similar position at the Great Eastern Railway, but his locomotives proved under-powered for the needs of this larger railway.   Adams achieved his best work as locomotive superintendent of the London & South Western Railway where he was employed from 1878 until 1895 when ill health forced him to retire.  He died in 1904.

While with the LSWR, Adams designed 524 locomotives, of which the most important were the sixty 4-4-0 engines built between 1891 and 1896 which were used on express services from London to the south coast and all the way to Exeter in the southwest.  Although most of Adams work appears to have been with designs of 4-4-0 locomotives or with various Tank engines, his work also includes a 395 Class 0-6-0 and a G6 Class 0-6-0 T locomotive.  The locomotive pictured on the U3 train card of Kit K2 (Advanced Trains) is clearly a 0-6-0 locomotive and not a Tank engine.  On the train card it is dated 1894, which is within the period in which Adams worked for the London & South Western Railway.  The 0-6-0 locomotives were used to carry goods and seldom would have been used for passengers.

References:
1. Wikipedia: William Adams (locomotive engineer)  .
2. William Adams
3. Herring, Peter.  Ultimate Train.   New York: Dorling Kindersley, 2000, p. 144.

Type 4T Train (£480) - J G Robinson, 1911

GCR Class 9N (LNER Class A5) Pacific Tank Locomotive (4-6-2T), Great Central Railway, first built in 1911.

Born in 1856, John G. Robinson served his apprenticeship with the Great Western Railway at its Swindon Works.  In 1884 he joined Ireland's Waterford, Limerick and Western Railway. Robinson was appointed Locomotive Engineer of the Great Central Railway in 1900, the year after that line had been completed to London, but by 1902 his position was reclassed as Chief Mechanical Engineer.  A prolific designer, Robinson enlarged the capacities of boilers and cylinders and developed what is known as the Robinson Superheater.  During World War I, his ROD (Railway Operating Division) 2-8-0  (LNER 04) design of 1911 was selected for military use.  Some 521 were built by the GCR and other builders.  Many of these locomotives were later purchased from 1924-1929 for heavy freight service by the LNER.  He declined the position of CME for the LNER when it formed in 1923 due to his age (66), but suggested a younger man, Nigel Gresley, for the position.  Robinson died on 7 December 1943 in retirement.  According to F. George Kay, in the first decade of the 1900s, Robinson's locomotives "were without doubt the best-looking engines of the decade....Many features were technically in advance of anything else being manufactured in quantity at the time." 

The 4T engine depicted in the 1825 Advanced Trains is a GCR Class 9N 4-6-2 Tank Locomotive designed by John G. Robinson for the GCR and also used by its LNER successor (as LNER Class A5) until the last one was removed in 1958.  This was Robinson's last passenger tank design, intended to pull trains in suburban service out of the GCR's Marylebone Station in London.  A total of 44 of these locomotives were produced in five batches (3 GCR and 2 LNER).  Between 1915 and 1917, all of the existing engines received the Robinson Superheater.  In line with GCR practice, the original ones did not have side windows in the cab but from 1921 onward they were either built new or else refitted with side windows.  (Before having windows, they had an open side.) 

References:
1. Kay, F. George.  Steam Locomotives. New York: Gallahad Books, 1974, pp. 101.
2. The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia: Engineers - John G. Robinson  
3. The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia: The Robinson A5 (GCR Class 9N) Pacific Tank Locomotives  

Type 2+2 Train (£600) - D E Marsh, 1908

Class I3 Atlantic 4-4-2T Tank Locomotive, London, Brighton and South Coast Railway, 1908.

Douglas Earle Marsh was born in Sall, Norfolk on 4 January 1862. After studying engineering in college and university, he became an apprentice to William Dean of the Great Western Railway and eventually at age 27 became Assistant Manager in 1889.  After a stint with the Great Northern Railway from 1895, he moved to the London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway (LBSCR) in 1904 where he served as its Chief Mechanical Engineer.  Ill health caused his resignation in 1911 at age 49.  He died in 1933.

Marsh's chief locomotive production included two 4-4-2 Atlantic Classes (H1 and H2), four 4-4-2T Atlantic Classes (I1, I2, I3, I4),  and two 4-6-2T designs.

D. E. Marsh developed a series of Atlantic 4-4-2 Tank engines for the relatively short routes of the London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway.  (The main route from London to Brighton was only some 50 miles and the other towns it served were within 80 miles of London.)  Marsh's experiment with superheating on tank engines of the I3 Atlantic Tank design built from 1907 onward for the LBSCR eventually proved that this was a very economic design feature due to lower fuel and water consumption.  The concept then spread throughout the railroading industry.  The London and North Western Railway did a test comparison in 1908 or 1909 [dates vary in the sources] of one of its own Precursor tender engines versus a Marsh I3 Tank engine and found the Marsh locomotive had the superior performance.  The LNWR then determined to use superheating for its two new classes of locomotives: the 4-4-0 King George the Fifth Class of 1910 and the 4-6-0 Prince of Wales Class of 1911.

Twenty-seven of Marsh's I3 Tank engines were built from 1907 to 1913.  They became part of the new Southern Railway during the amalgamations of 1923 and later were transfered to British Railway.  These tank engines were used chiefly for express service on the LBSCR's suburban routes and short mainlines south of London.  Instead of using a tender the fuel compartment was attached to the cab and tanks alongside the boiler carried their water.  The weight of the water above the coupled wheels provided greater traction for fast starts and the lack of a tender gave the engine more maneuverability. 

References:
1. The Encyclopedia of  Trains and Locomotives: The Comprehensive Guide to over 900 Steam, Diesel, and Electric Locomotives from 1825 to the Present Day.  General Editor: David Ross.  San Diego, CA: Thunder Bay Press; c. Amber Books, Ltd., 2003, p. 98 (4-6-2T).
2. Ross, David.  The Encyclopedia of Trains and Locomotives from 1804 to the Present Day.  San Diego, CA: Thunder Bay Press; c. Amber Books, Ltd., 2007, p. 98.
3. Gladiator Locomotive Kits: LBSCR/SR/BR I3 4-4-2T (Includes a drawing of an I3 4-4-2T).
4. London, Brighton, and South Coast RailwayDouglas Earle MarshI3 Locomotives  
5. Steam Index: Locomotive History: London, Brighton and South Coast Railway: Marsh Designs    
6. Wikipedia: D. E. Marsh 

Type 4+4E Train (£410) - Sir Nigel Gresley, 1922

GNR Class A1 ("Flying Scotsman") 4-6-2 Pacific, Great Northern Railway, Doncaster Locomotive Plant, 1922.

Without doubt the most notable of the Chief Mechanical Engineers of the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER), Herbert Nigel Gresley was born in Derbyshire on 19 June 1876.  He served an apprenticeship at the London and North Western's Crewe Works with F. W. Webb during the period 1893 to 1897, which included the 1895 "Race to the North."  In 1898 he switched to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway where he was involved in innovative design work.  At age 29 in 1905, Gresley became the superintendent of the Great Northern Railway's Carriage and Wagon Department at Doncaster, succeeding Henry A. Ivatt.  Six years later he found himself the GNR's Chief Mechanical Engineer (CME).  His early locomotive designs while in that post included a 3 cylinder 2-6-0 with a large boiler (K3, 1920) and his first Pacific (A1) with 3 cylinders, the Great Northern, built in 1922.  In size and power, Gresley's A1 Pacifics were as significant an increase over the GNR's Atlantics introduced in 1898 as those had been over the preceeding 4-4-2 singles.  In fact, the Pacifics for all practical purposes were the largest in size of British steam passenger trains.  In 1923 when John G. Robinson refused the post of the LNER's first CME, Gresley was appointed.  He chose a "big engine" policy ("ample capacity for the job in hand") for the LNER's mainline services, but smaller engines served in other capacities.  His famous line of Pacifics, which began with the Great Northern of 1922, went from that A1 design to the A3 design, finally ending with the A4 design which inlcuded the Mallard.  (When amalgamation occured in 1923, Gresley's Class A1 locomotive was deemed superior to the North Eastern Railway's A2 Pacific Class designed under Sir Vincent Raven, and so was the one that went into general use.)  Knighted in 1936, Sir Nigel Gresley died in 1941 while still the LNER's CME.

The locomotive depicted on the 1825 game's 4+4E train card (from Kit K2--Advanced Trains) represents an express (E) engine.  It is clearly a Pacific 4-6-2 type of engine.  The Gresley Pacific associated with the year 1922 is the Class A1 Pacific, of which the first built was No. 1470 Great Northern which rolled into service in April of 1922.  The engine soon proved in September of that year that Gresley was correct in believing that his A1 Pacifics could pull a 550 to 600 ton train within the time alotted for normal expresses of half the weight.  From 1921 to 1934, seventy-nine of these A1 Pacifics came into service, most named after famous racehorses--a fitting source of inspiration for these fast express trains.  When the Great Northern railway was merged with other companies into the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER), Gresley became the LNER's Chief Mechanical Engineer and continued production of his A1s under the LNER banner.  The third A1 built, No. 1472 (later LNER No. 4472) Flying Scotsman, came into service shortly after the formation of the LNER and is still preserved at the National Railway Museum in York.  (In the 1990s, the Flying Scotsman locomotive was used to pull a charter express named "The William Shakespeare," thus accounting for photos of this locomotive that have "The William Shakespeare" posted on the top front of the boiler.)  In 1934 in a special trial, the locomotive Flying Scotsman became the first British locomotive to attain an authenticated speed of 100mph.  This locomotive lent its name to the A1 Class as a whole, as well as to the LNER's special train service between London and Edinburgh.

In 1928, the LNER renamed its "Special Scotch Express" the "Flying Scotsman."  Gresley Pacifics ran the route from London King's Cross to Edinburgh Waverly.  In the summers between the World Wars, the 'Flying Scotsman' trains ran the 392.75 mile trip non-stop in 8.25 hours.  No other steam locomotives ever surpassed this distance for non-stop running.   From 1932 to 1938 the time was reduced to 7 hours and 20 minutes.  [In 2008 the run is made in 4 hours and 30 minutes using the Intercity 225 electric trains.]  Special tenders were built for some of the locomotives making this run so that the train's crew could be rotated through the tender using a corridor passage without the train needing to stop to make a crew change.  

Gresley hoped that his new type of large engine, which would be expensive to build, would ultimately be economical in the long run.  But there were flaws in the design of the valve gear, and improvements were found that would ultimately increase the efficiency of its coal consumption by 20% and increase its power.  So the original locomotives were rebuilt with these new features.  As with many of the other A1s, the Flying Scotsman was later rebuilt (in 1947) into the improved A3 Class Pacific type engine.  These conversions of the A1 type began in 1927 and continued to 1947.  Meanwhile, in 1935 appeared the A4 Class Streamlined Pacific, also by Gresley.  The world speed record for a steam locomotive was set on 4 July 1938 by one of these A4s, the LNER's No. 4468 Mallard, when it reached 126 mph north of Peterborough on the London-Edinburgh express.  This record has never been exceeded. 

The 1825 game represents the period prior to the 1923 amalgamations of the game's many railway companies into the four larger regional systems such as the LNER and its west coast competitor, the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS).  The most advanced train of the game is the 4+4E train designated "Gresley, 1922."  Thus the Class A1 Pacific, introduced by Gresley in 1922, is the last engine before the transition to the new era of amalgamations.  It is therefore fitting that the most advanced train of the 1825 game is one of these "Flying Scotsman" types which historically bridged the gap between the two eras.

In the 1825 combined Units game, the highest score for four cities would be 100 for London and 70 for each of three additional cities with the appropriate grey tiles.  The 4+4E train could run London-Birmingham-Manchester-Glasgow in the west to reach Scotland, or it could run London-Sheffield-Newcastle-Glasgow in the east for a 'Flying Scotsman' run that earned £310 x2 or £620 total.  So this train can indeed emulate the express passenger trains of the Gresley era.

References:
1. Allen, G. Freeman.  Railways: Past, Present, & Future.  New York: William, Morrow & Company, 1982, pp. 170-3,189-90.
2. Chant, Christopher.  The World's Railroads: The History and Development of Rail Transport.  Edison, NJ: Chartwell Books, 2000, p. 187.
3. Garratt, Colin and Wade-Matthews, Max.  The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Steam & Rail.   New York: Hermes House, 1999, p.60.
4. Hollingsworth, Brian and Cook, Arthur F.  The Great Book of Trains.  London: Salamander Books, 1996, pp. 106-7,138.
5. Kay, F. George.  Steam Locomotives.  New York: Gallahad Books,  1974, p. 110.
6. The Encyclopedia of  Trains and Locomotives: The Comprehensive Guide to over 900 Steam, Diesel, and Electric Locomotives from 1825 to the Present Day.  General Editor: David Ross.  San Diego, CA: Thunder Bay Press; c. Amber Books, Ltd., 2003, pp. 117-119.
7. Ross, David.  The Encyclopedia of Trains and Locomotives from 1804 to the Present Day.  San Diego, CA: Thunder Bay Press; c. Amber Books, Ltd., 2007, pp. 118-119.
8. The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia: Engineers - Sir Nigel Gresley
9. The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia: The LNER A1 and A3 Gresley Pacifics 
10. The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) EncyclopediaThe Gresley A4 Pacifics
11. National Railway Museum: Flying Scotsman 


Unit 1 Box Cover:  William Dean Single, Class 3031 4-2-2, Great Western Railway, 1891-1899.
Reference: Wikipedia: GWR 3031 Class 

Unit 2 Box Cover: Johnson Midland Single 4-2-2, Midland Railway, 1887.
Reference: Hollingsworth, Brian and Cook, Arthur F.  The Great Book of Trains.  London: Salamander Books, 1996, pp. 58-59.

Unti 3 Box Cover: Caledonian Railway Single No. 123, a unique 4-2-2 engine built by Neilson & Company as an exhibition locomotive, 1886.
Reference: Wikipedia: Caledonian Railway Single

Sources:

Allen, G. Freeman.  Railways: Past, Present, & Future.  New York: William, Morrow & Company, 1982.

Chant, Christopher.  The World's Railroads: The History and Development of Rail Transport.  Edison, NJ: Chartwell Books, 2000.

Garratt, Colin and Wade-Matthews, Max.  The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Steam & Rail.   New York: Hermes House, 1999.

Herring, Peter.  Ultimate Train.  New York: Dorling Kindersley, 2000.

Hollingsworth, Brian and Cook, Arthur F.  The Great Book of Trains.  London: Salamander Books, 1996.

Kay, F. George.  Steam Locomotives.  New York: Gallahad Books,  1974.

The Encyclopedia of  Trains and Locomotives: The Comprehensive Guide to over 900 Steam, Diesel, and Electric Locomotives from 1825 to the Present Day.  General Editor: David Ross.  San Diego, CA: Thunder Bay Press; c. Amber Books, Ltd., 2003.

LNWR Locomotives: Ramsbottom and Webb Designs

Ross, David.  The Encyclopedia of Trains and Locomotives from 1804 to the Present Day.  San Diego, CA: Thunder Bay Press; c. Amber Books, Ltd., 2007.

Various online entries in the online Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.

Various online entries for engineers of the component railways of the LNER in The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia.


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