Key Rules and Clarifications for 1825
edited by Lou Jerkich
Unless otherwise specified, the rules and clarifications noted below
apply to all of the three Units of the 1825 game. The
rules observations are not comprehensive, but do address issues
critical to the correct play of the game. Bold black text is
quoted verbatim from the 1825 rules.
1.8 Routes (also 4.5.2, 4.5.4 and Rules for Kit
A Route is a length of railway on
which a train can earn revenue. It must begin and end with a
large Station and it must include at least one Base Station
to the Company. A Route may not go through a Station that is entirely occupied by other Companies' Tokens
may terminate at such a
Station. A Route may not use the
same piece of track twice over, nor may it include more than one
Station on the same Tile or hexag (or more than one visit to the
The pointed observation about a Route being able to terminate at a
Station full occupied by other Companies' Tokens is intended to
the contrast with the previously published 1829 game. In 1829,
Routes may neither go through nor terminate at stations fully filled
with the tokens of other Companies.
The rule about large Stations forming the beginning and end of the
Route is fully applicable to the basic games of Units 1 or 2.
However, in Unit 3, it was noted that there was an exception. Rule 4.5.2
Unit 3 reads: A Route must begin
end with a large Station except that the '3T' Train may begin and
its run on any Station that is available to the Company.
the Rules for Kit K2--Advanced Trains, there are rules specific to
the 3T and 4T trains. This rule reads: Type 'T' trains are limited to the
of Stations shown which may be large or small, without
restriction. A small Station may form the end of a
These Trains are the only ones allowed to use single track (as
a black and white dashed line and included in Regional
These Trains may also call at two value 10 Stations on the same
hexag. Thus 'T'
Trains are an exception to the rule that requires large
to form both ends of a Route, and within specified limits they are
an exception to the
Routes to run to more than one Station on a tile. Moreover,
can be used with the single track that appeared in the first
of Regional Kits R1 (Wales) and R3 (North Norfolk)..
Discrepancy: Rule 4.5.4 of Unit 3 and the
U3 Trains in Kit K2--Advanced Trains
Rule 4.5.4 in all three Units specifies that ...The Train number
indicates the maximum number of Stations it can connect.
3, however, this sentence continues with the addition of a special
for the U3 Train that appears in Unit 3: ...although the 'U3" train may connect any
number of small Stations in addition to three large ones, two of
must form the ends of its Routes. Unfortunately, this
exception to the rules is not consistent with the rules for the 'U3'
Train that appear in Kit K2--Advanced Trains. In Kit K2 the
for 'U3' Trains reads: Type
Trains are limited to the number of large Stations shown but the
of small stations connected is unlimited (as in '1853'). The
Route may end at a small Station (again as in '1853'). Players
agree before playing on whether or not to follow the Unit 3 rule
K2 rule for the 'U3' Trains.
preference is to use the K2 rule and allow the 'U3'
end at small Stations. It is too difficult in 1825 to
very many small towns inside a route bounded by large Stations,
train does not provide much of an advantage at all. The
and the Highland Railways each receive one of these 'U3' Trains
of their formation, but they do not get to use the U3 advantage
much. They both would in fact be better off with a 'T'
unless the 'U3' Train is allowed to terminate its run in a small
Rule 3.1 Setting Up
a player to be the Banker.
The Banker now takes Private Companies for as many people as
playing, choosing the cards in ascending order of price.
the Director's Share in the LNWR when there are five or more
The above applies to Units 1 and 2.
The Rules (3.2) for the two-player Unit
3 specify that The
and £60 private Companies are now dealt blind by the
paid for by the recipients. Whoever bought the
Forfar Private Company then goes first in deciding to either buy
Stockton & Darlington Railway or pass. Once that is
the Caledonian and North British Railway shares will become
available. For Units 1 and 2, if any remaining Private
are still offered for sale, they must be bought in ascending
price before anyone can buy the LNWR shares.
Discrepancy: Section 7--Combined
Units [Units 1 and 2] versus the Note on page 17 of the Unit 3
Section 7 on the back cover of the Unit 1 and Unit 2 rules
that When two or more Units
in one game a few adjustments are necessary....Do not
Companies with the same name. Units 3's rules on
in the second last paragraph under "Note" specify the following:
Do not duplicate Private
Companies with the
same VALUE. It appears that the chief intent
their capitalization of the word "Value" is to stress that only
the £30 value private Companies should be in play
number of Units being used. Avoiding duplication of
automatically eliminates any duplicates of Private Companies
same name, taking care of all the other cases of like value.
My preference is to use
Unit 3 rules, which appeared later in time than Units 1 and
Should players choose to follow the rules from Units 1 or 2
then in a combined game they would have to decide in which order
place the three Private Companies valued at £30.
3.2 The First Share Dealing Round
...In this, the First Share Dealing
Round, players may only purchase certificates, not sell them.
Without such a rule, players could just buy and then sell off shares
all companies in turn in order to get as many as possible started.
4.1.2 First Operating Round
...A Company Token is placed on the
Company's Initial Base (see 1.2).
This initial base placement noted in this rule occurs in the
First Operating Round when all newly-formed companies are
"formed." Thereafter, each company takes its own turn in the
Operating Round. Those companies starting during the First
Operating Round clearly have no conflict with rule 4.4.6 that limits
companies to placing only one base token per turn. See also
discussion under rule 4.4.6 below.
...The Director is given Company Credits
equal to the face value of all ten Company Shares (even though
not yet have been bought).
Thus, there is full capitalization in 1825.
4.2 Railway Building
There are several noteworthy points among the rules for building
Rule 4.2.2: One or two Tiles may be
laid each turn but, if two Tiles are laid, they must not be
each other (even when not connected by a railway line).
Rule 4.2.5: Tiles may be placed on
hexags that are not quite complete but half hexags (and smaller
fractions) may not be used unless the adjoining Board is in
place. Tiles may be placed so that a railway terminates
the edge of the Board or against the side of an incomplete hexag.
Rule 4.2.7: Placing a Tile on
mountain hexag (indicated by a triangle) costs £100.
Placing a Tile on a hexag in which the land is divided into
parts by water such as a river costs £40 (or more when
by a number in a square)....
Rule 4.2.8 (Units 1 and 2): The
placing of Tiles on some hexags is reserved for a particular
company. These are named on the Board in white....
Rule 4.2.8 (Unit 3): The hexag containing Dumbarton is divided by
and includes a mountain and therefore costs £140. The
of laying a Tile on Dundee is £80 and on Dunfermline and
Kirkaldy is £120 as shown on the Board.
Note that rule 4.2.9 in Unit 3 indicates that there is a
reserved space for the GSWR south west of Glasgow. The white
printing on a beige background make it difficult to see these
spaces. Players should note them before the game begins.
is also important to not miss the cost of the more expensive Tile
locations in Scotland at Dumbarton, Dundee and Dunfermline.
A notable ambiguity in the rules regards whether or not a Station
filled with tokens (Bases) of other Companies blocks the
continuation of a railway line or the promotion of a tile.
There is no rule that explicitly forbids this. The closest one comes
in 1825 is in the beginning paragraph of rule 4.4, Establishing New
Bases, which reads: "Sometimes it will be desirable to lay a marker
Token on a Station in order to establish a new Base. This serves to
exclude other Companies and to open up new Routes so that the
railway can expand into new areas."
The phrase, "to exclude other Companies" is ambiguous and does not
adequately address the question.
I know of no other 18xx game in which it is permitted to extend a
railway line beyond blocking tokens, so I would also not permit it
in this game. The rules for running trains to collect revenue
from a Route clearly terminate a Route when it reaches a Station
filled with blocking Bases, so that also reinforces my
interpretation. Players should agree before the game that
Bases do block the building of lines beyond the blocking point.
4.3 Building Railways: Promotion of Tiles
Several important points pertain to the promotion, or upgrading of
tiles from yellow to green, green to russet, and russet to
Note that there is a clear difference in the rules between a Tile
(the first Tile placed on a hexag) and a Tile promotion (the
of one Tile to the next color).
Rule 4.3.1: Only one Tile may be
promoted in a turn. This is an alternative to laying a new
Rule 4.3.2: A Company may not
a Tile unless some of the new track on the Tile is part of a line
leading to a Base belonging to that Company. A Station can
be promoted if it can be reached by one of the Company's existing
Trains. The sizes of Train currently owned and the position
existing Bases are therefore significant in deciding whether a
particular Tile can be promoted.
There is no rule in 1825 similar to those in other games
which permits Station or city tiles to be promoted or upgraded
simply if they increase the value of the city for the promoting
Company. Strictly interpreted, rule 4.3.2 would appear to
forbid any promotion of a Station tile that does not first meet the
conditions of being within range of an existing Train running from
one of the Company's Bases. I would, however, have no problem
with a Company promoting a Station containing one of its own Bases,
regardless of the size of any Trains it owns, as long as it has at
least one Train. If the Company has no Train at all, then it
cannot per these rules promote any Station tile, and I would apply
this even to tiles containing one of its own Bases.
What about the first sentence of the rule? It could be
construed that the first sentence of rule 4.3.2 should refer only to
plain (non-Station) track tiles and not to Station tiles since it is
demonstrated that its application to Station tiles would create
some difficult situations for a Company's track development as I
At Glasgow, Birmingham and Manchester, for any company other than
the one doing the promoting to achieve a straight through route
could be difficult. It would require circling around the city to
approach it from another side. Contemplate the difficulties of
promoting Glasgow with the
requirement that the "new track" must be part of a line leading to a
belonging to that company. If the CR wishes to promote Glasgow
to a russet tile with a NE-SW
route through Glasgow (rather than a NW-SE one running through its
own Base), it cannot do so because
it would have to build track to the southwest side of the tile--a
location only open to the GSWR until the GSWR places track there.
Similar problems exist with Manchester. The LNWR could not
upgrade Liverpool unless it also could also reach it via a straight
east-west route through Manchester, which is the only access to the
new track on the russet Liverpool tile. The L&Y is in the same
predicament, and maybe even worse. If the L&Y makes its base
part of the through route when Manchester is upgraded to russet,
then it will be impossible for Liverpool ever to be promoted beyond
its original green hexag unless Phase 4 is used and Manchester can
also become a grey tile. So if the L&Y wants to quickly
profit from the promotion of Liverpool, it should never promote
Manchester by using the Manchester through route for itself.
Moreover, it would then also have to be able to access Manchester
from the east in order to reach the new track that would run
east-west through Manchester when it is promoted to russet.
London is also a location in which there is no "new" track that is
not already to be found on the green board hexag for London.
It is quite impossible for a company to reach any new track on the
London tile when it promotes it that it hasn't already reached on a
Green Tiles #12 and #13, which have space for only one base,
also present difficulties. If there is another company's base on
either of these Tile types, the only way to promote the tile would
be by actually building into the hexag from the side that will
contain the new track element. Otherwise, the Company would not be
able to reach the new track element.
Fortunately, per Keith Thomasson's 18xx
Rules Difference List (as of 29 November 2011), Francis Tresham,
the designer of 1825, has clarified that it was not his "intention
such a restriction, so you can consider that his intention was for
upgrades. However, the requirement to be able to reach a station
with one of the company's
trains still exists." The semi-restrictive
track-laying rule is that "some of the newly-created track must
be reachable from one of the laying company's station markers by
an arbitrarily large train or the value of a city which
can be reached by that train changes." Just remember
that in 1825 the existing Company Train's size is critical and the
distance is limited so that it is not arbitrarily large.
should note this clarification and agree on it before playing the
Rule 4.3.4: A promotion may not
ordinary track into a Station or vice-versa. Small Stations
however, be promoted to large Stations and two small Stations on a
may be combined and become one large Station.
Rule 4.3.6: Some special green
are reserved for specific locations. These are the #52 green
Tiles showing two separate large Stations which may be laid on the
yellow hexags on the Board. They may be used from Phase Two
onwards. Note that the use of these Tiles is a Tile 'lay',
'promotion' and has to comply with rules 4.2.2 to 4.2.8.
Phase Three these #52 Tiles may be promoted by the russet
#64 to #68.
Rule 4.3.7: The green tiles
the Board are deemed to represent Tiles already in place. In
Phase Three (4.7.3) these green hexags may be replaced by
them with special russet Tiles. [Special tiles exist for
for London, Liverpool, and the BGM tiles in Birmingham, Glasgow and
Manchester.] A standard Tile
may be placed on Bristol,
V10. Because these actions are treated as promotions they
do not involve construction costs.
Note that this last rule means no construction cost is required to
place the russet tiles at Liverpool or Bristol. A tile #119
also be used at Bristol.
4.4 Establishing New Bases
....Bases may not be set up on
Rule 4.4.1: A base may only be
established on a large Station if it is connected to an existing
owned by the Company. Effectively, both the new Base and the
existing one must be part of the same Route, although the Route
of any length and it is not restricted by the size of the trains
Note that unlike Tile promotions, there is no restriction to placing
new Base other than a legal connection to an existing Base.
Rule 4.4.6: Only one token may be
per turn. The number available is limited and one is
use on the share price index.
Rule 4.1.2 (see above) clearly provides for companies in the first
Operating Round to place their initial base prior to taking their
regular turn in the Operating Round. Thus those companies
at that time can certainly lay an additional base during their first
Operating Round. The question arises whether companies formed
later in the game will also be able to lay an additional base aside
from their initial one during the first turn in which the company
operates. Fortunately, Keith Thomasson reported in an 188xx
e-group message on Tuesday, Dec. 17, 2002 that on the previous
evening Francis Tresham,
the designer and
publisher of 1825, told him that a company may always lay one base
its first Operating Round in addition to the one which had been laid
its home starting location.
4.5 Running Trains
Note: See rule 1.8, above, for additional information on
trains over routes.
Rule 4.5.5: If desired, two '2'
are allowed to be run together and treated as if they were a
Double-heading in this manner allows a company to go from a large
Station through a small Station and end up at a large Station, to
the requirements of both ends of the run being large Stations.
not for double-heading, then some companies might not be able to run
awhile, or might have to run poorer routes. For example, the
from its base in Swindon, can only reach London easily in Phase One
double-heading two '2' Trains to run through the small town of
that lies in between. Note that the rules do not permit the
of more than one Train to be used in determining whether a Station
be promoted, per rule 4.3.2. However, this rule says to treat
'2' Trains as if they were a single '3' Train. Thus, the
double-headed '2' Trains can extend the distance over
a tile may be promoted to equal that of a '3' Train.
Rule 4.5.9 The money earned
the Company's Trains is paid out by the Bank, either as a Dividend
the shareholders or as Company Credits to the Company.
the opening paragraph for rule 4.5 states: If the Director decides not to pay a
Dividend the earnings (if any) are paid to the Company in Company
Credits. There is one more relevant statement in the
rules in Section 2--Procedures. Here it states that The Companies use a special form of
called Company Credits, except when paying earnings to the players
(shareholders) when ordinary money is used.
Because earnings go to the players, who are identified as the
shareholders, and lacking any statement to the contrary, the logical
conclusion is that unissued shares and the shares in the Bank Pool
(both of which are held by the Bank) do not receive dividends.
Thus either the players in the game receive dividends for the shares
they own in a Company, or that Company receives all the earnings in
form of Company Credits. There are no half-dividends in 1825,
no way for the Companies to receive cash from running their Trains
except by fully retaining all earnings.
4.6 Running Trains
Rule 4.6.4 A Company on its
Train owning limit may NOT buy the first '5' Train even though
starts Phase Three and makes any '2' Trains owned obsolete.
Rule 4.6.5 Trains may
bought from another railway Company at a mutually agreed price of
least £10. This can only take place at the end of the
purchasing Company's turn. (Both Companies often have the
Rule 4.6.4 is sometimes forgotten by players, so it is good to keep
in mind. Rule 4.6.5 is necessary since the denominations of
Company Credits in basic Units 1 and 2 do not include bills lower
£10. (Where denominations lower than £10 occur in
1825 it is due to the small change needed when Minor Companies are
play that have variable starting values. Nevertheless, even
3 which contains three Minor Companies retains the rule that Train
purchases must be for a minimum of 10.)
Points: There is no requirement in the rules
1825 that a Company own a Train. There is consequently no set
rules regarding forced Train purchases as occur in most 18xx
games. Miscellaneous Rule 6.5.1 specifies that Players and Companies may not lend each
other money, Trains, etc. Since there is no
own a Train, there is no provision for giving any money from a
to the Company, whether for Train purchases or otherwise.
5 Share Dealing Rounds (SDRs)
....Players are not allowed to sell
Shares during the first SDR but they may be sold at any time
player's turn in other SDRs.
....the round will go on for as
as at least one player continues to buy every time it is his or
turn. It will stop once every player has consecutively
the opportunity to buy (not sell) a share. Consequently the
continues for as long as players require it to do so.... The next
Dealing Round will start with the player on the left of the
person to buy,....
Rule 5.1.5: Once all Shares
Company have been bought the Shares in the next Company become
available IF the Companies are of different value. When
Companies have the same Share value it is only necessary for ONE
Company in that value band to be fully subscribed before Shares in
next band become available....
Rule 5.17: There is a limit
the number of Shares that a player may hold and this is given in
3. Private Railway Companies are included in calculating the
total. Each Director's Share counts as ONE certificate.
Rule 5.2.6: The sale of Shares into
the Bank Pool has no effect on the formation of a new Company
(4.1.2). It is sufficient that six new Shares should have
bought in the Company, even though some may have been sold
Rule 5.2.9: Private Railways may be
sold into the Pool for £30 less than their face value.
may be bought from the Pool at face value.
5.3 Take Over Bids
2nd paragraph: A Director's Share
be sold into the Bank Pool in the normal manner. If
player now holds a majority he or she then immediately acquires the Director's Share by
with two ordinary Shares. If two (or more) players should
preference is given to the one nearest to the seller's left.
no player holds the necessary two Shares the Company will go into
Receivership (6.4). Player's may not buy a Director's
from the Bank Pool (6.4.7).
Rule 5.4 Minor
[from Unit 3 rules]
Last paragraph: Minor Companies run
after other Companies during an Operating Round. They then
initial price order (Ref. 4.1.3) with formation order used to
6.2 End of Game
1st paragraph: The game ends when
Bank runs out of ordinary money. Complete the Operating
which is in progress by making a note of the sums due.
then add up the value of their cash and the current value of their
Shares as given on the Share Price Index. Private Railways
are still running are added at their face value. Nothing
be included. The wealthiest player is the winner.
2nd paragraph: The game also
ends if the Company Share value reaches the highest price recorded
the SPI. In this case the game stops at the end of that
3rd paragraph: Games should
run to a time limit if desired and should then finish at the end
complete Operating Round.
6.4 Company in Receivership
A Company goes into Receivership if
player holds the two Shares necessary to qualify as
Receiver (1.7) is then appointed to run the Company....If all
are Directors the Receiver is the player currently holding the
Rule 6.4.1: The Receiver
operates the Company in the normal way except that no Dividends
paid, all earnings being retained by the Company. The
must be the maximum possible.
Rule 6.4.2: Company assets may not
Rule 6.4.3: A Company
Receivership may lease a Train from the unsold stock in the Bank
£10 per turn. This Train remains the property of the
at all times. Only one Train may be leased by a
Train may still be leased even if the Company already owns a Train
Trains.) The leased Train will be the next one on
sale. If the Train is of a new type it will not cause a
change. (The Train may still run its full distance.)
Rule 6.4.4: A Company in
Receivership must buy a Train, if possible, as soon as funds
unless there is no Route on which it can be run.
Rule 6.4.6: A Company in
Receivership need not make payment for construction costs, Station
markers, leasing fees, etc. until the end of each turn.
6.5 Miscellaneous Rules
Rule 6.5.4: When Trains are
between Companies the price must be made public.
Rule 6.5.6: Players and
Companies need not divulge their financial details.
Corner: Rail Game Links. Return to the 1825
This page was originally created on 17 July 2008. It was
updated and posted with
some additional content on 26 August, 2008. Minor typographic
corrections made 23 July 2009. Updated in sections 4.2 and 4.3 on 10
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