Key Rules and Clarifications for 1825 

edited by Lou Jerkich

Unless otherwise specified, the rules and clarifications noted below apply to all of the three Units of the 1825 game.  The following rules observations are not comprehensive, but do address issues critical to the correct play of the game.  Bold black text is quoted verbatim from the 1825 rules.

Rule 1.8  Routes (also 4.5.2, 4.5.4 and Rules for Kit K2--Advanced Trains)

A Route is a length of railway on which a train can earn revenue.  It must begin and end with a large Station and it must include at least one Base Station belonging to the Company.  A Route may not go through a Station that is entirely occupied by other Companies' Tokens but it may terminate at such a Station. A Route may not use the same piece of track twice over, nor may it include more than one Station on the same Tile or hexag (or more than one visit to the same Station)....
The pointed observation about a Route being able to terminate at a Station full occupied by other Companies' Tokens is intended to stress the contrast with the previously published 1829 game.  In 1829, Routes may neither go through nor terminate at stations fully filled with the tokens of other Companies.

The rule about large Stations forming the beginning and end of the Route is fully applicable to the basic games of Units 1 or 2.  However, in Unit 3, it was noted that there was an exception.  Rule 4.5.2 of Unit 3 reads: A Route must begin and end with a large Station except that the '3T' Train may begin and end its run on any Station that is available to the Company.  In the Rules for Kit K2--Advanced Trains, there are rules specific to the 3T and 4T trains.  This rule reads: Type 'T' trains are limited to the number of  Stations shown which may be large or small, without restriction.  A small Station may form the end of a Route.  These Trains are the only ones allowed to use single track (as shown by a black and white dashed line and included in Regional Kits).  These Trains may also call at two value 10 Stations on the same Tile or hexag.  Thus 'T' Trains are an exception to the rule that requires large Stations to form both ends of a Route, and within specified limits they are an exception to the rule forbidding Routes to run to more than one Station on a tile.  Moreover, they can be used with the single track that appeared in the first editions of Regional Kits R1 (Wales) and R3 (North Norfolk)..

Notable Discrepancy:  Rule 4.5.4 of Unit 3 and the rules for U3 Trains in Kit K2--Advanced Trains
Rule 4.5.4 in all three Units specifies that ...The Train number indicates the maximum number of Stations it can connect.  For Unit 3, however, this sentence continues with the addition of a special rule for the U3 Train that appears in Unit 3: ...although the 'U3" train may connect any number of small Stations in addition to three large ones, two of which must form the ends of its Routes.  Unfortunately, this exception to the rules is not consistent with the rules for the 'U3' Train that appear in Kit K2--Advanced Trains.  In Kit K2 the rule for 'U3' Trains reads:  Type 'U' Trains are limited to the number of large Stations shown but the number of small stations connected is unlimited (as in '1853').  The Route may end at a small Station (again as in '1853').  Players should agree before playing on whether or not to follow the Unit 3 rule or the K2 rule for the 'U3' Trains. 

My preference is to use the K2 rule and allow the 'U3' Trains to end at small Stations.  It is too difficult in 1825 to incorporate very many small towns inside a route bounded by large Stations, so this train does not provide much of an advantage at all.  The Cambrian and the Highland Railways each receive one of these 'U3' Trains as part of their formation, but they do not get to use the U3 advantage very much.  They both would in fact be better off with a 'T' Train unless the 'U3' Train is allowed to terminate its run in a small Station.

Rule 3.1  Setting Up

Choose a player to be the Banker.  The Banker now takes Private Companies for as many people as are playing, choosing the cards in ascending order of price.  Include the Director's Share in the LNWR when there are five or more players....

The above applies to Units 1 and 2.  The Rules (3.2) for the two-player Unit 3 specify that The £30 and £60 private Companies are now dealt blind by the Banker and paid for by the recipients.  Whoever bought the Abroath and Forfar Private Company then goes first in deciding to either buy the Stockton & Darlington Railway or pass.  Once that is bought, the Caledonian and North British Railway shares will become available.  For Units 1 and 2, if any remaining Private Companies are still offered for sale, they must be bought in ascending order of price before anyone can buy the LNWR shares.

Notable Discrepancy: Section 7--Combined Units [Units 1 and 2] versus the Note on page 17 of the Unit 3 Rules
Section 7 on the back cover of the Unit 1 and Unit 2 rules specifies that When two or more Units are used in one game a few adjustments are necessary....Do not duplicate Private Companies with the same name.  Units 3's rules on page 17, in the second last paragraph under "Note" specify the following: Do not duplicate Private Companies with the same VALUE.  It appears that the chief intent meant by their capitalization of the word "Value" is to stress that only one of the £30 value private Companies should be in play regardless of the number of Units being used.  Avoiding duplication of "value" automatically eliminates any duplicates of Private Companies with the same name, taking care of all the other cases of like value.

My preference is to use the Unit 3 rules, which appeared later in time than Units 1 and 2.  Should players choose to follow the rules from Units 1 or 2 instead, then in a combined game they would have to decide in which order to place the three Private Companies valued at £30.

Rule 3.2  The First Share Dealing Round

...In this, the First Share Dealing Round, players may only purchase certificates, not sell them.

Without such a rule, players could just buy and then sell off shares in all companies in turn in order to get as many as possible started.

Rule 4.1.2 First Operating Round

...A Company Token is placed on the Company's Initial Base (see 1.2).

This initial base placement noted in this rule occurs in the First Operating Round when all newly-formed companies are "formed."  Thereafter, each company takes its own turn in the Operating Round.  Those companies starting during the First Operating Round clearly have no conflict with rule 4.4.6 that limits companies to placing only one base token per turn.  See also the discussion under rule 4.4.6 below.

...The Director is given Company Credits equal to the face value of all ten Company Shares (even though some may not yet have been bought).

Thus, there is full capitalization in 1825.

Rule 4.2  Railway Building

There are several noteworthy points among the rules for building track. 
Rule 4.2.2: One or two Tiles may be laid each turn but, if two Tiles are laid, they must not be adjacent to each other (even when not connected by a railway line).

Rule 4.2.5: Tiles may be placed on hexags that are not quite complete but half hexags (and smaller fractions) may not be used unless the adjoining Board is in place.  Tiles may be placed so that a railway terminates against the edge of the Board or against the side of an incomplete hexag.

Rule 4.2.7:  Placing a Tile on a mountain hexag (indicated by a triangle) costs £100.  Placing a Tile on a hexag in which the land is divided into separate parts by water such as a river costs £40 (or more when indicated by a number in a square)....

Rule 4.2.8 (Units 1 and 2): The placing of Tiles on some hexags is reserved for a particular company.  These are named on the Board in white....

Rule 4.2.8 (Unit 3): The hexag containing Dumbarton is divided by water and includes a mountain and therefore costs £140.  The cost of laying a Tile on Dundee is £80 and on Dunfermline and Kirkaldy is £120 as shown on the Board.

Note that rule 4.2.9 in Unit 3 indicates that there is a reserved space for the GSWR south west of Glasgow.  The white printing on a beige background make it difficult to see these reserved spaces.  Players should note them before the game begins.  It is also important to not miss the cost of the more expensive Tile locations in Scotland at Dumbarton, Dundee and Dunfermline.

A notable ambiguity in the rules regards whether or not a Station filled with tokens (Bases) of other Companies blocks the continuation of a railway line or the promotion of a tile.  There is no rule that explicitly forbids this. The closest one comes in 1825 is in the beginning paragraph of rule 4.4, Establishing New Bases, which reads: "Sometimes it will be desirable to lay a marker Token on a Station in order to establish a new Base. This serves to exclude other Companies and to open up new Routes so that the railway can expand into new areas."   The phrase, "to exclude other Companies" is ambiguous and does not adequately address the question. I know of no other 18xx game in which it is permitted to extend a railway line beyond blocking tokens, so I would also not permit it in this game.  The rules for running trains to collect revenue from a Route clearly terminate a Route when it reaches a Station filled with blocking Bases, so that also reinforces my interpretation.  Players should agree before the game that Bases do block the building of lines beyond the blocking point.

Rule 4.3  Building Railways: Promotion of Tiles

Several important points pertain to the promotion, or upgrading of tiles from yellow to green, green to russet, and russet to grey.  Note that there is a clear difference in the rules between a Tile lay (the first Tile placed on a hexag) and a Tile promotion (the upgrading of one Tile to the next color).

Rule 4.3.1: Only one Tile may be promoted in a turn.  This is an alternative to laying a new Tile or Tiles....

Rule 4.3.2: A Company may not promote a Tile unless some of the new track on the Tile is part of a line leading to a Base belonging to that Company.  A Station can only be promoted if it can be reached by one of the Company's existing Trains.  The sizes of Train currently owned and the position of existing Bases are therefore significant in deciding whether a particular Tile can be promoted.

There is no rule in 1825 similar to those in other games which permits Station or city tiles to be promoted or upgraded simply if they increase the value of the city for the promoting Company.  Strictly interpreted, rule 4.3.2 would appear to forbid any promotion of a Station tile that does not first meet the conditions of being within range of an existing Train running from one of the Company's Bases.  I would, however, have no problem with a Company promoting a Station containing one of its own Bases, regardless of the size of any Trains it owns, as long as it has at least one Train.  If the Company has no Train at all, then it cannot per these rules promote any Station tile, and I would apply this even to tiles containing one of its own Bases.

What about the first sentence of the rule?  It could be construed that the first sentence of rule 4.3.2 should refer only to plain (non-Station) track tiles and not to Station tiles since it is easily demonstrated that its application to Station tiles would create some difficult situations for a Company's track development as I note below. 

At Glasgow, Birmingham and Manchester, for any company other than the one doing the promoting to achieve a straight through route could be difficult. It would require circling around the city to approach it from another side.  Contemplate the difficulties of promoting Glasgow with the requirement that the "new track" must be part of a line leading to a base belonging to that company.  If the CR wishes to promote Glasgow to a russet tile with a NE-SW route through Glasgow (rather than a NW-SE one running through its own Base), it cannot do so because it would have to build track to the southwest side of the tile--a location only open to the GSWR until the GSWR places track there. 

Similar problems exist with Manchester.  The LNWR could not upgrade Liverpool unless it also could also reach it via a straight east-west route through Manchester, which is the only access to the new track on the russet Liverpool tile. The L&Y is in the same predicament, and maybe even worse. If the L&Y makes its base part of the through route when Manchester is upgraded to russet, then it will be impossible for Liverpool ever to be promoted beyond its original green hexag unless Phase 4 is used and Manchester can also become a grey tile.  So if the L&Y wants to quickly profit from the promotion of Liverpool, it should never promote Manchester by using the Manchester through route for itself. Moreover, it would then also have to be able to access Manchester from the east in order to reach the new track that would run east-west through Manchester when it is promoted to russet.

London is also a location in which there is no "new" track that is not already to be found on the green board hexag for London.  It is quite impossible for a company to reach any new track on the London tile when it promotes it that it hasn't already reached on a previous turn.

Green Tiles #12 and #13, which have space for only one base, also present difficulties. If there is another company's base on either of these Tile types, the only way to promote the tile would be by actually building into the hexag from the side that will contain the new track element. Otherwise, the Company would not be able to reach the new track element.

Fortunately, per Keith Thomasson's 18xx Rules Difference List (as of 29 November 2011), Francis Tresham, the designer of 1825, has clarified that it was not his "intention to create such a restriction, so you can consider that his intention was for semi-restrictive upgrades. However, the requirement to be able to reach a station with one of the company's trains still exists."  The semi-restrictive track-laying rule is that "some of the newly-created track must be reachable from one of the laying company's station markers by an arbitrarily large train or the value of a city which can be reached by that train changes."  Just remember that in 1825 the existing Company Train's size is critical and the distance is limited so that it is not arbitrarily large.

Players should note this clarification and agree on it before playing the game.

Rule 4.3.4: A promotion may not change ordinary track into a Station or vice-versa.  Small Stations may, however, be promoted to large Stations and two small Stations on a Tile may be combined and become one large Station.

Rule 4.3.6: Some special green Tiles are reserved for specific locations.  These are the #52 green Tiles showing two separate large Stations which may be laid on the yellow hexags on the Board.  They may be used from Phase Two onwards.  Note that the use of these Tiles is a Tile 'lay', not a 'promotion' and has to comply with rules 4.2.2 to 4.2.8.  From Phase Three these #52 Tiles  may be promoted by the russet Tiles #64 to #68.

Rule 4.3.7:  The green tiles on the Board are deemed to represent Tiles already in place.  In Phase Three (4.7.3) these green hexags may be replaced by overlaying them with special russet Tiles. [Special tiles exist for this purpose for London, Liverpool, and the BGM tiles in Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.]  A standard Tile #38 may be placed on Bristol, V10.  Because these actions are treated as promotions they do not involve construction costs.

Note that this last rule means no construction cost is required to place the russet tiles at Liverpool or Bristol.  A tile #119 can also be used at Bristol.

Rule 4.4  Establishing New Bases

....Bases may not be set up on small Stations.

Rule 4.4.1: A base may only be established on a large Station if it is connected to an existing Base owned by the Company.  Effectively, both the new Base and the existing one must be part of the same Route, although the Route may be of any length and it is not restricted by the size of the trains that are available.

Note that unlike Tile promotions, there is no restriction to placing a new Base other than a legal connection to an existing Base.

Rule 4.4.6: Only one token may be laid per turn.  The number available is limited and one is reserved for use on the share price index.

Rule 4.1.2 (see above) clearly provides for companies in the first Operating Round to place their initial base prior to taking their own regular turn in the Operating Round.  Thus those companies formed at that time can certainly lay an additional base during their first Operating Round.  The question arises whether companies formed later in the game will also be able to lay an additional base aside from their initial one during the first turn in which the company operates.  Fortunately, Keith Thomasson reported in an 188xx Yahoo e-group message on Tuesday, Dec. 17, 2002 that on the previous evening Francis Tresham, the designer and publisher of 1825, told him that a company may always lay one base in its first Operating Round in addition to the one which had been laid in its home starting location.

Rule 4.5  Running Trains

Note:  See rule 1.8, above, for additional information on running trains over routes.

Rule 4.5.5: If desired, two '2' Trains are allowed to be run together and treated as if they were a single '3' Train.
Double-heading in this manner allows a company to go from a large Station through a small Station and end up at a large Station, to meet the requirements of both ends of the run being large Stations.  If not for double-heading, then some companies might not be able to run for awhile, or might have to run poorer routes.  For example, the GWR, from its base in Swindon, can only reach London easily in Phase One by double-heading two '2' Trains to run through the small town of Reading that lies in between.  Note that the rules do not permit the size of more than one Train to be used in determining whether a Station may be promoted, per rule 4.3.2.  However, this rule says to treat two '2' Trains as if they were a single '3' Train.  Thus, the double-headed  '2'  Trains can extend the distance over which a tile may be promoted to equal that of a '3' Train.

Rule 4.5.9  The money earned by the Company's Trains is paid out by the Bank, either as a Dividend to the shareholders or as Company Credits to the Company.  Furthermore, the opening paragraph for rule 4.5 states:  If the Director decides not to pay a Dividend the earnings (if any) are paid to the Company in Company Credits.  There is one more relevant statement in the rules in Section 2--Procedures.  Here it states that The Companies use a special form of money, called Company Credits, except when paying earnings to the players (shareholders) when ordinary money is used.

Because earnings go to the players, who are identified as the shareholders, and lacking any statement to the contrary, the logical conclusion is that unissued shares and the shares in the Bank Pool (both of which are held by the Bank) do not receive dividends.  Thus either the players in the game receive dividends for the shares they own in a Company, or that Company receives all the earnings in the form of Company Credits.  There are no half-dividends in 1825, and no way for the Companies to receive cash from running their Trains except by fully retaining all earnings.

Rule 4.6   Running Trains

Rule 4.6.4  A Company on its Train owning limit may NOT buy the first '5' Train even though this starts Phase Three and makes any '2' Trains owned obsolete.

Rule 4.6.5  Trains may be bought from another railway Company at a mutually agreed price of at least £10.  This can only take place at the end of the purchasing Company's turn.  (Both Companies often have the same Director.)

Rule 4.6.4 is sometimes forgotten by players, so it is good to keep it in mind.  Rule 4.6.5 is necessary since the denominations of Company Credits in basic Units 1 and 2 do not include bills lower than £10.  (Where denominations lower than £10 occur in 1825 it is due to the small change needed when Minor Companies are in play that have variable starting values.  Nevertheless, even Unit 3 which contains three Minor Companies retains the rule that Train purchases must be for a minimum of 10.)

Noteworthy Points:  There is no requirement in the rules for 1825 that a Company own a Train.  There is consequently no set of rules regarding forced Train purchases as occur in most 18xx games.  Miscellaneous Rule 6.5.1 specifies that Players and Companies may not lend each other money, Trains, etc.  Since there is no requirement to own a Train, there is no provision for giving any money from a player to the Company, whether for Train purchases or otherwise.

Section 5  Share Dealing Rounds (SDRs)

....Players are not allowed to sell Shares during the first SDR but they may be sold at any time during a player's turn in other SDRs.

....the round will go on for as long as at least one player continues to buy every time it is his or her turn.  It will stop once every player has consecutively declined the opportunity to buy (not sell) a share.  Consequently the round continues for as long as players require it to do so.... The next Share Dealing Round  will start with the player on the left of the last person to buy,....

Rule 5.1.5:  Once all Shares in a Company have been bought the Shares in the next Company become available IF the Companies are of different value.  When several Companies have the same Share value it is only necessary for ONE Company in that value band to be fully subscribed before Shares in the next band become available....

Rule 5.17:  There is a limit on the number of Shares that a player may hold and this is given in TABLE 3.  Private Railway Companies are included in calculating the total.  Each Director's Share counts as ONE certificate.

Rule 5.2.6: The sale of Shares into the Bank Pool has no effect on the formation of a new Company (4.1.2).  It is sufficient that six new Shares should have been bought in the Company, even though some may have been sold afterward.

Rule 5.2.9: Private Railways may be sold into the Pool for £30 less than their face value.  They may be bought from the Pool at face value.

Rule 5.3  Take Over Bids

2nd paragraph: A Director's Share may be sold into the Bank Pool in the normal manner.   If another player now holds a majority he or she then immediately acquires the Director's Share by exchange with two ordinary Shares.  If two (or more) players should qualify preference is given to the one nearest to the seller's left.  If no player holds the necessary two Shares the Company will go into Receivership (6.4).  Player's may not buy a Director's Certificate from the Bank Pool (6.4.7).

Rule 5.4  Minor Companies [from Unit 3 rules]

Last paragraph: Minor Companies run after other Companies during an Operating Round.  They then run in initial price order (Ref. 4.1.3) with formation order used to resolve any ties.

Rule 6.2  End of Game

1st paragraph: The game ends when the Bank runs out of ordinary money.  Complete the Operating Round which is in progress by making a note of the sums due.  Players then add up the value of their cash and the current value of their Shares as given on the Share Price Index.  Private Railways that are still running are added at their face value.  Nothing else may be included.  The wealthiest player is the winner.

2nd paragraph:  The game also ends if the Company Share value reaches the highest price recorded on the SPI.  In this case the game stops at the end of that Company's turn.

3rd paragraph:  Games should be run to a time limit if desired and should then finish at the end of a complete Operating Round.

Rule 6.4  Company in Receivership

A Company goes into Receivership if no player holds the two Shares necessary to qualify as Director.  A Receiver (1.7) is then appointed to run the Company....If all Players are Directors the Receiver is the player currently holding the Priority Deal Card.

Rule 6.4.1:  The Receiver operates the Company in the normal way except that no Dividends are paid, all earnings being retained by the Company.  The earnings must be the maximum possible.

Rule 6.4.2: Company assets may not be transferred.

Rule 6.4.3:   A Company in Receivership may lease a Train from the unsold stock in the Bank for £10 per turn.  This Train remains the property of the Bank at all times.  Only one Train may be leased by a Company.  (A Train may still be leased even if the Company already owns a Train or Trains.)   The leased Train will be the next one on offer for sale.  If the Train is of a new type it will not cause a Phase change.  (The Train may still run its full distance.)

Rule 6.4.4:  A Company in Receivership must buy a Train, if possible, as soon as funds permit unless there is no Route on which it can be run.

Rule 6.4.6:  A Company in Receivership need not make payment for construction costs, Station markers, leasing fees, etc. until the end of each turn.

Rule 6.5 Miscellaneous Rules

Rule 6.5.4:  When Trains are sold between Companies the price must be made public.

Rule 6.5.6:  Players and Companies need not divulge their financial details.

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This page was originally created on 17 July 2008.   It was updated and posted with some additional content on 26 August, 2008.  Minor typographic corrections made 23 July 2009. Updated in sections 4.2 and 4.3 on 10 December 2011.
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