Across the Boards: Historical Routes for the Railways of 1825

by Lou Jerkich

Part 2: The Railways of Unit 2


The Major Companies:
LNWR - London and North Western Railway
MR - Midland Railway
NER - North Eastern Railway
GCR - Great Central Railway
GNR - Great Northern Railway
L&Y - Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway

The Minor Companies:
FR - Furness Railway
NSR - North Staffordshire Railway

Unit 2 - Major Railways:

MR - Midland Railway
Formed in 1844 by the merger of three railways that met at the Tri Junct Station in Derby, the Midland came to be initially led by George Hudson.  One spoke of the Midland was the Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway which had a connection with the London and Birmingham in the latter city.  Eventually this railway would be continued to Bristol by the Midland's acquisition in 1846 of the Birmingham and Bristol Railway.  A second spoke from Derby--the Midland Counties Railway-- went east to Nottingham with a main line south off of it to Leicester and thence to Rugby where it connected in 1840 with the London and Birmingham.  The third spoke out of Derby--the North Midlands Railway--trekked north to Rotherham and then eventually onward to Leeds, which it reached in 1840.  The Midland in 1846 opened a line from Leeds west to nearby Bradford.  This line was extended later to Morecambe on the west coast, and at a junction near Settle the Midland's route to Scotland began.  The Settle-Carlisle Railway originated in 1866 as an effort by the Midland Railway to compete with the LNWR by having its own route to Scotland.  Three years later when the Midland sought to cancel the plan due to a financial crisis, the govenrment forced it to continue.  This line, which opened in 1875, is now the highest main line in England and one of the most scenic. 

The Midland had originally reached London on the LNWR lines. In 1853 it built a new line southeast from Leicester to a connection with the great Northern Railway's line at Hitchin and used the GNR's rails for service to London.  Between 1862 and 1869 the Midland completed its own route into London ending at the magnificent St. Pancras Station between the GNR's King's Cross Station and the LNWR's Euston Station.  By 1875 the Midland could run trains from London to Carlisle in addition to its major cross-country route from Derby to Bristol.  After 1869 a joint venture with the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway (predecessor of the GCR) allowed the Midland also to gain access to Manchester.  The Midland in 1893 partnered with the Great Northern to own the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway into Norfolk.  Meanwhile, in partnership from 1875 with the London and South Western Railway it managed the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway.  In the 1923 groupings, the Midland became part of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway.  For more information on the Midland Railway see MR.

Base:  Q15 (Derby [Tri Junct Station])
Locations for 3 other stations:
a. R16 (Leicester),
b. U11 (Gloucester) or V10 (Bristol),
c. J10 (Carlisle), N14 (Leeds/Bradford) or Q13 (Newcastle under Lyme/Hanley)

Main Line: London to Sheffield to Carlisle
V20 (London-NE [St. Pancras Station]), NE to U21 [29sw], W to U19 [47NW], NW to T18 [23se], NW to S17 [47nw], NW to R16 (Leicester) [14ne], NW to Q15 (Derby) [51w], NE to P16 Sheffield) [167se], NE to O15 (Barnsley) [brown hexag]; if not blocked by GCR station at Barnsley, continue W to O13 [44sw], NE to N14 (Leeds/Bradford) [167e],  NW to M13 [83nw], NW to L12 [9se], NW to K11 [9se], NW to J10 (Carlisle) [63sw].
[Note: the Midland main line and some branches will be blocked at Barnsley (north to Leeds/Bradford) by the GCR station and at Doncaster (north to Leeds/Bradford) by the GNR station.  Assuming that either of those base stations are not present, the Midland can follow Barnsley to Leeds and thence northwest to build the Midland's Settle-Carlisle extension line, or can make a route via Rotherham or Lincoln to Doncaster and then York to reach M13 and the Settle-Carlisle route to J10.]

Branch Lines:
1. Derby to Birmingham:  Q15 (Derby) [51w], SW to R14 [41ne], SW to S13 (Birmingham East) [50se].
2. Derby to Bristol: Q15 (Derby) [51w], W to Q13 (Newcastle under Lyme/Hanley -- neither actually part of the Midland line to Manchester) [119e], SW to R12 (Wolverhampton) [167se], SW to S11 [7e], E to S13 (Birmingham) [50se], SW to T12 [27ne], SW to U11 (Gloucester) [14w], SW to V10 (Bristol) [51nw].
3. Derby to Manchester: {best represented in the game as follows}Q15 (Derby) [51w], W to Q13 (Newcastle under Lyme/Hanley -- neither actually part of the Midland line to Manchester) [119e], NW to P12 [47sw], NW to O11 (Manchester South) [50w].
4. Nottingham to Rugby: Q17 (Nottingham) [38sw], SW to R16 (Leicester) [14nw], SW to S15 (Northampton[Rugby]) [38w].

Of all the railways in the 1825 game, recreating the Midland's historical lines is perhaps the hardest if also trying to maintain the historical lines of adjacent railways as well.  The board is too constricted to clearly delineate the various routes, especially to or through the double-city hexags of Leeds/Bradford and Sheffield/Rotherham or the large cities of Manchester and Birmingham.  If one could ignore the needs of the LNWR, a nice line could be run direct from Derby through Birmingham to Gloucester and Bristol.  If the GCR wasn't in the way at Barnsley it also would be easier to create a line from London to Derby to Carlisle.  The line to Leicester should actually run south from halfway between the direct line from Derby to Nottingham.  Such a track layout is impossible in the game.  Thus various strategems have been used to create Midland routes that connect the appropriate cities while allowing other railways to have their own historical routes.

The Midland Railway must begin by placing a city tile in Q15 (Derby) and placing its home station there.  Tile #5sw pointing southeast toward Leicester and southwest toward Birmingham is the best start for a historical network.  Buy one train.  Follow this in the next operating round with a tile #5ne in R16 (Leicester) pointing northeast to Nottingham and run the first train between Derby and Leicester.  Buy at least one more train this round.  On the third turn, the MR may be able to place two tiles: #9sw in R14 leading to the connection with Birmingham in S13, and #6nw in Q17 (Nottingham) so as to continue in the direction of Sheffield in P16.  Leicester is also a good place to place a station, especially to help with early runs and revenues.  Three type "2" trains could possibly be run now (Derby-Birmingham, Derby-Leicester, and Leicester-Nottingham), but chances are good that the Midland will have a 2-train and a 3-train, or perhaps two 3-trains, so that it wouldn't be absolutely necessary to have placed a station in Leicester yet.  There is every likelihood that the Midland will be able to use two 3-trains or three trains total in the coming Operating Round.

From the third turn onward, the Midland will need to make the most of each turn depending on available tiles and the placements made by its neighbors, chiefly the LNWR, the GCR and the GNR.  It will find it profitable to upgrade some hexags to green as soon as possible.  One of these is P16, the Sheffield/Rotherham hexag, which the MR would like to link to with tile #52se, which connects Nottingham to Sheffield.  (The GCR will want to place this tile differently.)  Another key promotion is to tile #14ne in R16 (Leicester), since this is improtant for creating the longer track route to London and the short one to S15 (Northampton/Rugby).   Other upgrades that will improve revenues include Derby in Q15 upgrading to #12sw and Nottingham in Q17 promoting to tile #13sw.  From Leicester track can be built to Northampton in hexag S15 by using tile #3ne or tile #58ne or #58w.  Note that for the Midland Railway, the Northampton region of the board is the location of its line to Rugby.  At some point Northampton[Rugby] can be upgraded to either tile #12e or tile #13ne.  Eventually when russet tiles are available the MR (or another company) will want to upgrade this hexag to tile #38w.

The above-mentioned tile lays will have given Derby links to five other cities.  Subsequent development will depend on track availability, but the Midland, if it is to create its historical routes, will need to keep in mind the need to build north to Carlisle via N14, the Bradford/Leeds hexag, and southeast to London from Leicester.  The former may have to await the appearance of grey tiles, but the latter will be much easier to manage, and may perhaps be spurred on with help from the GCR.  Once Leicester has been promoted to #14ne, tile #9se should be placed in both S17 and T18.  If necessary, due to a previous tile lay in those hexes by another company, a green or russet tile may need to be placed in one or both of those hexags instead.  At U19, the LNWR will almost certainly have already placed #8w to make its own connection to London-NW.  The Midland will need to place #24se in that hexag to also connect to London NW.  However, for the more correct historical route, the Midland should further upgrade that hexag to a russet tile #47nw and thereafter place a #7sw (or, if necessary, a green #29sw tile) in U21 to connect to V20 (London-NE), which is the Midland's London St. Pancras Station.

As with the North Staffordshire Railway, the Midland's expansion northwest toward Manchester is impeded by the restriction that no track may lead to the east edge of hexag Q11 (Crewe) until it has been promoted to tile #200ne.  That will create a track segment leading toward Q13.  At that point, tile #199e, a yellow tile with two small towns, can then be placed in Q13 (Newcastle under Lyme/Hanley).  This is the only tile that will easily permit the Midland to head toward Manchester while still being able to convert into tile #119e later in the game.  The Midland will want to place tile #8se in P12, but if the LNWR has placed tile #9sw there, then the MR should use tile #24ne in that hexag.  If indeed the LNWR has already placed tile #9se in P12, then it probably also has placed tile #7w in hexag O13.  So the MR will have its connection to Manchester.  Manchester itself should be upgraded to russet tile #34e, and later to grey tile #50w.

Should O13 not have been further upgraded beyond tile #7w, then the MR should use this opportunity to promote it to tile #27sw pointing toward N14 (Leeds/Bradford).   But there is another way for the MR to reach N14.  When russet tiles become available, it can upgrade P16 to russet tile #68nw.  This will lead the MR into the brown hexag O15 that contains Barnsley.  Assuming that the CGR is not yet in play, the MR can then build beyond Barnsely in hexag O13.  If it is the first to build there, it will cost £100 to lay tile #7e there due to the mountain, but it will be ready to enter hexag N14.  If tile #7w has already been placed in hexag O13, then it could upgrade to tile #26w and then later make a russet upgrade to tile #44sw.  The latter will give it a curved track segment leading to hexag N14 (Leeds/Bradford).

If no other company has placed a tile in hexag N14, then the MR should place tile #52e in that hexag and follow this in the next operating round with russet tile #67nw (later to be upgaded to grey #167e).  This provides track leading through N14 to the northwest.  The MR then, at a cost of £300 total for three mountain hexes [no wonder the MR didn't really want to build this route after all!], can build three straight #9se tiles through M13, L12, and K11 so as to finally reach hexag J10 (Carlisle) where it would place an appropriate city tile and a station to secure this route lest Barnsley be filled with the CGR's home base station.  In fact, the CGR can circumvent continued building of this route by forming and placing its base in Barnsley.  Yet the MR may still be able to continue building if it can reach N14 (Leeds/Bradford) via an open line from Newcastle under Lyme in Q13.  An MR station in Leeds would also secure its route to Carlisle, but would block other companies wishing to reach beyond that point for revenue.  However, the MR is the only one with a historical route leading northwest from Leeds/Bradford, so it wouldn't harm the other companies in that respect.

The other important branch for the Midland to build is the route to Bristol in V10.  From Derby a direct line southwest leads to Bristol, but unless the LNWR's historical routes are disregarded or made circuitous by placing #34ne in S13, the MR cannot just go straight through Birmingham.  But the circuitous route for the MR leads from Q13 (Newcastle under Lyme) to Wolverhampton in R12, which can only be reached when the russet #66se tile in R12 is promoted to grey tile #167se.  Then the MR's line can continue into S11 using #7e.  This leads into Birmingham in S13, but won't exit that city to the southwest unless Birmingham has been upgraded to grey #50se.  Then a #9ne tile (or green #27ne if the GWR has built into Birmingham from Reading) in T12 will lead to Gloucester in hexag U11.  (It may be that the GWR's Swindon to Birmingham Branch Line will have already caused tile #9 or #27ne to be placed in this T12 hexag.) Gloucester may well be served already with GWR track, but the MR wants a green #14w tile there for easy access into V10 (Bristol).  The Midland should also place a station in Gloucester to make sure it can use this part of the line even with one of its shorter trains.  Meanwhile, the GWR should already have upgraded Bristol to a russet tile #38sw or #38e by this time.  The former will let the MR line get into Bristol, but the latter requires the upgrade to a #51nw grey tile in order to enter the city.

When grey tiles are in play, the Midland may also wish to upgrade hexag R14 to a tile #23ne in order to reach Walsall and it value of £70.  (The LNWR may convert this to russet #41ne so that it can connect Birmingham to Walsall.)   The MR also will want Derby to promote from #12sw to russet #38ne on its way to becoming grey #51w.  This will then give it access to P14 where the CGR may already have placed tile #7e.  By upgrading this to green tile #29ne and then russet tile #39e, the MR will likely gain access to Rotherham in P16.  This, or else an upgrade to tile #38sw in Q17 (Nottingham) will enable the MR to reach Doncaster (perhaps via Lincoln if coming from Northampton).  Doncaster leads to York.  If Doncaster is blocked then perhaps a route from Lincoln to Hull will lead to York.  Although these sections are not part of the Midland historical routes, if York in M15 has been reached and it has a #51 grey tile there, then a connection can be made west from York into M13 using tile #7se or tile #8e.  The former would reach Leeds/Bradford in hexag N14 if russet tile #67nw or grey tile #167e was there.  M13 could then be upgraded to green tile #83nw so as to continue northwest to Carlisle as previously explained.  So this would give the MR one last chance to reach Carlisle if other routes had somehow been blocked.

At some point, P16 (Sheffield/Rotherham) could be promoted to grey tile #167e for higher revenues.

NER - North Eastern Railway
The North Eastern Railway was formed when four companies merged in 1854.  York served as the hub and headquarters of the system although the station at Newcastle became the largest.  The companies involved in the merger gave the new NER control of much of the key routes in Yorkshire and the coastal region to the north.  The NER controlled the east coast route from York to Berwick via Dalington and Newcastle upon Tyne.  Another line ran from York southwest to Leeds.  In 1863 the Stockton and Darlington Railway, the world's first permanent public steam locomotive railway (opened in 1825), became part of the NER.  The NER lines also included a  route from Stockton to Newcastle via Sunderland, and other routes followed the coast from Stockton to Hull or crossed the Yorkshire and Humberside regions inland from Hull.  Tracks also lead from Newcastle west to Carlisle.  In the 1923 groupings the NER became part of the new LNER.  For more information, see NER.

Base:  L14 (Darlington)
Locations for 3 other stations:
a. M15 (York)
b. J14 (Newcastle upon Tyne/Sunderland),
c. N18 (Hull).

Main Line: York to Berwick
M15 (York) [51sw], NW to L14 (Darlington) [38se], NW to K13 (Durham) [58ne], NE to J14 (Newcastle upon Tyne/Sunderland) [168nw], NW to I13 (Blyth/Ashington) [119se], NE to H14 [8nw], NW to G13 (Berwick) [6w or 12sw] for connection to North British Railway.

Branch Lines:
1. Newcastle upon Tyne to Carlisle: J14 (Newcastle upon Tyne/Sunderland) [168nw], W to J12 [9e], W to J10 (Carlisle) [63sw].
2. Darlington to Newcastle upon Tyne/Sunderland via Stockton: L14 (Darlington) [38se], NE to (Stockton /Middlesbrough) [15se], NW to J14 (Newcastle upon Tyne/Sunderland) [168nw].
3. Hull to Stockton: N18 (Hull PORT) [38se], NE to M19 [8nw], NW to L18 [58se], W to L16 [8e], NW to (Stockton /Middlesbrough) [15se].
4. Hull to York: N18 (Hull PORT) [38se], NW to M17 [8w], W to M15 (York) [51sw].
5. Hull to Leeds: N18 (Hull PORT) [38se], W to N16 [19w], W to N14 (Leeds) [167e].
6. York to Leeds:  M15 (York) [51sw], SW to N14 (Leeds) [167e].
7. Blyth/Ashington to Berwick: I13 (Blyth/Ashington) [119se], NW to H12 [8se], NE to G13 (Berwick) [12sw] for connection to North British Railway.

In Unit 2 of 1825, York begins as a small town unable to hold a station token.  The NER company's home base is placed at Darlington rather than York.  The NER player must first place a city tile in hexag L14 (Darlington) and subsequently build from there.  In order to maximize the number of cities reached as quickly as possible, yellow tile #6ne should be placed in L14 (Darlington).  This placement allows two yellow tiles to be placed on the NER's second turn.  One should be in K15 to the northeast of Darlington, where Stockton on Tees and Middlesbrough are located.  A tile #56w works well here, and thereby creates the historic route of the Stockton and Darlington Railway, the first public railway to use a steam locomotive.  This track tile also leads northwest toward hexag J14 in which Newcastle and Sunderland are located.

In the southeast direction from Darlington lie York and Harrogate, two small towns which can be linked to Darlington by use of yellow tiles #69se, #198nw or #199nw, assuming that the preferred upgrade route is to green/russet tile #119nw and thence to grey tile #51sw.  Such a promotion sequence makes York worth £50 in the endgame.  Unfortunately, this sequence also causes York to remain a small town until phase 3 when russet tiles become available.  As soon as hexag M15 has its green/russet tile #119nw, place a station token in it to secure York/Harrogate as part of the NER network.  Also, after if is upgraded to grey tile #51sw, the NER player can place in hexag M13 tile #7se, or perhaps one of green tiles #26se or #83nw, so as to have two connections from York to the Leeds/Bradford hexag in N14.  However, placing tile #7se in M13 will cost it £100 for the mountain.

The choice of the particular yellow tile to use in York depends on one's game strategy for development of the NER.  Use tile #69se if you wish to connect the NER to Doncaster quickly using tile #8nw.  This choice of tile #69se in York may even inspire the Great Northern Railway (GNR) to build a connecting link from Doncaster to York using tile #8nw in N16.  (Connecting to York is part of the GNR's historical route.)  If this happens, then the placement of green tile #52se in J14 to connect Stockton to Sunderland could be the next NER move.   Ultimately, the NER wants to secure routes through J14 northward and westward, so it should also plan to place a station token in J14 to ensure control of that hexag.

Another option for the NER at York is to place tile #69se there and then use tile #8e in N16 to head directly to Hull PORT rather than to Doncaster.  Or, if the connection to Doncaster has been made by either the GNR or the NER, hexag N16 could be promoted to tile #25nw.  When russet tiles are available, the latter could be promoted further to #45e, so that Hull could connect directly to York as well as to the Leeds/Bradford hexag at N14.

Even if tile tile #198nw rather than #69se is being used at York, the Stockton-to-Sunderland #52se connection in hexag J14 will likely be the next tile placement.  But in addition, on turn 3, the NER could also place tile #8w in hexag M17 leading toward Hull in tile O18, which then could be reached in turn 4.  However, any tile placed in Hull will cost £40 due to the river.  Tile #199nw at York/Harrogate works similarly, but heads southwest towards N14, the Leeds/Bradford hexag.  If tile #52 has not yet been placed in N14, it could be placed in turn 3 by the NER by orienting it as #52ne.  To create the historic routes as best as possible in this region of the 1825 game map, grey tile #167e is the ultimate tile for hexag N14.  The intervening russet tile can be either #65w or 66nw.  If a connection beyond Leeds/Bradford to Halifax and Manchester/Preston is desired, use #65w. Use #66nw if track will lead from there east towards Hull in N18.  Yellow tile #9w, or perhaps green tile #19e should then be placed in hexag N16 so that subsequently a tile may be placed in Hull.  Generally the yellow city tile used at Hull PORT should be compatible with an upgrade to green tile 12nw, although tile #6ne does permit an upgrade to green tile #13se, should there be no tile #12 available, plus it helps to create the Hull to Stockton route via Scarborough.  If in doubt which green tile will be available, yellow tile #115w is safe to use.

At the beginning of the NER's third turn, if there is no possibility of placing another two tiles that turn, it may be useful to promote tile K15 (Stockton/Middlesbrough) to green #15se.  Doing this would make it possible on the following turn to build off of that tile in two directions.  Tile #8e could be place in hexag L16 while tile  #52se is placed in J14.  Thereafter, track could be built into Hull over successive turns by placing tile #58se in L18, #8nw in M19 and then #5nw, #6ne, or #115ne.  The Humber River will require a £40 investment to place this city tile.  Ultimately, the port city of Hull would be upgraded via a green tile #12nw or tile #13w to a russet tile #38se.  Since several branch lines run out of Hull PORT, it should be the location of one of the NER's station tokens.

Darlington (L14) at some point should be promoted to tile #13se and then when russet tiles are available it can be upgraded to tile #38se.  This latter upgrade will permit tile #58ne to be placed in K13 (Durham).  Durham is in fact on the historical main line of the NER north to Berwick.  [I am here recommending that this important terminus for the historic NER as well as the NBR be placed in G13.  If the players do not wish to make the otherwise unplayable G13 location into the large city of Berwick, then the terminus for the NER will have to be Edinburg/Leith in G9.  The initial track route in such a case should be tile #66se in J14 (Newcastle/Sunderland), #69nw in I13 (Blyth/Ashington), #9se in H12, and #8w or #9se in G11 so as to connect to Edinburgh/Leith in G9.]

The easiest initial connection to Berwick begins by promoting hexag J14 (Newcastle/Sunderland) to tile #66se.  Continue northwest to I13 (Blyth/Ashington--names not shown on the map, but endorsed by Francis Tresham) using tile #199se, then to H14 with tile #8nw, and ending at G13 (Berwick) with tile #6w.  If tile #199se is not available for use in I13, then place tile #69nw there and build northwest to H12 with tile #8se and then northeast into G13 (Berwick) with tile #5w.  Berwick should eventually be upgraded to green tile #12sw.  Blyth/Ashington in hexag I13 can be upgraded to green/russet tile #119se.  Finally, J14 (Newcastle upon Tyne/Sunderland) should be promoted to grey tile #168nw so that the hexag will be valued at £70.  This grey upgrade is in fact necessary to create the historical main line from York (M15) and Darlington (L14) through Durham (K13) to Newcastle (J14) and on to Berwick (G13).

Even before the promotion to grey tile #168 in J14, the line from Darlington through Durham will reach the western (Newcastle) portion of russet tile #66se in hexag J14 and curve westward.  This line can be continued with tile #9e at an expense of £100 for the mountain in hexag J12 and then enter J10 (Carlisle) using any suitable large city yellow tile or upgrade thereof that will eventually lead to russet tile #63sw in Carlisle.

Should there be no avilable tile #66 for placement in hexag J14 (Newcastle/Sunderland), then russet tile #118nw with a value of £40 can be placed there.  However, until this can be promoted to grey tile #168nw, no further track to Berwick or Carlisle can be built by the NER.  Rather, the NER will have created a loop from Darlington to Durham to Sunderland and back southeast to Stockton/Middlesbrough.

GCR - Great Central Railway
In 1897 the Great Central Railway (GCR) became the revised name of the former Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway (MS&LR) in anticipation of its new main line to London, which was completed in 1899.  The MS&LR had been formed in 1847 by amalgamation of several earlier railways.  The main line of the MS&LR, completed in 1849, ran from Manchester (with connections to Liverpool) via Sheffield to the port of Grimsby on the south side of the River Humber estuary.  Until 1899 its passenger service to London was run on other lines, namely those of the LNWR, the Midland Railway, and the Great Northern Railway, with whom it had varying relationships over time.  The GNR, however, in 1857 received running powers on the MS&LR's lines from Sheffield to Manchester.  Eventually the MS&LR built south from Sheffield to Nottingham and the nearby coalfields.  The opening of the GCR's "London Extension" from Nottingham via Leicester and Rugby to London created a new main line from Manchester London Road Station to London Marylebone Station.  This "London Extension" was the last of the great main lines to be built in Britain until the Channel Tunnel in 2003.  Other major towns served by the GCR included Barnsely, Doncaster, Rotherham, and Lincoln.  The GCR became part of the new LNER in the 1923 groupings.  For further information see MS&LR and GCR.

Base:  O-15 (Barnsley)
Locations for 2 other stations:
a. Q17 (Nottingham),
b. R16 (Leicester).

A. Original Main Line of the MS&LR: Liverpool to Grimsby via Manchester and Sheffield
O9 (Liverpool) [49ne], O11 (Manchester [London Road Station]) [50w], E to O13 [44sw], E to O15 (Barnsley) [brown hexag], SW to P14 [39e], E to P16 (Rotherham/[Sheffield]) [167e], W to P18 (Lincoln) [51w], NE to O19 [8nw], NW to N18 (Hull PORT/Grimsby PORT) [38se].  The original Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway connected Liverpool and Manchester to Grimsby, a major fishing port on the south side of the River Humber from which Hull could be reached by ferry.  This is the best route that can be made to accomodate this line given the other necessary connections in the vicinity.

B. Main Line after completion of London Extension: Manchester to London
O11 (Manchester [London Road Station]) [50w], E to O13 [44sw], E to O15 (Barnsley) [brown hexag], SE to P16 (Sheffield) [167e],  SE to Q17 (Nottingham) [38sw], SW to R16 (Leicester) [14ne], SW to S15 (Northampton[Rugby]) [38w], E to S17 [47nw], SE to T18 [23se], SE to U19 [47NW], SE to V20 (London-NW [Marylebone Station]).   [Note: From Rugby in S15, the line should pass west of the LNWR base at Wolverton (T16) and then run between the GW and LNWR routes to London.  Since it is not possible to recreate this route between the GW and LNWR, I have run it to the Northhampton/Rugby hex (S15) and then east to S17 to join the Midland's route SE to London.  The branch from Manchester to Liverpool [tile 49e in O9] should be included as part of the main line since there are not enough stations for one to be placed in either Liverpool or Manchester to make a viable train route.]

Branch Lines:
1. Barnsley to Doncaster: O15 (Barnsley) [brown hexag], SW to P14 [39e], E to P16 (Rotherham) [167e], NE to O17 [28w], W to O15 (Doncaster) [brown hexag].
2. Manchester (or Barnsley) to Liverpool: O15 (Barnsley) [brown hexag], W to O13 [44sw], W to O11 (Manchester) [50w], W to O9 (Liverpool) [49ne].
3. Barnsley to Leeds/Bradford: O15 (Barnsley) [brown hexag], W to O13 [44sw], NE to N14 (Leeds/Bradford) [167e].

Creating the main line of the GCR initially involves building both east and west from its base at Barnsley.  Assuming that other companies have not already built portions of the GCR's ultimate main lines, the GCR would first build a green #52nw track segment SE into P16 and a straight track #9e (costing £100 for the mountain) due west in O13 toward Manchester. Together these create the initial portion of the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway, predecessor to the LNWR.  Next comes another costly £100 build through a mountain hexag, P14, using tile #7e.  Until russet tiles are available, the GCR has no further useful track options other than possibly to promote the O13 hexag to a green #26e tile.  This would set up a possible connection into the Bradford/Leeds hexag at N14 using tile #52se or #52ne.  However, if the LNWR or Midland Railway creates a link to Manchester-East using a #7w tile or a #26w tile in O13, then the GCR will be forced to wait for the russet tiles (particularly #44sw) for any useful new track in this direction.

Once phase 3 occurs and russet tiles become available, the GCR will need to make a key upgrade in order to build its historical routes.   That upgrade is to promote tile #52nw in hexag P16 (Sheffield/Rotherham) to russet tile #68nw.  This will allow it to reach Rotherham from Barnsely via P14, and also to connect Barnsley to Nottingham via Sheffield. Nottingham will probably already contain a city tile (ideally, #6nw) placed by the Midland Railway.  If not, the GCR will need to build or upgrade Nottingham to enable Sheffield to link not only to Nottingham but also branching off southwest to Leicester.  Probably, the Midland will have built and upgraded Nottingham, Leicester, and Northampton (perhaps with the aid of the LNWR in the latter city) so that all of them are connected.  To ensure its historical route, the GCR should place stations in Nottingham and Leicester.  Nottingham's Q17 hexag should progress from tile #6nw to green #13sw to russet #38sw.  Leicester in R16 will very likely start as #5ne, placed by the Midland Railway.  The Midland wants this to promote to green tile #14ne, which suits the GCR just fine, and permits a link toward Northampton in S15.  (Technically, the GCR went to Rugby, which is actually a bit northwest of Northampton, but at the game's scale it would be in the same hexag.) 

From Northampton[Rugby] the GCR Main Line should run west of Northampton and Wolverton to reach Marylebone Station in London, but the scale of the 1825 map board plus the presence of the LNWR and GWR track in those areas make it unfeasible to create such a route.  So the GCR needs to make sure it can upgrade Northampton[Rugby] to at least a green #12e tile (and eventually to a russet #38w tile).  The GCR then needs to build east from Northampton to connect to the Midland Railway's main line which presumably will have already been built southeast from Leicester to London.  The GCR connection is made by using  tile #24se in S17 and then following the track due south into London-NW (Marylebone Station).  The route from London to Barnsely will include Northampton[Rugby], Leicester, Nottingham, and Sheffield, making a good 6-train run for the GCR.

It is possible that there may be no tile #68 for the GCR to use in hexag P16 (Sheffield/Rotherham) when the russet tiles become available.  If so, the GCR can use #66nw which temporarily will preclude having the Barnsley-Rotherham route.  Ultimately P16 will need to be upgraded to its final form as grey tile #167e.  Once this tile is in place, the CGR can also run northeast from Rotherham to join track in O17 (tile #28w) leading into Doncaster in brown hexag O15.

GNR - Great Northern Railway
Formed in 1846, it was not until 1852 that the Great Northern Railway had a complete line open from its London King's Cross Station to York by way of Peterborough, Lincoln, and Doncaster.  Either by purchasings smaller lines or by gaining running powers, the GNR eventually gained access to the cities of Cambridge, Nottingham, Leicester, Bradford, Halifax, Sheffield and Manchester.  The GNR's line into London King's Cross was also used by the Midland from 1858 onward.  These two lines using King's Cross and the GNR's access to Manchester provided strong competition against the LNWR.  The GNR came to have some of the fastest express trains using the Stirling locomotives with their single drive wheels.  In a cooperative express passenger train venture begun in 1862 between the GNR, the North Eastern Railway and the North British Railway, the "Special Scotch Express" service was run between London King's Cross and Edinburgh Waverly.  By 1888 it took only 8.5 hours to cover the distance between the two stations.  From the 1870s this train was unofficially called the "Flying Scotsman," but it formally recieved that new name in 1924.  All three of the joint operating companies folded into the London and North Eastern Railway in 1923, and the new LNER continued to run and promote the Flying Scotsman as a non-stop service over the 392 miles between the two stations.  Coal was the major freight commodity for the GNR, and both its marshalling yards and locomotive works were at Doncaster.  A route was achieved into northern Norfolk in 1893 when the GNR and the Midland Railway incorporated  the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway.  For additional information see GNR and Flying Scotsman.

Base:  O-15 (Doncaster)
Locations for 2 other stations:
a. P18 (Lincoln),
b. R20 (Peterborough).

Main Line: London to York
V20 (London-NE [King's Cross Station]), NE to U21 [29sw], W to U19 [47nw], NW to T18 [23se], NE to S19 [18sw], NE to R20 (Peterborough) [166sw], NW to Q19 [24se], NW to P18 (Lincoln) [51w], NW to O17 [28w], W to O15 (Doncaster) [brown hexag], NE to N16 [45e], NW to M15 (York) [51sw].

Branch Lines:
1. Doncaster to Halifax: O15 (Doncaster) [brown hexag], NE to N16 [45e], W toN14 (Leeds/Bradford) [167e], W to N12 (Halifax) [15e].
2. Peterborough to Cambridge: R20 (Peterborough) [166sw], SE to S21 [11nw], SW to T20 (Cambridge) [12e].
3. Peterborough to Leicester: R20 (Peterborough) [166sw], NW to Q19 [24se], W to Q17 (Nottingham) [38sw], SW to R16 (Leicester) [14ne].
4. Lincoln to Manchester to Liverpool:  P18 (Lincoln) [51w], W to P16 (Rotherham/[Sheffield]) [167e], W to P14 [39e], NE to O15 (Barnsley) [brown hexag], W to O13 [44sw], W to O11 (Manchester) [50w], W to O9 (Liverpool) [49ne].  [This was an arrangement in 1857 with the GCR (actually, with its predecessor, the MS&L) to use their Mansfield, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway line to create a London to Manchester route.  The connection from Manchester to Liverpool represents the Cheshire Lines Committee, a GCR, GNR and Midsland Joint Railway.  In the game, it is only possible to create this GNR route from Lincoln through to Manchester and Liverpool if the GCR does not have its base station placed at Barnsley.]
5. Lincoln to Nottingham to Derby: P18 (Lincoln) [51w], SW to Q17 (Nottingham) [38sw], NW to P16 (Sheffield) [167e], SW to Q15 (Derby) [51w].
6. Lincoln to Hull [Grimsby]: P18 (Lincoln) [51w], NE to O19 [8nw], NW to N18 (Hull [Grimsby]) [38se].

By the time the Great Northern Railway comes into play, there no doubt will be green tiles already available.  This is good because some of the hexags near the GNR's base at Doncaster are yellow hexags whose first tile lay will be a green double large city tile.  (Remember that placing a green tile on a yellow hexag is a tile lay and not a tile promotion.)  As a starting move, barring tiles already placed by previously running companies, a yellow tile #8w should be placed in hexag O17, just east of Doncaster, heading toward Lincoln.   This will cost £40 for the river in that hexag.  At the same time, place green tile #52ne in N14 so that Doncaster is connected to Leeds/Bradford.  In its next turn, the GNR can lay another two yellow tiles.  One should be a tile #8nw in hexag N16, setting up a connection between Doncaster (O15) and the York/Harrogate hexag (M15).  The other tile can be either #58sw or #4se placed in P16 to represent Lincoln.  The former would pave the way for a tile placement in Nottingham on the GNR's 3rd turn, whereas the straight #4se tile would direct track toward Peterborough in R20.  An alternate sequence might lead the GNR initially to use tile #3w to aim for Rotherham in P16 instead of toward Lincoln in order to obtain higher revenues.  But this placement would probably stifle the other track development that the GNR needs to do to create its historical routes until russet and green/russet tiles become available.  Moreover, if the Midland Railway has been building track and has placed tile #6nw in Nottingham, then tile #58sw in Lincoln will not quickly connect to Nottingham if the upgrade path for Nottingham is to green tile #13sw and then russet tile #38sw.  So in general, placing tile #4se in Lincoln seems the most likely move for the GNR if it is to follow its historical line of development.

At any rate, it will take a lot of yellow track tiles to reach London via Lincoln and Peterborough, so the player hoping to recreate the route of the "Flying Scotsman"  express trains will need to plan carefully to maximize yellow tile placements as the main line pushes southward.  Once Lincoln is promoted (ideally from #4se to green/russet #119se), a station token should be placed there to secure the GNR's access to points southeast, northeast, and west of Lincoln.  Ultimately a grey tile #51 is desirable for Lincoln.  As track-building proceeds south, the GNR Director may choose to place a yellow tile #8nw in O19 to help create a route from Lincoln to Hull.  This section will represent one of the earliest of the predecessor routes of the GNR, the East Lincolnshire Railway, which actually went to Grimsby on the south side of the Humber Estuary, opposite Hull.  Placing a yellow city tile in Hull PORT will cost £40 for the Humber River.  If the NER has already reached Hull, then try to promote it to green #13se and then russet #38se.

After Peterborough has been reached (as a #4se or #58sw tile), it should be promoted to a green #15se tile. A station should be placed in it.  This station ensures GNR control of the ultimate main line to London-NE (King's Cross Station) via S19, T18, U19, and U21.  Moreover, it permits the running of trains on branch lines created from Peterborough to Cambridge and from Peterborough to Leicester.  Peterborough itself can be promoted in phase 4 to the grey-russet tile #166sw.  Note that when the route from London to York is completed, the GNR will be able to run a 5-train on this mainline: London-Peterborough-Lincoln-Doncaster-York.  If a 6-train is available, the route could also include Nottingham.  If using this main line, the route from Peterborough to Nottingham and thence to Leicester cannot be run since some of the same track would be used northwest out of Peterborough.  (Note that if the LNWR creates its route from Northampton to Peterborough, the GNR could get to Leicester using that route by ensuring that hexag S17 becomes russet tile #47nw.  The Peterborough to Cambridge branch line might also be appended to the Peterborough-Leicester route for more economical use of trains.)

The Doncaster to Halifax branch line can be created only after russet tiles are available.  If hexag N16 still has tile #8nw, promote it to green tile #26.  Then promote Leeds/Bradford in hexag N14 to either russet tile #66e or #68se which later can become #167e.  These russet tiles at Bradford permit track to continue into the Halifax/Burnley hexag which already may have been built if the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway has come into play by then.  Incidentally, the Doncaster to Halifax route can possibly provide the GNR with an alternate route from Lincoln to Manchester if the GCR has placed its home base station in Barnsley.

A branch line from Lincoln to Derby will run through Nottingham and Sheffield (hexags Q17, P16, and Q15).  This route might ultimately be very good for a 4-train, assuming all the cities on this path had experienced some form of tile promotion.  Finally, if the Lincoln to Manchester route is to be used, it must be built quickly before the GCR comes into play to block it off with its home station in Barnsley.   However, the most likely way for the GNR to reach Manchester from Lincoln is via Doncaster, Leeds/Bradford, and Halifax/Burnley.

Creating the historical GNR routes in an actual game may prove to be very difficult since the GNR is not an early starter yet has a considerable amount of track to lay before the game ends.  It may progress a bit faster if other railway companies help with the upgrading of the various cities west of Lincoln.  The GER may also help in creating portions of the route from Peterborough to Cambridge.

L&Y - Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway
The L&Y was formed in 1847 by amalgamation of several other lines with the Manchester and Leeds Railway which was itself formed in 1836 and was completed and operating in 1841.  In 1859 the East Lancashire Railway amalgamated with the L&Y.  The West Lancashire Railway was absorbed in 1897, completing the L&Y's domination of the railways of Lancashire.  As a major East-West railway in a key area of the nation, the L&Y had one of the busiest passenger and commuter services in the United Kingdom as well as a very significant freight business.  The Manchester Victoria Station was one of the largest in the country.  The L&Y also had the largest shipping fleet of all the pre-grouping British railways with steamers running from Liverpool to Ireland and from Hull to the Netherlands.  With the intensity of its traffic, the L&Y was one of the most profitable of the railways of the United Kingdom.  On Jan. 1, 1922 the L&Y amalgamated with the LNWR.  In the following year this enlarged LNWR became part of the new London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS).  "The Lanky" was a nickname for this railway.  For further information, see L&Y, L&Y Society, and L&Y map.

Base:  O-11 (Manchester)
Locations for 2 other stations:
a. O9 (Liverpool),
b. N12 (Burnley/Halifax) or M15 (York) or N18 (Hull PORT).

Main Lines:
A. Manchester to Hull PORT:  O11 Manchester [50w], NE to N12 (Burnley/Halifax) [15e], E to N14 (Bradford/Leeds) [167e], E to N16 [19w], E to N18 (Hull PORT) [38se].
B. Liverpool to York: O9 Liverpool [49ne], NE to N10 (Preston) [38nw], E to N12 (Burnley/Halifax) [15e], E to N14 (Bradford/Leeds) [167e], NE to M15 (York) [51sw].
C. Liverpool to Sheffield:  O9 Liverpool [49ne], E to O11 (Manchester) [50w], O13 [44sw], O15 (Barnsley) [brown hexag].

Unless it is formed after russet tiles are available, the L&Y's first build must be in N10 (Preston).  The more lucrative initial placement is to build #5sw so that Manchester-NW is connected to Liverpool-NE via Preston.  This is ideal if the L&Y's first train is a 3-train or better since it will maximize the L&Y's income.  On the following turn, Preston could be upgraded to #12se for additional revenue as well as to initiate a track line eastward toward hexag N12.  However, if there is any concern that the L&Y might lose the opportunity to control the track layout through hexag N12 (Burnley/Halifax), the intial tile lay of the L&Y should be #5se in Preston so that on its second turn the L&Y can place a yellow tile in N12.  Tiles #2w or 56sw will be able to promote to green tile #15e, whereas tile #69w will upgrade only to tile #119e, but #119 only becomes available after the first 5-train is bought.  Hexag N12 should be promoted as soon as possible so that a station token can be placed there to eventually permit runs eastward into Leeds and on toward Hull.

The L&Y's other station should be placed in Liverpool so that it can eventually run a train from Liverpool via Manchester and Barnsley to Sheffield when the appropriate track upgrades have been made in those hexags [see Main Line C].  Liverpool (O9) always follows the path russet #33ne to grey #49ne, but £40 must be paid for the russet tile because there is a river in the Liverpool hexag.  Manchester (O11) works best for the L&Y as russet #34e promoted to grey #50w.  If the L&Y is the first one to connect a #9w track to Barnsley (not likely), it will have to pay £100 for the mountain in O13.  It can only directly connect to Sheffield in P16 (using 52nw) if the GCR is not in play and therefore blocking the route at Barnsley with its home base.  Historically, the L&Y had running powers on the GCR to Sheffield, although that route appears to actually have gone from the Halifax vicinity to Sheffield while a separate line ran from the Halifax area to Barnsley.  In the game it would be possible to create the Halifax to Sheffield segment by running a separate line from tile #15e in N12 southeast into O13 using tile #9se and then into P14 using tile #8e to connect to Sheffield in P16.  Such a route, however, would interfere with the track of other lines (LNWR, MR, and GCR) which need a different track layout in O13 in order to connect to cities that were historically reached by their own lines.  Neither the board layout nor the paucity of certain tiles permits all the desirable historical routes to be created.  Only if grey tile #60 (which has track exiting the tile in all six directions) is available can all needed routes  run through hexag O13.

From the Burnley/Halifax hexag the historical route should continue east into N14 (Bradford/Leeds) with a goal of reaching Hull PORT.  The first step is to place tile #52se in N14.  (It may be that the GNR will already have done this.)  Eventually when russet tiles become available this would need to be promoted to either russet tile #66e or #68se in order to create a route running due east through Bradford/Leeds.  Later, when grey tiles become available, this should be upgraded to tile #167e in order to create a branching line toward York [see Main Line B].  York could be reached sooner if Bradford/Leeds is promoted to russet tile #66w which would curve northeast toward the York/Harrogate hexag.  "Main Line A" is created by continuing due east from Bradford/Leeds with either tile #9w or green tile #19w so as to connect to Hull PORT using any suitable yellow large city tile (#5nw, #6w or ne, or #115w).  The Humber River will require a £40 investment to place this city tile.  Ultimately, the port city of Hull would be upgraded via a green tile #12nw or tile #13w to a russet tile #38se.

If not already in existence, the L&Y can place yellow tiles #69se, #198nw, or #199nw in York/Harrogate.  Thereafter the upgrade path is to green/russet tile #119se and then to grey #51sw.  Further west, Preston (N10) eventually should become a russet tile #38nw. 

The historical routes depicted for the L&Y should prove profitable, yet the L&Y probably will be able to run on the track of other lines as well so as to supplement the revenues from the historical lines.  If the L&Y Director decides that placing a station in Hull is important, then one will have to be left out of Halifax, or possibly Liverpool.  Lacking a station in Liverpool, however, would require the Liverpool to Barnsley Main Line to be added on to one of the other Main Line routes.

Unit 2 - Minor Railways:
FR - Furness Railway
The Furness Railway was created in 1844 chiefly to carry slate and iron ore in the iron-rich Furness region to the port of Barrow-in-Furness.  Eventually by 1862 the line was linked to the London and North Western's main line at Carnforth, considered to be in hexag L10 on the 1825 Unit 2 map.  Thereafter the line was extended to Lancaster, near Morecambe in brown hexag M9.  From Barrow-in-Furness the mainline also headed north along the coast to Whitehaven, located south of Maryport.  Barrow-in-Furness also became a port used by steamship lines for tourist traffic to the region.  On January 1, 1923, the Furness became part of the new London, Midland, and Scottish Railway.  For further information see Furness Railway.

Base:  M9 (Barrow in Furness PORT) [5-train]  {1825 Extension Kit: K5}

Main Line: Lancaster to Whitehaven
M9 (Morecambe/Lancaster) [brown hexag], E to M11 [7nw], NW to L10 (Carnforth - not shown) [27se], SW to M9 (Barrow in Furness PORT) [brown hexag], NW to L8 [9se], NW to K7 (Maryport/[Whitehaven]) [brown hexag].

The Furness Railway should first build northeast to L10.  On its second turn, it will be able to place two yellow tiles--one in M11 hooking back toward Morecambe, and one in L8 heading to Maryport/Whitehaven.  Maryport will likely be or become a terminus for the Furness once the Maryport & Carlisle Railway places its home base in Maryport.  Consequently, the Furness Railway will normally find it more profitable to continue beyond Morecambe to Preston from which connections to nearby cities such as Liverpool, Manchester or Leeds are likely to provide the best source of revenues for the Furness's 5-train.

NSR - North Staffordshire Railway [3T train]  {1825 Extension Kit: K5}
The North Staffordshire Railway encompassed a core area of  the Staffordshire region that essentially was bounded to the east by Derby, to the north by Manchester, on the west by Crewe and southward by Wolverhampton and Birmingham.  It was founded in 1845 and gradually grew by acquisition or expansion of small existing lines.  A route from Derby to Crewe was its main line, but it also had lines north to Manchester and west-southwest to Market Drayton where it tied into a GWR line.  (A link to the GWR line is only possible in the game by connecting Newcastle under Lyme to the GWR at Wolverhampton.)   Stoke-on-Trent became its headquarters when it first opened in 1848, although the game does not depict that location but rather provides only Newcastle under Lyme and Hanley in that hexag.  All NSR stations were within 30 miles of Stoke, and the network can be described as like an octopus.  It could reach Nottingham by running rights.  The LNWR had running powers on the NSR's route from Stoke-on-Trent into Manchester.  In the game's later stages, this can be seen in tile #47sw in hexag P12 in which the segment of track directly connecting Newcastle under Lyme to Manchester-South can be used by the LNWR (running from Crewe to Newcastle under Lyme and thence northwest into Manchester-South).  The NSR was popularly known as "the Knotty" due to the presence of the Staffordshire Knot on its heraldic device.  It remained independent (despite several attempts by the LNWR to take it over) until it became part of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway in 1923.  For further information see NSR and NSR Study Group.
Base:  Q13 (Newcastle under Lyme/Hanley)

Main Line: Derby to Crewe:
Q15 (Derby) [51w], W to Q13 (Newcastle under Lyme/Hanley) [119e], W to Q11 (Crewe) [200ne].

Branch Lines:
1. Newcastle under Lyme to Manchester:  {best represented in the game as follows} Q13 (Newcastle under Lyme/Hanley) [119e], NW to P12 [47sw], NW to O11 (Manchester-South) [50w].
2. Newcastle under Lyme to Wolverhampton [standing in for Market Drayton]: {best represented in the game as follows} Q13 (Newcastle under Lyme/Hanley) [119e], SW to R12 (Wolverhampton) 167se]. 

In order for the NSR's main line from Derby to Crewe to be built, the hexag at Crewe first must be upgraded to the brown/russet #200ne tile.  Until the eastward track extension from Crewe that occurs on this tile is present, it is illegal for track to approach Crewe from the east.  For historical route purposes, taking into account neighboring railways as well, the ultimate tile for Q13 (Newcastle under Lyme/Hanley) should be a green/russet tile #119e.  To upgrade properly to his tile, only yellow tiles #69w, #198e, and #199e will serve.  Since all of these would have track leading off the west edge of the tile in Q13, none can be placed until tile #200ne appears in Crewe.  The #200 tile cannot be placed until phase 3 when the 5-trains have appeared and russet tiles are available.  Therefore, the placement of the first yellow tile (#69w, #198e, or #199e) in Q13 must wait until this time.  Consequently, for purposes of building a historical route, the NSR will have a late start and should not even be started until this late stage of the game.

Once able to lay its initial yellow tile in Q13, the NSR will first want to upgrade it to #119e so as to have a viable route for its train.  By this stage of the game, it will thus be able to connect for certain with Crewe to the west.  Most likely it will also already be connected eastward to Derby, thereby having completed its main line.  The Midland Railway will have an interest in seeing track placed in Q13 quickly so as to be able to create its own historical routes to Manchester and to Bristol.  Thus, it may build track in Q13 before the NSR is started.

To connect to Manchester, the NSR needs to build tile #9se in hexag P12.  If the LNWR has already built track there, especially #9sw, then it may want to upgrade the hexag to tile #24ne so as to reach Manchester-East immediately. Once Manchester is upgraded to grey tile #50w, russet tile #47sw would then give the NSR the most direct route to Manchester-South.

The connection from Newcastle under Lyme to Wolverhampton can occur only when the NSR or some other company can at last place grey tile #167se in R12 (Wolverhampton).  Once this is done, it opens the way for further track beyond Wolverhampton, although it is the Midland that particularly wants to make the connections onward to Bristol.

Return to Lou's Game Corner: Rail Game Links
Originally posted August 7, 2007.  Revised in the new format, 23 November 2007.  Minor corrections made 16-17 May 2008 and 13 Aug. 2008.  Further modifications are possible.

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