A version of the following research paper was presented at a conference in The Hague, The Netherlands (Oct. 20-21, 2005), Masonic and Esoteric Heritage: New Perspectives in Art and Heritage Policy.
211 Pearl Street: Unearthing the Esoteric Interests of the Architect Ithiel Town and the Owner William Colgate.
Alan B. Solomon
211 Pearl St. in lower Manhattan is a neo-Classical warehouse (Fig.1) built in 1831-32 for the Soap maker William Colgate (1778-1857). 1 Following the World Trade Center disaster, the five-story building, located five blocks (400 m) east of Ground Zero, was subject to a landmark dispute between preservation groups and the owners of the property, Rockrose Development Corp., who were planning a fifty-story residential development at the site, with 211 Pearl St. incorporated as a rear garage entrance way.
Rockrose had been quietly buying property on the block since the late 1990's and began development when state sponsored Liberty Bonds were made available, a financing program that encouraged construction in lower Manhattan after 9/11. Approval for the bonds however, required an historical review of the structures that would be demolished, which lead to a compromise agreement on the issue of 211 Pearl Street in which the façade (floors 2-5) would be preserved.
Also surviving the demolition was a mysterious geometric brickwork design (Fig. 3) installed on the south party wall at the storefront level. This paper explores the symbol's potential meaning, outlines its geometry and proposes a creator behind the work. Without documentary proof, the proposed thesis cannot reveal the whole or final truth behind the installation , but it hopes to raise awareness of the issue and stimulates further research.
Based on a cultural reading of the symbol along with knowledge of the buildings owner and the architect of this commercial building style, the symbol appears to be a Christian representation of the Philosopher's Stone and a document of American revivalist architecture. Its probable creator is the architect Ithiel Town .
In 2000 I was hired by the leaseholder of 211 Pearl St. to research property records. At that time I was a real estate broker and I must admit I have no formal education in art history. I graduated from Boston University with a BA in Business Finance. Since 2002 I have worked with M. Fine Lumber Co. of Brooklyn, a dealer in antique lumber from dismantled buildings.
Fig. 1. 211 Pearl St. in lower Manhattan, New York, with the former World Trade Center in the distance. Photo: Alan Solomon.
The Perils of Pearl Street
Pearl Street is considered the oldest street in New York, forming the eastern border of New Amsterdam before the lower tip of the island was broadened with landfill. The properties first owner was a Dutchman, Cornelius Van Tienhoven, who acquired a land grant in 1644. 2
In 1825, the completion of the Erie Canal turned the east side of lower Manhattan into '...the first district in the world devoted exclusively to commerce'. 3 Pearl Street merchants were at the center of this remarkable commercial growth, and the thoroughfare was even celebrated in 'The Perils of Pearl Street' (Asa Greene, 1834), a humorous semi-fictional account of the streets commerce.
211 Pearl Street is adjacent to two other surviving Greek revival buildings of the same year (213 and 215 Pearl St.), forming a last remnant of this early world trade district (surviving buildings indicated in Fig.2) . The commercial architecture was a tribute to democracy's origins in Greek antiquity. Few represented its meaning better than William Colgate, founder of Colgate-Palmolive and the son of a political exile from Kent, England. 4
Deconstructing the brickwork symbol
The building's symbol is located at the storefront level, one vertical layer of bricks mortared to the south party wall. It stands 10'4" high (45 brick rows), 3'3" wide (4.5 bricks) and 16'6" from the storefront granite columns. The following is an overview of the geometry along with a speculative interpretation of its possible meaning and source influences
The design features three vertically aligned triangular formations. The top and bottom forms are triangular numbers 5 in the sequence 2-5 (top form) and 2-5-8 (bottom form). The bold center triangle is scalene (angles 57, 60 and 63 degrees) with straight-lined sides of protruding mortar. A symmetrical pattern of alternating full and half
Fig.3. Brickwork symbol, incorporated into the façade of 211 Pearl Street.
Photo: Edward St. Marc Photography, New York.
bricks frames the vertical border of the installation. There are six and twelve rows of bricks at the top and base; and one and three rows of bricks separate the top and bottom triangles from the center triangle.
How these various elements work together is displayed in Figure 3. A series of 2:1 ratios are directed into a boldly outlined center scalene triangle, a 3:1 ratio; with the arrangement expressing a 'Unity of Opposites', and unity as Trinity.
There are, however, some refinements to the basic pattern. Primarily, the upper and lower triangular forms that point into the center scalene triangle do not align with each other . They intersect with the apex and the mid-point of the base in the center triangle respectively, with the direction of their path running parallel to each other and on opposite sides of an intentionally marked mortar gap at the center of the bold middle triangle.
The entire installation (and perhaps the building's architecture) is directed into this center. But this 'strain of binding opposites' 6 , its proposed, does not stop at a scalene triangle. The interpenetrating triangles evolve in a rotating spiral (or sphere), suggested by the incremental opening of the inner angles (57, 60 to 63 degrees) and the kinetic nature of the work (according to Newton's Axiom of Motion ). 7 The brickwork is relatively easy to decode. Its potential meaning and source influences are more complex and speculative, like a crossword puzzle that stretches exponentially in a number of directions.
The symbol represents the most ubiquitous idea in human civilization-'The Doctrine of Opposites' and many traditions are therefore suggested, with the idea central to Hinduism (Sri Yantra), Buddhism (Yin-Yang), Judaism (Star of David), Christianity (Intersecting Cross), Alchemy (Mercury and Sulfur) and philosophers from Heraclitus to Hegel. Given the historical context and the religious beliefs of the building's owner, particular source influences make the most sense.
Considering the works particular context, it's proposed that this particular alchemical transformation (brick into gold; a triangle into a sphere; asymmetry into symmetry etc.) is a geometric representation of Christ as the Philosopher's Stone (i.e. turning water into wine, transforming the soul), a popular literary motif in the Middle Ages, 8 though with Classical Greek, Egyptian and Gothic influences and other implications within the context of an 1830's American architecture and commerce. The Christian reading is primarily based on the works 'Celebration of Three's' 9 , the building owner's devout Christianity and the Christian symbols in the portrait of Ithiel Town that will soon be discussed.
The most direct historical association that has been suggested by experts is Emblem XXI in Michael Maier's Atalanta Fugiens (1618), proposing a similar geometric recipe for the Philosopher's Stone. 10
A question has also arisen as to whether the brickwork is a blueprint for the ratios found in the architecture as a whole, a form of Sacred Geometry said to inform the pyramids, Greek temples, Medieval cathedrals and other structures throughout history, similarly evoking a type of geometric cosmology found in the work of Dr. John Dee, Robert Fludd, Johannes Kepler and other thinkers of the middle Ages.
Christian and Classical sources may tell a large part of the story since it is essentially a Greek revival building owned by a founder of the American Bible Society. But as a version of the Philosopher's Stone, it suggests not only Christian mysticism, but a civic statement about the alchemy of Democracy or New-York itself, a port town transforming culturally and commercially into a world class city in the 1830's. Eclecticism was an ideal developing within American architecture during the era, so the symbol likely involves a range of these influences.
The Esoteric Interests of Ithiel Town
Ithiel Town(1784-1844) was a New York architect trained in Boston and the senior partner of America's first architectural firm. 11 The historian Roger Hale Newton went so far as to call Town '...one of the foremost personalities in American life during the second quarter of the Nineteenth Century.' Evidence that Colgate commissioned Town is compelling, but short of documented proof.
211 Pearl St. is considered a vernacular building, a copy of the great architect's original design at 122 Pearl Street (1829). 12 We know, however, that the firm was commissioned for at least six commercial Classic warehouses 14 , though we don't know every address. Town's personal files were destroyed in a series of lightning fires at the home of his junior partner Alexander Jackson Davis 13 . Adding to the difficulty was Town's reluctance to talk about himself, which prompted the historian William Dunlap to remark, "Of the time of this eminent architect's birth I am ignorant. He has long been prominent among the artists of New York, and I believe is a native of New England...It would give me great pleasure to lay before the public a more full account of this scientific and liberal artist...I have been disappointed in not receiving promised information."
But based on evidence, of which the following documents are representative, the symbolic brickwork appears to be Town's signature. If this is the case, the installation at 211 Pearl St. is a window into his ideals and intellectual preoccupations, and perhaps represents what it meant to be an architect in 1830's New York.
Ithiel Town's Library
Town used his wealth to accumulate the largest private library in the United States, '...11,000 volumes - supplemented by thousands of loose engravings, Medieval manuscripts, incunabula, objets d'art, and 170 pictures.' 14 , a collection that he made available to the public, in hopes of nurturing an independent American art and architecture. In an interview with the Hartford poet, Lydia Sigourney, he professes, '...I have a great attachment to curious and uncommon books'. 15 : an admission that may only refer to esoteric works, of which numerous titles have been found in the auction pamphlets of his library.
Town also traveled to Europe for an extended stay in 1829, greatly expanding his collection during the trip and may have well introduced leading cultural figures to rare esoteric books from Europe. We know, for instance, that works by the English Platonist Thomas Taylor were circulating in his library. 16 A sample of other 'curious and uncommon' titles include:
524. Barrett, Francis, Magus or Celestial Intelligencer, system of Occult Philosophy, Natural Magic, Alchemy, Talismanic Magic, Magnetism, & c., with lives of the most eminent Magi , portrait and 21 Plates. 4to, Lon. 1801, a very curious work.
- 587. Tracts, Philosopher's Stone exposed to public sight, & c. Alexiacus or Spirit of Salt, and Subterranean Treasure, & c. 4to. Cf. Lon. 1664, & c.
- 962. The Golden Fleece, or relics and monuments of the kings and sages of the Egyptians, Chaldaeans, Arabians, and Assyrians. Containing The Mirror of Alchymy, The Philosopher's Stone, & c. German, with curious cuts, some of which are colored, 4to Oak boards, Hamburg 1708. Sacred Harmony. Half roan.
The Mathematical Exercises of Ithiel Town
Town's mathematical manuscripts include exercises that mirror the ideas of the Pearl Street geometry (fig. 4); interacting triangles as well as spiraling gestures that appear to be expressions of patterned exponential growth. These elegant spirals also take off from Town's personal signature, like an artistic monogram, and could reasonably be a version of the spiral suggested in the brickwork installation.
Fig. 4. Illustration from The Mathematical Exercises of Ithiel Town (1823-1840). Collection of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale U., New Haven, CT.
Fig. 5. Frederick R. Spencer, Portrait of Ithiel Town , 1839, and detail.
Collection of Center Church in New Haven, CT.
The Portrait of Ithiel Town
A portrait of Ithiel Town by Frederick R. Spencer (1839) was found in a dimly lit corner of an 1814 church in New Haven, CT (fig. 5). It offers the most convincing evidence of a Town and Davis commission. In the center of the composition is an open notebook of geometry exercises, with the prominent top-middle exercise a near exact match to the Pearl Street geometry - a 'Unity of Opposites' expressed as two proportional but different sized scalene triangles meeting in a larger center triangle, with its angles touching tangent points of a circle - a symbol of rotation.
The surrounding exercises also appear to be geometric versions of the Trinity, an idea supported by other Christian symbols in the Town portrait; St. George slaying the dragon (silver medallion), Christ rising in an open book of Psalms (the readable text: ' A Golde... ') and an aqueduct plan, with Towns three fingers poised on the water, bridge and sky.
Town & Colgate
Extensive circumstantial evidence may link Colgate and Town. Born just a year apart, they were both successful and innovative leaders in their fields, self-educated, unusually civic minded and devoutly Christian. They no doubt crossed paths.
Colgate served on the board of the American Bible Society along with the abolitionist Arthur Tappan, who had commissioned Town for the first Classical revival warehouse at 122 Pearl Street. There is no evidence at this point that Colgate (or his descendents) belonged to a secret or semi-secretive fraternal organization (i.e. the Freemasons or Odd Fellows).
Colgate leased space at 211 Pearl St. to at two leading business and civic leaders of the era; Seth Low, a founder of Brooklyn; and Joshua Scholefield, a Birmingham, UK hardware merchant and Member of Parliament, who was instrumental in bringing modern democracy to England during the early 1800's. 17 An association makes further sense in light of these other prominent figures at the address.
Colgate's wife Mary may have also played a role. She was a trained artist who had traveled abroad as a young woman and likely took an interest in the National Academy of Design, founded by Town, Samuel F.B. Morse and the landscape artist Thomas Cole. 18
As far as we know, 211 Pearl St. was not part of Colgate & Co., located three blocks away on Dutch St. But for reasons that are unclear, Colgate cherished the Pearl Street warehouse. It was the soap makers highest valued property and one of only two (among seventeen) that were willed to his six children in equal part, with the stipulation that it be held in the family for at least fifteen years. 19
Esoteric Influences of American Revivalist Architecture
Believed covered with plaster at the time of construction, this mysterious brickwork seems like a lost scene played out behind the drawn curtains of American esoteric history. University of Michigan professor Arthur Versluis ( Esoteric Origins of the American Renaissance) writes,
During this period (the early 19th century), many of the major currents of Western esotericism that had been so prominent in Colonial America had waned, gone underground, or for the most part disappeared. 20
Freemasonry, as well, was in retreat after the 'Morgan Affair', an 1826 kidnapping and alleged murder in upstate New York that sparked a nationwide backlash against the organization. 21 Although Masonic scholars cannot place the symbol, an exchange of ideas between Freemasons and those outside the lodge system has been suggested.
Towards the middle of the Nineteenth century, Transcendentalist philosophers, Swedenborgians and Spiritualists; and then later in the century the Theosophical movement, a Rosicrucian revival and other groups and individuals continued to diversify American spiritualism. Despite the seeming eclipse of esotericism in the early 1830's, interest likely persisted in the states to some degree, though it remains undocumented or as yet unearthed.
These were also peak years of Greek, Egyptian and Gothic architecture, and within these revivals it is reasonable to see an interest in Hermetic, Neo-Platonic, Pythagorean and other mystically inclined philosophical currents. A genuine revival of Classical traditions would in fact seem essentially incomplete without these influences.
The symbol can be read as a concise expression of these eclectic revivalist influences of Greek, Egyptian and Gothic origin. A Cyclopic and abstract use of form, ratio and number seems most characteristic of the ancient Greeks; Hermetic qualities and its pyramid-like stonework point to ancient Egypt; Gothic influences also appear at work, involving ideas of the Picturesque , an aesthetic ideal that came out of the enlightenment and which tried to understand life through both thought and feeling. Edmond Burke's famous essay A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757) was a major influence during the era. As a counter value to beauty, the Picturesque gave equal weight to 'irregularity, variety, movement and roughness'. 22
Precise Classical order and wild Picturesque abandon are brought together in an 1840 painting by the landscape artist Thomas Cole, The Architects Dream . As it turns out, Ithiel Town commissioned the painting and his name is inscribed on a column at the center of the work (Town, however, rejected the work and remarkably, requested that Cole produce another one). The architectural historian William H. Pierson reads the following meaning in the painting. 'There are two ways to see the world of architecture, either through the sharp clear light of Classical antiquity or through the brooding mysteries of the Middle Ages. Each approach is valid and has an application in the present.' 23 Like The Architect's Dream , precise Classical order and Gothic mystery appear to be unified in the esoteric geometry on Pearl Street.
The Egyptian revival, it can also be noted, sought to reconcile pre-Christian and Christian beliefs. Ancient Egypt was seen as a pre-Christian era that affirmed the idea of religious liberty since it was '...so detached from modern creeds, prejudices or sentiments that it can appeal to any belief.' 24 The symbol at 211 Pearl St. is a good example of this Pre-Christian and Christian fusion, installed as it is, within a warehouse belonging to a founder of the American Bible Society and a leader in the cause of religious liberty.
A religious revival was also having a profound impact within the states during the late 1820's and mid 1830's. The 'Awakening of 1831', according to the Boston Evangelist Lyman Beecher, was nothing short of 'The greatest work of God, and the greatest revival of religion, that the world has seen.' How closely the divinely inspired bricks at 211 Pearl St. are connected to this installation on Pearl St. is impossible to know, but the idea of a Universal Christian Architect at the building seems further substantiated by the era. Colgate's own Awakening occurred at least twenty years earlier and in this respect, he may be expressing that ideals such as connection, love, awe and mystery are essential, even in a commercial building.
It can seem like a stretch - turning a cryptic and crude looking symbol that amounts to three dollars in 1830's bricks into a sublime document of American revivalist architecture, but Ithiel Town's remarkable talent for understatement and his broad intellectual interests and ideals make the reading possible - I'd say likely.
Potential suspects behind the design are limited if it is related to architectural trends of the period. Talbot Hamlin characterizes the Manhattan construction trade at this early date as 'chaotic but violently alive...with a small reservoir of architectural talent'. 25 And a young architect, James Gallier observed, 'On my arrival in New York on the 14th of April, 1832...There was, at that time, properly speaking, only one architects office in New York, kept by Town and Davis.' 26 At this point, there does not appear to be another known architect besides Town with the knowledge and inclination for this type of installation. (Or Perhaps a protégé of Town has out-Greeked the mentor.) All surviving evidence has pointed to Town with no primary or secondary source information indicating an alternative figure or group; though without hard evidence, the work remains open to speculation.
The symbol has provoked a range of responses - from scholars, preservationists, museum curators, the developer and others. Some agree with the proposed thesis, or at least see value in
the documents rarity. Most say they are sincerely baffled. Others 'just don't buy it'; guessing it's connected to a trade guild, an undocumented fraternal organization, the work of an unknown builder; or that it's a structural feature (i.e. a fireplace flue), even a modern artwork installed in the 1980's. Construction workers wrote 'Illuminati Shrine' across the brickwork's protective plywood cover. And a child called it (perhaps accurately) '...a machine for numbers'. Many believe it is Masonic, though experts on the iconography of Freemasonry, as has been mentioned, are doubtful. Controversy has begun to swirl around the symbol.
All of these ideas continue to merit detailed research, and some can even remain compelling despite a lack of historical evidence and the dismissal of scholars. Without hard evidence; receipt for services, building plans, correspondences etc,; the final truth of the work may forever be lost. But reasonable guesses are still possible. The symbol is located within a well-studied time and place. We know a great deal about the building's owner. We are working with precise geometry - set in stone. The surviving manuscripts of Ithiel Town reveal striking connections. And we can survey esoteric, religious and philosophical ideas and organizations that pre-date the period. The mystery also invariably involves a process of elimination. The following outlines alternative theories that have been proposed.
Freemasonry - Many point to Freemasonry, though leading Masonic scholars do not see a connection. It resembles some Masonic iconography, but in the end, Masonic scholars have not seen a close enough fit. The differences can be subtle, but decisive; a scalene v. equilateral triangle, unrecognizable number sequences and abstractions; an unorthodox mode and placement within the building, etc. The Unity of Opposites fits into Masonic tradition, but it is also the most ubiquitous idea in human civilization. As one Masonic scholar states, "...lets not go looking for an ant, when there's an elephant in the room."
As mentioned earlier, Freemasonry went into severe decline in the early 1830's (up to 75% of the lodges in various states folded) as a result of the Morgan Affair. The hidden nature of the Pearl St. symbol, installed at the height of this backlash, initially interested Masonic scholars, but the fact wasn't enough to override other inconsistencies.
Colgate (or his relatives and sons) has not turned up in Masonic records or membership lists of the period. William Colgate may have actually been more sympathetic with the anti-Masonic movement, alarmed at risks to democracy posed by prospects of Masonic networking undermining Democratic government. And Baptists were considered at the forefront of anti-Masonic agitation.
Other Fraternal Organizations - The symbols mix of geometry, Alchemy and Christianity seems more consistent with Rosicrucian philosophy, though that fraternal tradition does not appear to be organized in the states at the time. And scholars of the Odd Fellows, a fraternal group that was organized in lodge chapters in New York in the 1830's, cannot place the symbol within that tradition.
The fact that the symbol is built into the architecture, extending a few feet above and below the floor boards, supports an idea that its meaning is connected with the architecture. The fact that Colgate attached personal value to the building, evidenced by it being singled out as a family legacy and the buildings high property value, is also suggestive of its connection with Colgate's ideals. But even with this in mind, it seems a stretch to imagine that Colgate conceived the design himself, but more likely approved of it when the design was proposed.
Occupying Tennant - It doesn't appear likely that this approval was given to the first tenant of the storefront space. The integrated brickwork may be enough evidence to dismiss that idea, but the precarious nature of mercantile life on Pearl St. makes it nearly inconceivable that such a permanent installation would be permitted to a mercantile tenant.
Trade Guild - The mark of a trade guild seems like a logical idea and while a group may have existed to rally behind this secret brick banner, there is no indication of construction trade organizations in the European tradition having formed in New York at the time. Anything is possible without hard evidence, but we'd still need to ask why Colgate, aware now of the value he placed on the building, would allow a guild emblem installed in a prominent location. This may seem to contradict the idea that he approved of the work, but an individual builder or architect whose religious and philosophical ideals were in close agreement with Colgate seems the most logical guess.
Individual Builder/Architect - Extending through the ceiling and floorboards and mortared to a party wall, the installation is not a wall hanging or a freestanding sculpture; but an integrated part of the original construction, reasonably the work of a builder or architect. Given this choice, we are left with two opposing ideas. Is the work more rational mysticism or folk superstition? An architectural gem or Fool's Gold ? 'The invention of a bewildered mind...' or the magnum opus of a rational one? 27
Notions of a secret society, superstition and what may be considered New Age flakiness can easily be read into the installation, risking quick dismissal and not learning very much in the process. And of course, any idea projected onto the abstract symbol can say as much about the observer, provoking an ongoing examination of our skepticism as well as honest convictions about the brickwork.
Preserving a Greek tragedy
New York City's first documented outcry for historic preservation came in 1831 when the New-York Mirror published an image and editorial on behalf of an old Dutch house on Pearl Street that had been demolished. 28 In a city of constant change, it is not surprising that 211 Pearl St. is now a target of the same forces it was once identified with 175 years ago.
Long-term preservation of the building's surviving architecture is still in jeopardy for two reasons. 1) The agreement between Rockrose Development and NY State Office of Historic Preservation is not landmark designation. It can potentially be reversed by a future agreement. 2) Rockrose is now planning a Phase 2 development on the block, which will face Pearl Street and it is difficult to predict the developer's actions.
The suspended façade actually looks occupied from the street (the result of a shadow box support) and may have a curious appeal, but it is historic conservation at its most severe (some dub it a Facade-icide ). The building is too altered to become a New York City landmark. As for the intriguing symbol, although it's potentially an architectural gem, it is an interior feature of a privately owned property and alarmingly beyond the reach of NYC landmark law. Just fifteen feet from the Pearl Street sidewalk, the brickwork is visible to passers-by, contributing to its high site-specific preservation value. One leading historian recognized 211 Pearl St. '...as a rare surviving relic of the process that made New York into America's great city.' 29 So even in its ruins, this fragment of the country's early world trade district may play a small but creative role in reconstruction of the Ground Zero area.
A lack of conclusive evidence and the symbols arcane nature have made support difficult. Part of the problem is that esoteric heritage receives relatively little scholarly attention in the United States. So it is hoped once again that this esoteric novelty at 211 Pearl St. raises awareness of the issue and stimulates further research.
Alan B. Solomon is a real estate broker and independent historian, living in New York. He was personally involved in the conservation campaign for 211 Pearl Street.
1 New York Tax Assessment Records (New York City Municipal Archives) New York 1820-1925. Dating the building (1831-32). The tax assessment value of 211 Pearl St. rises nearly threefold, from $12,000 to $30,000 between 1830 and 1832, with the year 1831 identified as "lot" (indicating construction in process).
2 NYC Property Information System, 66 John St., New York 1644.
3 Jackson 1999.
4 Abbe 1941.
5 Triangular numbers are associated with the Greek philosopher Pythagoras.
6 Heraclitus 500 BC. 'From the strain of binding opposites comes harmony'.
7 Gleick 2003, p. 58 Newton's Axiom in the Waste Book. ' If a quantity once moved it will never rest unlesse hindered by some externall caus. ' Aside from The Bible, books by and about Isaac Newton are the most represented in the library of Ithiel Town.
8 See Linden 1996, pp. 200-223.
9 Livio, Mario (e-mail from the author) 2002.
10 Heninger 2004, pp. 189-190. 'The alchemical hermaphrodite as a geometrical configuration.'
11 Newton 1942, p. 182.
12 Newton 1942, p. 182.
13 Newton 1942, p. 126.
14 Newton 1942, p. 19.
15 Sigourney 1839.
16 See Auction Pamphlets, The Library of Ithiel Town 1843-1850 (Boston Athenaeum).
17 Flick 1978.
18 Hughes 1999, p. 218.
19 Colgate 1855.
20 Versluis 2001, p. 53.
21 The Morgan Affair http://web.mit.edu/dryfoo/Masonry/Essays/morgan.html
22 Pierson 1978, p. 11.
23 Pierson 1978, p. 133.
24 Heinz 1977, p. 448.
25 Hamlin, 1944, p. 140.
26 Hamlin 1944, pp. 140-141.
27 Gotwals 2005, p. 57.
28 Diamonstein 1998, p. 9.
29 Johnson, P. E., (Univ. of South Carolina) Letter from the historian, Feb. 2003.
Abbe 1941 Abbe, Truman, Robert Colgate, The Immigrant, (The Tuttle, Morehouse and Taylor Co.) New Haven, CT 1941.
Albion 1939 Albion, Robert Greenhalgh, The Rise of New York Port:1815-1860 , (Charles Scribner's Sons) New York 1939.
Carrott 1978 Carrott, Richard G., The Egyptian Revival: Its Sources Monuments and Meaning, 1808-1858 , (University of California Press) Berkeley 1978.
Colgate s.a. Colgate, William, Last Will and Codicil , Feb. 1856 (Colby-Sawyer College, Colgate Family Archives) New London, NH.
Diamonstein 1998 Diamonstein, Barbaralee, New York Landmarks III, (Harry N. Abrams, Inc.) New York 1998.
Flick 1978 Flick, Carlos, The Birmingham Political Union and the Movements for Reform in Britian 1830-1839, (Archon Books) Hamden, CT 1978.
Gleik 2003 Gleik, James, Isaac Newton, (Vintage Books) New York 2003.
Gotwals 2004 Gotwals, Jenny Portfolio of a Curious Mind (The New-York Journal of American History) New York 2004.
Greene 1834 Greene, Asa, The Perils of Pearl Street: and a Taste of the Dangers of Wall Street, (Craighead & Allen, Winters) New York 1834.
Hamlin 1944 Hamlin, Talbot, Greek revival Architecture in America , (Oxford University Press) New York 1944.
Heinz 2003 Heinz, Bernard, Hallowed Ground in New Haven, (The New York Times) Dec. 18, 1977.
Heninger 2004 Heninger, S.K., The Cosmological Glass: Renaissance Diagrams of the Universe , (The Huntington Library) Chapel Hill, NC 2004.
Hughes 1999 Hughes, Robert, American Visions: The Epic History of American Art, (Alfred A. Knopf) New York 1999.
Jackson 1999 Jackson, Kenneth L. Interview: New York: The Town and the Country Burns, Ric, Documentary, (PBS: Public Broadcasting Service) 1999.
Johnson 1978. Johnson, Paul E., A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, 1815-1837, (Hill and Wang) New York, 1989.
Linden 1996 Linden, Stanton, Darke Hierogliphicks: Alchemy in English Literature from Chaucer to the Restoration , (The University of Kentucky Press) Lexington, KY 1996.
New York s.a. New-York As It Is, in 1833 and Citizens Advertising Directory , Call# NYSH NY Historical Society
Newton 1942 Newton, Roger Hale, Town and Davis: Pioneers in American Revivalist Architecture , (Columbia University Press) New York 1942.
Pierson 1978 Pierson, William H., American Buildings and Their Architects: Volume 2 , (Oxford University Press) New York 1978.
Sigourney 1839 Sigourney, Lydia, ' The Residence and Library of Ithiel Town, Esq .,' (The Ladies Companion, a Monthly Magazine, 1 st Series, Vol. X, No. 1) 1839.
Town s.a. Town, Ithiel, The Mathematical Exercises of Ithiel Town , (Beinecke Rare Books and Manuscripts Library, Yale University), New Haven, CT.
Versluis 2001 Versluis, Arthur, Esoteric Origins of the American Renaissance , (Oxford University Press) New York 2001.
211 Pearl St. Owner and Occupants: William Colgate, Seth Low Sr. and Joshua Scholefield
Abbe, Truman, Robert Colgate, The Immigrant .
Carver, Saxon Rowe, William Colgate Yeoman of Kent , Nashville, Broadman Press, 1957.
The Death of William Colgate, New York Tribune Obituary, March 26, 1857.
Williams, Howard D. A History of Colgate University
Kurland, Gerald Seth Low: The Reformer in an Urban and Industrial Age, Twayne Publishers, Inc., New York, 1971.
Flick, Carlos The Birmingham Political Union and the Movements for Reform in Britian 1830-1839 Archon Books, Hamden, CT 1978.
Early 19 th Century New York History
Albion, Robert Greenhalgh, The Rise of New York Port:1815-1860 Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1939.
Burrows, Edwin G and Wallace, Mike Gotham, Oxford University Press, 1999
New-York As It Is, in 1833 and Citizens Advertising Directory, NY Historical Society
Landmark Preservation Commission Designation Reports - Stone St., Francis Tavern, South Street Seaport and South Street Seaport Extension.
New York Times news archives, 1855-present
Rare Manuscripts and Prints Collection, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Rare Manuscripts and Prints Collection, National Academy of Design, New York.
Fletcher, Ellen Walking Around South Street Leete's Island Books Stony Creek, CT 1974.
Diamonstein, Barbaralee New York Landmarks III Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York, 1998.
Kurland, Gerald Seth Low: The Reformer in an Urban and Industrial Age Twayne Publishers, Inc.., New York, 1971.
White, Norval and Willensky, Elliot AIA Guide to New York City Three Rivers Press, New York, 2000.
Pound, Arthur The Golden Earth The Story of Manhattan's Landed Wealth , The MacMillan Co., New York, 1935. (See The Alchemist of Wall Street p. 102-109)
Greene, Asa The Perils of Pearl Street , New York. 1934.
Stokes, The Iconography of New York City,
Wilenz, Sean The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln, W.W. Norton, 2005.
19 th Century American Architecture
Hafertepe, Kenneth and O'Gorman, James American Architects and their Books to 1848 , University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, 2001.
Hamlin, Talbot Greek revival Architecture in America Oxford University Press, New York, 1944 .
Newton, Roger Hale Town and Davis: American Architects, Columbia University Press, New York, 1942.
Seymour, George Dudly The Residence and Library of Ithiel Town , New Haven, CT, 1931.
Town, Ithiel The Mathematical Exercises of Ithiel Town (1820's - 1830's), Yale University Rare Manuscripts
Division, New Haven, CT.
Rare Books and Manuscript Collection, Boston Athenaeum, Boston.
Rare Manuscript Division, Yale University, New Haven, CT.
Rare Prints and Manuscripts Collection, Avery Architectural Library, Columbia University, New York.
Carrott, Richard G. The Egyptian Revival: Its Sources Monuments and Meaning, 1808-1858 , University of California Press, Berkeley, 1978.
Huxtable, Ada Louise Classic New York
Johnson, Paul E. A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, 1815-1837, Hill & Wang, New York, 1978.
Johnson, Paul E. and Wilentz, Sean The Kingdom of Matthias , Oxford University Press, New York, 1994.
Reynolds, Donald Martin The Architecture of New York City: Histories and Views of Important Structures, Sites, and Symbols, MacMillan Publishing Co., New York, 1984.
Davies, Jane B. A.J. Davis and American Classicism Sleepy Hollow Press, Tarrytown, NY, 1989.
Carreno, Richard D . Ithiel Town: An American Original Thompson Historical Society, Thompson, CT, 1995.
Classical Studies - Egypt, Greece and Rome
Heath, Sir Thomas, A History of Greek Mathematics Vol. I , New York, Dover Publications, Inc., 1981.
Plato, The Last Days of Socrates , Penguin Books, 1954.
Plato, Timaeus , Hackett Publishing Co., 2000.
Haxton, Brooks and Hillman, James Fragments: The Collected Wisdom of Heraclitus Viking Penguin, New York, 2001.
Guthrie, W.K.C The Greek Philosophers Harper Torch Books, New York, 1950.
Guthrie, W.K.C., A History of Greek Philosophy Vol. I-V Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
Geldard, Richard Remembering Heraclitus Lindisfarne Books 2000.
Robinson, John Mansley An Introduction to Early Greek Philosophy Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1968.
Smith, Thomas Gordon Vitruvius on Architecture , The Monacelli Press, 2003.
Curls, James Stevens The Egyptian Revival : An Introductory Study of a Recurring Theme in the History of Taste, George Allen & Unwin, London, 1982.
Lurker, Manfred The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Egypt: An Illustrated Dictionary Thames & Hudson, Germany, 1986.
Bernard, Christian, The Early Rosicrucians in America: 1694-1994, AMORC, 1995.
Budge, E.A. Wallis Egyptian Ideas of the Afterlife Dover Publications, Mineola, New York , 1995.
19 th Century American Art, Culture and Politics
Bjelajac, David Washington Allston: Secret Societies and the Alchemy of Anglo American Painting , Cambridge University Press, New York, 1997.
Kloss, William Samuel F.B. Morse , Harry N. Abrams Publishers, New York, 1988.
Bode, Carl The Portable Emerson Viking Penguin, New York, 1946.
Burns, Sarah Painting the Dark Side: Art and the Gothic Imagination in Nineteenth-Century America University of California Press, Berkeley 2004.
Silverman, Kenneth Lightning Man: The Accursed Life of Samuel F.B. Morse DaCapo Press, 2004.
McCall, Dan Melville's Short Stories W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 2002.
Bjelajac, David American Art: A Cultural History Laurence King Publishing, London, UK 2000.
Hughes, Robert American Visions: The Epic History of American Art Alfred A. Knopf, New York 1999.
Schmidt, Leigh and Gaustad, Edwin The Religious History of America Harper San Francisco, San Francisco 2004.
Schmidt, Leigh E. Restless Souls: The Making of American Spirituality Harper Collins New York, 2005.
Wilentz, Sean The Rise of American Democracy W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 2005.
Johnson, Paul E. Sam Patch: The Famous Jumper, Hill and Wang, New York, 2003.
The New-York Journal of American History The New-York Historical Society, New York, Fall 2004.
Brunes, Tons, The Secrets of Ancient Geometry - and its use , 2 Vols, Copenhagen, Rhodos, 1967.
Nataf, Andre The Wordsworth Dictionary of the Occult Wordsworth Editions, Ltd, UK 1996.
Roob, Alexander Alchemy and Mysticism Taschen Gmbh, London 2001.
Dedopulos, The Brotherhood , Thunder Mouth Press, Berkeley, CA, 2006.
Jung, Emma and von Franz, Marie-Louise The Grail Legend Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1970.
Jung, C.G. Alchemical Studies Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1983.
Cook, Theodore Andrea, The Curves of Life , New York, Dover Publications, 1979.
Division, New Haven, CT.
Elam, Kimberly Geometry of Design , Princeton Architectural Press, New York, 2001
Ferguson, John The Encyclopedia of Mysticism , Crossroad Publishing, New York. 1982.
Hanegraaf, Wouter J. Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism Brill Publishing, Leiden, The Netherlands, 2005
Lawlor, Robert, Sacred Geometry , New York, Thames & Hudson, 2001.
Livio, Mario The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, the World's Most Astonishing Number, Random House, Inc., New York.
Schneider, Michael S. A Beginner's Guide to Constructing the Universe: The Mathematical Archetypes of Nature, Art and Science Harper Perennial, New York, 1994.
Schimmel, Anne Marie The Mystery of Numbers Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.
Hall, Manly The Secret Teachings of All Ages Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin New York, 2003.
Linden, Stanton Darke Hierogliphicks: Alchemy in English Literature from Chaucer to the Restoration, The University of Kentucky Press, 1996.
Kinney, Jay The Inner West: An Introduction to the Hidden Wisdom of the Wes t Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, New York, 2004.
Field, J.V. Kepler's Geometrical Cosmology The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1988.
Heninger Jr., S.K. Cosmographical Glass: Renaissance Diagrams of the Universe , Huntington Library Press, San Marino, CA, 2004.
Newman, William R. Gehennical Fire: The Lives of George Starkey The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL 2003.
Jung, C.G. Alchemical Studies Princeton University Press Princeton, NJ, 1967.
Lurker, Manfred The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Egypt , Thames and Hudson London, 1974.
Roob, Alexander Alchemy & Mysticism Taschen Koln, Germany, 2005.
Masonic and Esoteric Heritage: New Perspectives for Art and Heritage Policies , Publication for conference sponsored by OVN: Foundation for the Advancement of Academic Research into the History of Freemasonry in the Netherlands, The Hague, The Netherlands, 2005.
Lacroix, Paul Science & Literature in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance , Frederick Ungar Publishing, New York, 1878.
Koons, Andrea Masonic and Esoteric Heritage: New Perspectives for Art and Heritage Policies , OVN Der Haag, 2005.
Christianson, Gale E. Isaac Newton , Oxford University Press, New York, 2005.
Wetzler, Robert and Huntington, Helen Seasons & Symbols: A Handbook on the Church Year , Augsburg Publishing House, Minneapolis, 1962.
Curl, James Stevens The Egyptian Revival , Routledge, London, 2005.
Dixon, Laurinda Bosch Phaidon Press Limited, London, 2003.
Fraternal Societies and Trade Guilds
Gimpel, Jean The Cathedral Builders Harper Colophon Books, New York, 1983.
Ridley, Jasper The Freemasons: A History of the World's Most Powerful Secret Society Arcade Publishing, New York. 2001.
Ovason, David The Secret Architecture of our Nation's Capital Harper Collins Publishers, New York, 2000.
Wilmshirst, W.L. The Meaning of Freemasonry Barnes and Noble Books, 1999.
Howard, Michael The Occult Conspiracy: Secret Societies - Their Influence and Power in World History Destiny Books, Rochester, New York, 1989.
Naudon, Paul The Secret History of Freemasonry: Its Origins and Connection to the Knights Templar Inner Traditions International Rochester, VT, 2005
Tabbert, Mark A. American Freemasons: Three Centuries of Building Communities , New York University Press, New York, 2005.
Yates, Frances A. The Rosicrucian Enlightenment , Barnes & Noble Books, New York, 1996.
Gleik, James Isaac Newton Vintage Books, New York 2003.
Burke, Edmond A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN 1968.