Strange Attractors


The Data
The following table gives a quick overview of strange sightings and mechanical problems experienced by the astronauts and others. An analysis follows.

1962, Feb. 20

Mercury III: John Glenn, piloting his Mercury capsule, saw three objects follow him and then overtake him at varying speeds. Glenn also saw firefly-like objects over the Pacific on all three orbits.

1962, May 24

Mercury IV: Scott Carpenter reported photographing firefly-like objects with a hand camera, and that he had what looked like a good shot of a saucer.

1962, May 30

X15 Pilot Joe Walker photographed five disc-like objects.

1962, Jul. 17

X15 Pilot Robert White photographed objects about thirty feet away from his craft while about fifty-eight miles up.

1962, Oct. 3

Mercury V: Walter Schirra reported large glowing masses over the Indian Ocean.

1963, May 16

Mercury VI: Gordon Cooper reported a greenish UFO with a red tail during his fifteenth orbit. He also reported other mysterious sightings over South America and Australia. The object he sighted over Perth, Australia, was caught on radar by the Australian ground tracking station.

1964, Sep. 15

Atlas test launch, Vandenberg AFB, California: Robert Jacobs filmed an Atlas missile test and reviewed the film a few days later. He was astounded to see a UFO enter the picture as the Atlas reached an altitude of 60 miles. The UFO flew up to the missile and emitted a vivid flash of light. It hovered over the missile and emitted a second flash of light. It then circled the missile twice and set off two more flashes from different angles, and then it vanished. A few seconds later the missile malfunctioned and tumbled out of control into the Pacific Ocean.

1964, Oct. 12 Voskhod 1: Three Russian cosmonauts reported they were surrounded by a formation of swiftly moving disc-shaped objects.
1965, Mar. 18 Voskhod 2: Russian cosmonauts reported an unidentified object just as they entered the Earth’s atmosphere.

1965, Jun. 3

Gemini IV: Jim McDivitt and Ed White saw and photographed several strange objects, including a cylindrical object with arms sticking out and an egg-shaped UFO with a fan-like glow and a long tail of light. The egg-shaped object was silvery and moved above and below the capsule.

1965, Dec. 14

Gemini VII: Frank Borman and Jim Lovell photographed twin oval-shaped UFOs with glowing undersides. They also encountered a silvery UFO and many little particles traveling by the space capsule. The silvery UFO wasn’t the rocket booster because the booster was seen in addition to the UFO.

1966, Jun. 6

Gemini IX: After the mission was scrubbed due to interference with the radio hookup, NASA released a statement on television that UFOs or unknown objects had been seen by astronauts on several occasions.

1966, Jul. 18

Gemini X: John Young and Mike Collins saw a large cylindrical object accompanied by two smaller bright objects, which Young photographed. NASA failed to pick them up on radar screens.

1966, Sep. 12

Gemini XI: Richard Gordon and Charles Conrad reported a yellow-orange UFO about six miles from them. It dropped down in front of them and then disappeared when they tried to photograph it.

1966, Nov. 11

Gemini XII: Jim Lovell and Edwin Aldrin saw four UFOs linked in a row. Both astronauts said the objects were not stars.

1968, Dec. 21

Apollo VIII: Frank Borman and Jim Lovell reported a "bogie" – an unidentified object – ten miles up. When they orbited the Moon they supposedly sighted a disc-shaped object, experienced a blinding light, and heard "intolerably high-frequency noises" from their radio. Later they sighted the object again with more of the brilliant light and experienced a wave of internal heat within the space capsule. The spacecraft began to pitch and yaw before control was regained. When the astronauts came around the eastern edge of the Moon, all the water in the radiator in the spacecraft’s cooling system had evaporated and had to be replenished.

1969, May 18

Apollo X: Cernan and Stafford descended to within 50,000 feet of the lunar surface to inspect the Apollo XI landing site. After the descent stage was jettisoned, the upper stage went into a spin and pitched up and down. At the same time, a UFO rose vertically from the lunar surface and may have caused the gyro-guidance system to malfunction. Stafford steadied the ship by piloting by hand. The incident was blamed on a switch that had been left in the wrong position by technicians, and which wasn’t spotted by Stafford.

1969, Jul. 16

Apollo XI: This was the mission on which a UFO reportedly chased the spacecraft. A different UFO encounter occurred one day into the flight. The astronauts sighted an unknown cylindrical object which appeared between them and the Moon, which might have been a booster rocket. In the debriefing, Buzz Aldrin recalled seeing all sorts of little objects going by prior to seeing the brighter object. Neil Armstrong described it as an open suitcase, then later as two connected rings, and Aldrin described it as a hollow cylinder. Mike Collins thought it was a hollow cylinder, but as it tumbled the shape changed to an "open book." Aldrin thought the object was the Saturn IV-B (third stage) booster rocket, which had separated from the command module about five hours into the mission, or two hours after translunar injection. He called ground control but was told that the booster was 6000 miles away. (The call was made when the spacecraft was about 67,000 miles from Earth.) Strange radio noises were heard when the spacecraft neared the Moon, including sounds like fire engine sirens, buzz-saws, and train whistles.

1969, Dec. 14

Apollo XII: The rocket nearly experienced a complete electrical shutdown shortly after takeoff. The rocket appeared to be hit by lightning bolts 36 and 52 seconds after launch. This may have been caused by the rocket exhaust forming an ionization duct with the ground, causing electricity to discharge around the rocket. Astronauts Pete Conrad, Alan Bean, and Dick Gordon said a UFO accompanied them to within 132,000 miles of the Moon, preceding them all the way. Observatories in Europe reported two unknown objects in the craft’s vicinity as it headed towards the Moon. One object appeared to be following the craft, and the other was ahead of it. Both were blinking on and off rapidly. The astronauts only saw one object, which flew off at high speed halfway through the journey. When orbiting the Moon, the astronauts heard radio noises including static, whistles, and a constant beeping sound.

1972, Apr. 16

Apollo XVI: As the capsule was coasting towards the Moon, it entered a region of space swarming with firefly-like particles. Accompanying this occurrence, Ken Mattingly reported that problems had arisen with the guidance and navigation systems. The gimbal platform had locked and there was no attitude indication. A manual realignment of the system was hampered by the fireflies traveling alongside the ship, which interfered with the star sightings. The fireflies or "snowflakes" later disappeared. During the lunar descent, the steering control system malfunctioned and caused the rocket-engine bell to swerve sideways.

1973, May 25

Skylab II: After launch, Skylab’s environmental systems were overloaded with extreme temperature readings as the station orbited the Earth 250 miles up. Skylab was exposed to the Sun 80 percent of the time, and temperatures inside the hull on the sun-side exceeded 120 F. On May 27 the astronauts boarded Skylab and deployed a sunshade to act as a solar shield. The temperature inside dropped to about 110 F and the astronauts began their mission.

1973, Jul. 28

Skylab III: At the beginning of the mission one of the massive flywheels used to control the station’s attitude in orbit, about a yard in diameter, failed. The flywheel spun at 10,000 rpm and had a lot of moment and inertia. A second flywheel started to have temporary failures and was causing concern by the end of the mission. Even though the flywheels operated in weightlessness, the failure modes involved side forces on the bearings combined with the strange behavior of lubrication flow in zero gravity. According to astronaut Russel Schweickart, as late as 1976 scientists still did not fully understand failure modes involving surface tension effects in liquids, in weightlessness.

1976, Mar. 19

The Apollo XIV seismometer station on the lunar surface stopped working. The station operated continuously from Feb. 1971 to Mar. 1975. The radio receiver went out in Mar. 1975, and the transmitter stopped on Jan. 18 1976. The receiver and the transmitter started working again on Feb. 19 1976. An instrument which had never operated during the daytime began working perfectly day and night. One month later, everything stopped working.


John Glenn (facing) hugs Scott Carpenter after Carpenter’s Mercury flight in 1962.
This isn’t the hug of a conquering space hero. It’s the hug of a man glad to be alive.

Analysis
According to William Brian, the electronic glitches, UFOs, and luminous particles may be related phenomena all having to do with high-energy physics. Supersonic travel may excite electrons in outer space so that, for example, a UFO appears to "chase" or "trail" a spacecraft. However, one must include radar in the equation, since on Earth radar at airports is known to be associated with UFO activity created by the radar.

The same is true for missiles. The Jacobs account of the Vandenberg missile launch is certainly not an isolated case. In 1948 Charles Swartz, a White Sands radar man, reported that a disc climbed alongside a V-2 rocket at about 1000 miles per hour, circling the rocket. It was observed visually as well as on radar. It climbed straight up past the rocket at an estimated 5500 miles per hour and continued into space.

Another case comes from an official log of the tracking facility at Cape Canaveral. Dated January 10, 1961, it describes how a Polaris missile was launched and tracked downrange several thousand miles. While the missile was still climbing, it acquired an unidentified object flying alongside it. The object was so much larger and so close to the missile that the automatic radar tracked the UFO rather than the missile. When the UFO veered away a few minutes later, the radar followed the UFO and it took 14 minutes for technicians to lock back onto the smaller Polaris.

The Gemini missions experienced radar reflections while the capsules orbited the Earth. The best documented case is Gemini V, on the third day of the mission, August 24 1965. Mission control at Cape Kennedy tracked an unidentified object alongside the spacecraft until both objects traveled beyond the curvature of the Earth beyond Ascension Island, the last tracking station in the Atlantic. At the next station in Carnarvon Australia the UFO was gone. This same tracking observation happened almost a year and a half earlier with the first Gemini flight, which indicates the American radar was producing an echo off the capsule. Here’s a transcript of the ground to air conversation between Flight Director Christopher Kraft and the Gemini V capsule on August 24 1965:

03 04 57 21

CC

Gemini-5, Gemini-5, this is Houston. Over.

03 04 57 26

C

… Houston, Gemini-5.

03 04 57 29

CC

Roger, Gemini-5, this is Houston. Be advised that we tracked another object with you on your pass across the States. Range was 2 to 10,000 yards from the spacecraft. You might look around and see if you can see anything. Unfortunately, I can’t tell you which direction to look.

03 04 57 53

C

What time is this?

03 04 57 57

CC

Did you say what size or what time?

03 04 58 00

C

Time.

03 04 58 02

CC

Well, it seems to be going right along with you. So we’re tracking it right with you.

03 04 58 13

C

Roger.

03 04 58 21

CC

We’re going to lose you here shortly but if you see anything, why don’t you let us know at the next station?

03 04 58 27

C

Okay.

03 04 58 31

CC

The radar return was approximately the same as yours as far as magnitude.

03 04 58 38

C

Roger.

Powerful radar sets were following each Apollo mission to help provide tracking and telemetry. As well, powerful radio was used. Maurice Chatelain was in charge of the communication system for Apollo, built by North American Aviation. Before that he worked for Ryan Electronics and received patents including one for an automatic radar landing system used in the Ranger and Surveyor moon flights. Chatelain unfortunately puts an alien spin on UFOs, but he does disclose the following useful information:

When Apollo arrived within proximity of the moon, the communications carriers previously used could not reach that far, so all communications went through one single, very powerful transmitter with a directional antenna in the S band, between 2106 and 2287 MHz (megahertz, or really 2.1 and 2.2 gigahertz), with a great number of channels, each transmitting several signals at the same time through multiplexing. For instance, there were seven channels to feed medical information about the physical condition of the astronauts, and nine to retransmit the stored telemetry data (from the lunar orbiter) from the passage behind the moon that could not be beamed directly.

Note that the stored telemetry was position data stored up over the elapsed time the capsule was behind the Moon, and beamed to mission control once the capsule was around the limb, so that Emil Schiesser and the Martin contractors in Houston could fill in their Procedure Sheets and could correct the capsule’s course if necessary.

Note that a previous web page, Outside the Box, discussed how the Apollo 11 radar tapes were used as a template for Apollo 12. It turns out that Apollo 11 had some trouble with its landing, but was probably using radar tapes from the old Surveyor 3 landing. Apollo 12 probably used those same numbers, which is how Apollo 12 landed within 600 feet of Surveyor 3 on the lunar surface.

The transmitter transmitted signals in the microwave range. One might ask, if there was only one transmitter, what happened if it was on the side of the Earth rotated away from the Moon? It turns out there was more than one transmitter. In fact, NASA had a whole system in place.

The System
For the Apollo missions NASA carefully defined the communications hierarchy. Mission Control Center (MCC, Houston) was "within the framework" of the Communications, Command, and Telemetry System (CCATS) and the Real Time Computer Complex (RTCC), which allowed flight control to remain in contact with the spacecraft. MCC received telemetry and operational data which could then be processed by the CCATS and RTCC, for verification of a normal mission, or to compute alternatives. As well, alternative maneuvers in case of an emergency could be computed by the Real-Time Auxiliary Computing Facility (RTACF, location undisclosed).

The Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) was a worldwide communications network controlled by the Mission Control Center during the Apollo missions. The network was composed of fixed stations, including Texas, Hawaii, Canberra, and Carnarvon, and mobile stations (ships and airplanes), all located within a global band extending from 40 deg. south latitude to 40 deg. north latitude. The Apollo XI mission employed eight Apollo Range Instrumentation Aircraft (ARIA) in the "Pacific sector" for Earth-orbit support. In general the MSFN stations supported tracking and telemetry, command data, and voice and television communications, both on an up-data link to the spacecraft and on a down-data link to the MCC. A directorate called NASA Communications (NASCOM, probably a network of land lines and satellite links) connected MCC to the multiple MSFN stations.

Note that the mobile stations (the ships and airplanes) had antennas with only enough power to support Earth-orbit insertion, Earth parking orbit, and the translunar injection, which took place roughly three hours into the mission. These mobile stations also supported Earth re-entry on the return trip. The MSFN fixed stations provided continuous communications coverage for all course corrections up to and including Lunar-orbit insertion (LOI). The Command-Service Module (CSM) remained in contact with Earth during its parking orbit around the Moon only when it was on the near-side, and as well the lunar module maintained contact with Earth, both via Uniform S-band (USB). On the return trip, continuous communications coverage lasted from the time the Command-Service Module appeared from behind the Moon after Trans-Earth Injection (which started at the lunar antipode, on the far side) to about 1 minute prior to Earth re-entry.

Apollo VIII was the first manned Apollo mission to travel to the "lunar environment." One of the main objectives was to perform manual and automatic acquisition, tracking, and communications with MSFN, during the lunar part of the mission, using the high gain S-band antenna mounted on the Command-Service Module. As well, the astronauts would test an assembly for "automatic reacquisition" of the high-gain S-band signal (from Earth) during lunar orbit, as the capsule emerged from the lunar far side. A secondary objective was to communicate with MSFN using the CSM S-band omni-directional antennas at lunar distance. The omni-directional antenna was supposed to be a better receiver because there was more surface area on the antenna to capture the signal.

The S-band technology made the Apollo VIII mission the first to acquire mission experience for the Deep Space Instrumentation Facilities (DSIF). There were three stations in this network – Madrid (MAD), Goldstone (GDS), and Honeysuckle Creek (HSK). These stations each had 85-foot antennas, and were tested with the onboard spacecraft high-gain and omni-directional antennas to evaluate long-range transmissions. In addition, Goldstone’s 210-foot antenna was used for Apollo VIII as a backup, in a passive mode, to record telemetry and voice transmissions. On later missions the Parkes (Australia) 210-foot antenna was used to supplement the Goldstone antenna for communications in the lunar environment.

Goldstone (in California) and Madrid were also used for TV acquisition. Goldstone was "in alignment" with the mission at roughly 24-hour intervals, when it was facing the Moon. The Madrid station was scheduled for TV acquisition only once during the Apollo VIII mission. NASA preferred to use the Goldstone antenna, probably because it was closer to Mission Control in Houston. Therefore, the Apollo missions were carefully scheduled around the position and availability of the Goldstone antenna in particular.

The Apollo XI Operations Report includes a special note about one of the possible launch windows: "a hybrid trajectory is required – to make it possible for the Goldstone tracking station 210-foot antenna to cover the Lunar Module (LM) powered descent phase." The 210-foot antenna was used for all launch windows, but this particular launch window required a hybrid trajectory so that the lunar descent would occur when the Goldstone antenna was facing the Moon. During descent, the Apollo XI lunar module pilot enjoyed a forward view of the lunar landscape through the window, and at 500 feet took control of the lander’s attitude and basically made adjustments to the descent velocity. At 125 feet altitude the velocity was down to 3 feet per second.

After landing there was the possibility that "adequate margins" wouldn’t exist for the S-band steerable antenna on the lunar module itself. This antenna had to receive and transmit on more than a dozen channels, including sending a television signal. These channels were referred to as a "communications spectrum." If there was too much static the astronauts were supposed to deploy an "erectable S-band antenna" (lightweight and easily deployed) on the lunar surface to improve the margins. Apollo XI didn’t deploy it, but later Apollo missions did. After liftoff the ascent of the lunar module was tracked with the combined resources of the service module’s onboard Rendezvous Radar (RR) and the MSFN tracking network on Earth (Goldstone, or possibly Parkes).

Artifacts
The strength of the S-band signals from Earth probably explains the sirens, whistles, and beeps that the astronauts heard within lunar orbit on their radio. It was artifacting from the microwave transmission bouncing off of the Moon’s surface, or through its thin atmosphere. However, Carl Sagan notes that such "whistlers" were heard on the Voyager spacecraft when it passed through the shockfronts created by the collision of electrons in the solar wind with a planet’s magnetic field. The Moon’s magnetic field, though weak, may also have some minimal interaction with the solar wind.

As on Earth, various electromagnetic phenomena classed as UFOs appear in outer space, but all of the reports in the table above are electromagnetic or radar-induced in nature. It’s all natural phenomena. Neil Armstrong stated in 1986, "There were no objects reported, found, or seen on Apollo XI or any other Apollo flight other than of natural origin. All observations on all Apollo flights were fully reported to the public."

The strange firefly sightings can be attributed to the event horizons around the Earth and those around the Moon, and to those between the Earth and the Moon. John Glenn’s sightings at 150 miles correspond to an inner horizon of an inner system, as shown in the diagram below. The sightings by the Apollo crews seem to correspond to passages through other horizons, or through gravitational "echoes" of those horizons. Space is not empty by any means.


The Earth may be surrounded by two systems of three horizons each.
The grey dot represents the Moon, just inside the outer horizon of the inner system.
The blue squares represent the Apollo vehicle at different stages of its journey.

Earth Parallels
The lesson to be learned is that wherever mankind puts his presence he is also leaving his technological fingerprints. The same UFO phenomena seen in the Earth’s atmosphere are also seen in outer space and around the Moon. Carl Sagan advised taking radar measurements of the Earth’s own Antarctic dry valley in order to compare readings to those returned from Mars. In the same spirit one can look at UFO cases on Earth that resemble those in outer space.

One of the most enigmatic sightings in space was during the Apollo XI mission, with the controversial cylinder that turned into an open book. The object was tumbling, and possibly its position was changing. This sighting is very similar to one on Earth. In 1966 a scientist was flying as a passenger onboard a Tupolev 104A, on flight C 94 from Leningrad to Moscow. It was July 12, at about 5:25 pm. As the airplane flew over the city of Bologoye, an apparition "burst out" from beneath the airplane at a tremendous speed, traveling at a right angle to the line of flight of the passenger plane.

The witness wrote that it seemed like a new kind of bomber. He saw it move away at a right angle and viewed what he thought was the "tail" end. He was astonished that it had been allowed to pass so close because there could have been a collision. But three kilometers out something strange happened. Slightly behind the passenger plane, the "bomber" suddenly changed its flight course by 90 degrees and began to move parallel with the airplane, overtaking it. When the object turned, it appeared to incline and "change shape" from a winged bomber to a flying disk. As it leveled out again it changed back to a "bomber" – but was now flying with its wingtip forward! The object flew past and disappeared into a cloud. It was silver grey in color and was distinguishable against the sky and the white clouds.

This report can be interpreted as a "radar shadow." Somehow flight C 94 flew into a Soviet radar beam and a strange reflection was created. The exact same thing happened, if not to the Apollo XI vehicle itself, then to something else tumbling out in space – which changed its position relative to the Earth radar beam just enough to create a radar ghost that appeared to be, at different times, a cylinder and an open book.

(Left) An airform photographed by John Glenn during the Mercury III mission in 1962.
(Right) An airform photographed by Allen Hynek from a passenger plane in 1966.

The Apollo VIII astronauts experienced an "internal heat wave" and the depletion of water from the onboard cooling system as the craft orbited the Moon. The message is that whatever can happen to a pilot near the Earth can happen to a pilot near the Moon. On July 2 1954 the Air Force picked up a UFO near Rome, New York on radar. Two jets were deployed into what turned out to be heavy cloud cover over Rome. One jet stayed in the clouds, while the other climbed out of the clouds and into the clear. When the second jet broke through the clouds the pilots saw the object.

The jet’s two pilots reported that the UFO came very close to them and created a "heat wave." The temperature in the cockpit rose so high they thought the jet was going to burst into flames. They could no longer read the instruments and the plane wasn’t responding to piloting. They bailed out and parachuted to safety. However, the plane kept flying until it crashed into the town of Walesville, killing four people. The New York Times ran a picture the next day, showing houses in flames and the main engine of the jet in the town square. The Air Force simply called it a "mechanical malfunction."

The New York pilots encountered enough heat to force them to eject from the jet. A similar "heat wave" was encountered by Borman and Lovell, who were lucky to survive. Both the New York pilots and the astronauts made a visual on an unidentified object. The object may have been a highly charged atmospheric phenomenon, or, given that the Apollo VIII module, because it was rounding the limb of the Moon, was entering the radar beam from the Earth, the object may have been a radar phantom. The jets were deployed in the first place because the object was caught on radar. If the jets hadn’t been deployed four people wouldn’t have died in Walesville.

(Left) A beautiful airform photographed in color in the early 1960s.
(Right) An airform photographed by J. Douglas Stewart in Athens Ohio in 1965.
Both objects were investigated by Project Blue Book (USAF) and remained unsolved.

Not Just Radar
Though radar can be blamed for many of the sightings, it can’t be blamed for all. Magnetic storms are another source of UFO activity. The Earth’s atmosphere extends one thousand miles above the surface, and magnetic storms can produce exotic energies that can penetrate to ground level, and which can also be seen from Earth orbit.

A case in point comes from the Gemini IV mission in June of 1965. Astronaut Jim McDivitt spotted a cylindrical object with arms and antenna. It appeared white or silvery against the day sky in outer space. To the astronaut’s great discomfort the object appeared to be moving towards the Gemini spacecraft on a collision course. Just before the astronauts prepared to take action, the UFO disappeared. The following transcript of the air to ground conversation on June 3 1965 indicates that the apparition was generated by the high energies of a magnetic storm.

29 40 45

C

… Hawaii …

29 52 09

CC

Gemini 4, Guaymas CAP COM.

29 52 12

C

Go ahead, Guaymas. Gemini 4.

29 52 14

CC

Roger. We’ve got you green, how are you doing up there?

29 52 17

C

Fine. I just saw something else up here with me, but just as I was getting close enough to it to take a good picture, the sun got in the way and I lost it.

29 52 26

CC

Roger. We got some flight plan changes for you. Want to stand by to copy?

29 52 29

C

Yes. Stand by and let me see if I can find this thing again.

29 52 45

C

… and there are a great number of thunderstorms around at the present time. Lightning is actually lighting up the interior of the spacecraft … activity … thunderstorms …

29 53 35

C

Okay. Go ahead. It doesn’t look like I’m going to see him again.

29 57 09

CC

That’s affirm – you still looking at that thing up there?

29 57 12

C

No, I’ve lost it. It had big arms sticking out of it, it looked like. I only had it for just a minute. I got a couple of pictures with a movie camera and one with the Hasselblad; but I was in free drift, and before I could get the control back I drifted and lost it.

29 57 29

CC

Good show.

Oxcart (Update November 2014)
After doing the research for the web page The Oxcart Story (in the UFO Therapy section), it became apparent that two or three of the airform photos shown in this web page are pictures of the A-12 high-flying surveillance aircraft flown by the CIA between 1962 and 1968. Project Blue Book was discontinued in 1969 because the secret programs of the CIA and the Air Force were becoming known to people outside of those programs, and it was clear that a great many sightings were of secret supersonic aircraft. It was also becoming clear that Project Blue Book couldn’t afford to keep track of the proliferation of these vehicles. Air Force Secretary Robert C. Seamans Jr. announced the end of Project Blue Book on December 17 1969, stating "The continuation of Project Blue Book cannot be justified either on the grounds of national security or in the interests of science."

In fact, the Oxcart program, because of its secrecy, required a great deal of coordination between government agencies at top levels. For example, this document from the CIA [20024-3] is the first step in the coordination between the CIA and the Defense Communications Agency, which handled the communications for the Air National Guard. Obviously the National Guard had to be notified of the schedule for all Oxcart flights over national territory, and this required clearances and coordination at a very high level. Because these clearances precluded any truthful disclosures by the government agencies involved, descriptions of high-flying airflights as flying saucers were necessarily not commented on or corrected, and thus UFO reports were allowed to muddy the already muddy waters. Though the secret programs couldn’t account for all UFO sightings during the sixties, they could account for a great many.


References
Hynek, Allen. Vallee, Jacques. The Edge of Reality, Regnery Company, 1975
Brian, William L. Moongate: Suppressed Findings of the U.S. Space Program, Future Science Research Publishing, 1982
Rene, R. NASA Mooned America!, 1994
Marrs, Jim. Alien Agenda, Harper Collins, 1997
Halprin, Lawrence. The RSVP Cycles, Doubleday, 1969
Brand, Stewart, Ed. Space Colonies, Whole Earth Catalog, Penguin, 1977
Apollo VIII Mission Operation Report, 1968, online
Apollo XI Mission Operation Report, 1969, online
Emenegger, Robert. UFO’s, Past, Present and Future, Ballantine Books, 1974


Outer Space

Home Page