|Outline the general organization of the human nervous
system including the CNS (brain and spinal cord) and the
- Draw the structure of a motor neuron.
- Include dendrites, cell body with
nucleus, elongated axon, myelin sheath, nodes of
Ranvier and motor end plates.
|Define resting potential and action
- Explain how a nerve impulse passes along a
non-myelinated neuron (axon).
- Include the role of Na+
ions, K+ ions, voltage-gated ion
channels, active transport and changes in
- Explain the principles of synaptic transmission.
- Include Ca2+ influx;
the release, diffusion and binding of the
neurotransmitter; depolarization of the
post-synaptic membrane and subsequent removal of
|Muscles and Movement
|Outline the great diversity of
locomotion in the animal kingdom as exemplified by
movement in an earthworm, swimming in a bony fish, flying
in a bird and walking in an arthropod.
|Describe the roles of nerves, muscles
and bones in producing movement or locomotion.
- Draw a diagram of the human elbow joint.
- Include cartilage, synovial fluid,
tendons, ligaments, named bones and named
antagonistic muscles. The only muscles expected
are the biceps and triceps.
|Outline the functions of the
above-named structures of the human elbow joint.
- Draw the structure of skeletal muscle fibres as
seen in electron micrographs.
- Electron micrographs can be
interpreted to show sarcomeres and thier
characteristic dark and light bands. The detailed
structure can be deduced so that thin actin
filaments and thick myosin filaments
interdigitate. The sarcoplasmic reticulum and
mitochondria should be included. No names of
lines or bands are expected.
- Explain how skeletal muscle contracts by the
sliding of filaments.
- Include the roles of the
sarcoplasmic reticulum, Ca2+ ions,
troponin, tropomyosin, actin, myosin; the
formation, movement and breakage of
cross-bridges; and ATP.