Nerves, Muscles and Movement

Outline the general organization of the human nervous system including the CNS (brain and spinal cord) and the PNS (nerves).
Draw the structure of a motor neuron.
Include dendrites, cell body with nucleus, elongated axon, myelin sheath, nodes of Ranvier and motor end plates.
Define resting potential and action potential.
Explain how a nerve impulse passes along a non-myelinated neuron (axon).
Include the role of Na+ ions, K+ ions, voltage-gated ion channels, active transport and changes in membrane polarization.
Explain the principles of synaptic transmission.
Include Ca2+ influx; the release, diffusion and binding of the neurotransmitter; depolarization of the post-synaptic membrane and subsequent removal of the neurotransmitter.
Muscles and Movement
Outline the great diversity of locomotion in the animal kingdom as exemplified by movement in an earthworm, swimming in a bony fish, flying in a bird and walking in an arthropod.
Describe the roles of nerves, muscles and bones in producing movement or locomotion.
Draw a diagram of the human elbow joint.
Include cartilage, synovial fluid, tendons, ligaments, named bones and named antagonistic muscles. The only muscles expected are the biceps and triceps.
Outline the functions of the above-named structures of the human elbow joint.
Draw the structure of skeletal muscle fibres as seen in electron micrographs.
Electron micrographs can be interpreted to show sarcomeres and thier characteristic dark and light bands. The detailed structure can be deduced so that thin actin filaments and thick myosin filaments interdigitate. The sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria should be included. No names of lines or bands are expected.
Explain how skeletal muscle contracts by the sliding of filaments.
Include the roles of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, Ca2+ ions, troponin, tropomyosin, actin, myosin; the formation, movement and breakage of cross-bridges; and ATP.