Compiled By: David W. Aha and
- Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence
Naval Research Laboratory, Code 5515
4555 Overlook Ave, SW
Washington, D.C. 20375-5337
(202) 404-4940 | (202) 767-3172 (FAX)
Introduction to NEO Planning
NCARAI's Intelligent Decision Aids Group is developing tools for
formulating noncombatant evacuation operation (NEO) plans. This page
introduces NEOs and pointers on related information. Our own
publications on this topic are temporarily unavailable; we'll revive
this page soon. We maintain a list of NEOs below.
NEOs are conducted to assist the USA Department of State in evacuating
noncombatants, nonessential military personnel, selected host-nation
citizens, and third country nationals whose lives are in danger from
locations in a host foreign nation to an appropriate safe haven. They
usually involve a swift insertion of a force, temporary occupation of
an objective (e.g., a USA Embassy), and a planned withdrawal after
mission completion. NEOs are usually planned and operated by a JTF
and conducted under an Ambassador's authority. Force sizes can range
into the hundreds with all branches of armed services involved, while
the evacuees can number into the thousands. At least ten NEOs were
conducted within the past decade (e.g., Eastern Exit (1991, Mogadishu,
300 evacuees), Assured Response (1997, Monrovia, 2400 evacuees)).
Unclassified publications exist that describe NEO doctrine (e.g., DoD,
1994), case studies (e.g., Siegel, 1991; 1995), and more general
analyses (Stahl, 1992; Lambert, 1992) are also available.
Below we list some on-line sources of info on NEOs, along with some
publications. Admittedly, we do not always keep this up to date.
WWW Information on NEOs
NEO-Related Documents Obtained
- Batchelder Jr., Sydney H., & Quinlan, D.A. (1976). Operation
Eagle Pull. Marine Corps Gazette, May, 47-60.
- Bishop, James K. (1991) Escape from Mogadishu. Foreign
Services Journal, March, 26-31.
- Blanchard, Christopher E. (1/1996). Noncombatant evacuation operations:
Considerations for deliberate and crisis action planning (Unclassified
Technical Report). Newport, RI: Naval War College.
- Department of the Army (1991). Operations in a low intensity
conflict (Field Manual 7-98, Coordinating Draft). Washington DC:
Department of the Army, Headquarters, May. (In HTML format only.)
- Department of the Army (1994). Noncombatant evacuation
operations (Field Manual 90-29). Washington, DC: Department of
the Army, Headquarters, October.
- Department of Defense (1994). Joint tactics, techniques and
procedures for noncombat evacuation operations (Joint Publication
Report 3-07.51, Second Draft). Washington, DC: Department of Defense,
- Doss, Robert A. (1992). Out of Africa: Rescue from Mogadishu.
U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, May, 103-105.
- Kostek, S.R. (1988). A User's Design of a Decision Support
System for Noncombatant Evacuation Operations for United States
Central Command. Master's thesis, School of Engineering,
Air Force Institute of Technology, Dayton, Ohio.
- Lambert, Kirk S. (1992). Noncombatant evacuation operations --
Plan now or pay later (Unclassified Technical Report).
Newport, RI: Naval War College, June.
- Millard, Major Charles A., & Grike, Leo J. (1979). Amphibious
force capabilities for non-combatant emergency evacuation (NEMVAC)
operations (Technical Report CRC 369). Arlington, VA: Center
for Naval Analyses, Marine Corps Operations Analysis Group, January.
- Parker, T. W. (1991). Operations Sharp Edge. U.S. Naval Institute
Proceedings, May, 102 - 106.
- Patrick, Urey (1977). US Marine Corps participation
in the emergency evacuations of Phnom Penh and Saigon: Operations
Eagle Pull and Frequent Wind (U) (Technical Report CNS 1098).
Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, Marine Corps Operations
Analysis Group, June.
- Sachtleben, Glen R. (1991). Operation Sharp Edge: The Corps
MEU(SOC) Program in action. Marine Corps Gazette, November,
- Siegel Adam B. (1991). Eastern Exit: The noncombatant
evacuation operation (NEO) from Mogadishu, Somalia, in January
1991 (Technical Report CRM 91-221). Arlington, VA: Center for
Naval Analyses, October.
- Siegel, Adam B. (8/1993). Noncombatant Evacuation Operations
(NEOs): An Analyst's How-To Guide (Technical Report 37 93-0003/4).
Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses.
- Siegel, Adam B. (3/1995). Requirements for Humanitarian
Assistance and Peace Operations: Insights from Seven Case Studies.
(Technical Report CRM 94-74).
Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses.
- Stahl, David T. (1992). Noncombatant evacuation operations in
support of the National Military Strategy (Unclassified Technical
Report). Fort Leavenworth, KA: United States Army Command and General
Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies.
- Stewart, G., Fabbri, S.M., & Siegel, A.B. (7/1994). JTF
Operations Since 1983. (Technical Report CRM 94-42). Arlington,
VA: Center for Naval Analyses.
NEO-Related Documents Desired
This obviously incomplete list is in reverse chronological order.
- Commander, Surface Warfare Developmenty Group Tactical Memorandum
XZ0057-1-93/Operational Handbook (OH) 7-36, Maritime Conduct of
Noncombatant Evacuation Operations (NEOs). (30 May 1993).
- Marlene Ausen et. al. (1988). Noncombatant evacuation operations (NEO)
and repatriation. How the procedure can be improved (Unclassified
Technical Report). U.S. Air University, War College.
- FMFM 7-36 MAGTF. "Noncombatant Evacuation Operations" (Coordinating
Draft) Washington D.C.: Headquarters, Department of the Navy, June
- Outdated doctinal document? Cancelled without replacement
- DMA Instruction 8052.7, MC&G Support for Noncombatant Evacuation
Operations, 27 January 1989. (USAF)
- Department of the Army. Noncombatant Evacuation Operations. Army
Regulation 525-12. (We're unsure of this title! However, the number 525-12
- Nobel Response, Kenya and Tanzania (August 1998)
- Shepard Venture, Guinea Bissau (July 1998)
- US Embassy; Asamara, Eritrea (June 1998)
- Silver Wake, Albania (4 June - 14 July, 1997)
- Nobel Obelisk, Sierra Leone (27 May - 6 June, 1997)
- Guardian Retrieval, Zaire (2 May - 5 June, 1997)
- Assured Response, Monrovia, Liberia (1996)
- Sierra Leone (May 1992)
- Quick Lift, Kinshasha, Zaire (September - October, 1991)
- Fiery Vigil, Clark Air Force Base, Phillipines (June 1991)
- Eastern Exit, Mogadishu, Somalia (2-11 January, 1991)
- Sharp Edge, Monrovia, Liberia (May 1990 - January 1991)
- Eagle Pull, Phnom Penh, Cambodia (1975)
- Power Pack, Dominican Republic (1965-66)