NEO-Related Information

Compiled By: David W. Aha and Héctor Muñoz-Avila
Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence
Naval Research Laboratory, Code 5515
4555 Overlook Ave, SW
Washington, D.C. 20375-5337
(202) 404-4940 | (202) 767-3172 (FAX)

Introduction to NEO Planning

NCARAI's Intelligent Decision Aids Group is developing tools for formulating noncombatant evacuation operation (NEO) plans. This page introduces NEOs and pointers on related information. Our own publications on this topic are temporarily unavailable; we'll revive this page soon. We maintain a list of NEOs below.

NEOs are conducted to assist the USA Department of State in evacuating noncombatants, nonessential military personnel, selected host-nation citizens, and third country nationals whose lives are in danger from locations in a host foreign nation to an appropriate safe haven. They usually involve a swift insertion of a force, temporary occupation of an objective (e.g., a USA Embassy), and a planned withdrawal after mission completion. NEOs are usually planned and operated by a JTF and conducted under an Ambassador's authority. Force sizes can range into the hundreds with all branches of armed services involved, while the evacuees can number into the thousands. At least ten NEOs were conducted within the past decade (e.g., Eastern Exit (1991, Mogadishu, 300 evacuees), Assured Response (1997, Monrovia, 2400 evacuees)). Unclassified publications exist that describe NEO doctrine (e.g., DoD, 1994), case studies (e.g., Siegel, 1991; 1995), and more general analyses (Stahl, 1992; Lambert, 1992) are also available.

Below we list some on-line sources of info on NEOs, along with some publications. Admittedly, we do not always keep this up to date.

WWW Information on NEOs


NEO-Related Documents Obtained

  1. Batchelder Jr., Sydney H., & Quinlan, D.A. (1976). Operation Eagle Pull. Marine Corps Gazette, May, 47-60.

  2. Bishop, James K. (1991) Escape from Mogadishu. Foreign Services Journal, March, 26-31.

  3. Blanchard, Christopher E. (1/1996). Noncombatant evacuation operations: Considerations for deliberate and crisis action planning (Unclassified Technical Report). Newport, RI: Naval War College.

  4. Department of the Army (1991). Operations in a low intensity conflict (Field Manual 7-98, Coordinating Draft). Washington DC: Department of the Army, Headquarters, May. (In HTML format only.)

  5. Department of the Army (1994). Noncombatant evacuation operations (Field Manual 90-29). Washington, DC: Department of the Army, Headquarters, October.

  6. Department of Defense (1994). Joint tactics, techniques and procedures for noncombat evacuation operations (Joint Publication Report 3-07.51, Second Draft). Washington, DC: Department of Defense, October.

  7. Doss, Robert A. (1992). Out of Africa: Rescue from Mogadishu. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, May, 103-105.

  8. Kostek, S.R. (1988). A User's Design of a Decision Support System for Noncombatant Evacuation Operations for United States Central Command. Master's thesis, School of Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Dayton, Ohio.

  9. Lambert, Kirk S. (1992). Noncombatant evacuation operations -- Plan now or pay later (Unclassified Technical Report). Newport, RI: Naval War College, June.

  10. Millard, Major Charles A., & Grike, Leo J. (1979). Amphibious force capabilities for non-combatant emergency evacuation (NEMVAC) operations (Technical Report CRC 369). Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, Marine Corps Operations Analysis Group, January.

  11. Parker, T. W. (1991). Operations Sharp Edge. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, May, 102 - 106.

  12. Patrick, Urey (1977). US Marine Corps participation in the emergency evacuations of Phnom Penh and Saigon: Operations Eagle Pull and Frequent Wind (U) (Technical Report CNS 1098). Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, Marine Corps Operations Analysis Group, June.

  13. Sachtleben, Glen R. (1991). Operation Sharp Edge: The Corps MEU(SOC) Program in action. Marine Corps Gazette, November, 76-86.

  14. Siegel Adam B. (1991). Eastern Exit: The noncombatant evacuation operation (NEO) from Mogadishu, Somalia, in January 1991 (Technical Report CRM 91-221). Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, October.

  15. Siegel, Adam B. (8/1993). Noncombatant Evacuation Operations (NEOs): An Analyst's How-To Guide (Technical Report 37 93-0003/4). Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses.

  16. Siegel, Adam B. (3/1995). Requirements for Humanitarian Assistance and Peace Operations: Insights from Seven Case Studies. (Technical Report CRM 94-74). Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses.

  17. Stahl, David T. (1992). Noncombatant evacuation operations in support of the National Military Strategy (Unclassified Technical Report). Fort Leavenworth, KA: United States Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies.

  18. Stewart, G., Fabbri, S.M., & Siegel, A.B. (7/1994). JTF Operations Since 1983. (Technical Report CRM 94-42). Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses.


NEO-Related Documents Desired

NEO Operations

This obviously incomplete list is in reverse chronological order.
  1. Nobel Response, Kenya and Tanzania (August 1998)
  2. Shepard Venture, Guinea Bissau (July 1998)
  3. US Embassy; Asamara, Eritrea (June 1998)
  4. Silver Wake, Albania (4 June - 14 July, 1997)
  5. Nobel Obelisk, Sierra Leone (27 May - 6 June, 1997)
  6. Guardian Retrieval, Zaire (2 May - 5 June, 1997)
  7. Assured Response, Monrovia, Liberia (1996)
  8. Sierra Leone (May 1992)
  9. Quick Lift, Kinshasha, Zaire (September - October, 1991)
  10. Fiery Vigil, Clark Air Force Base, Phillipines (June 1991)
  11. Eastern Exit, Mogadishu, Somalia (2-11 January, 1991)
  12. Sharp Edge, Monrovia, Liberia (May 1990 - January 1991)
  13. Eagle Pull, Phnom Penh, Cambodia (1975)
  14. Power Pack, Dominican Republic (1965-66)