DICK BEVINGTON
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SPINS

EMERGENCY SPIN RECOVERY
l.Cut the throttle!
2.Take your hand off the stick!
3.Kick full opposite rudder until the spin stops!
4.Neutralize the rudder and pull out of the dive!

This is the Gene Biggs/Eric Muller and has been extensively tested by Gene. This method of recovery will enable you to quickly and easily recover from any spin that can be encountered in any of the airplanes used by Gene in his spin tests. This method has many advantages over those shown in most aircraft flight manuals. It is as simple as one, two, three, and can be relied on in an emergency situation where a pilot may not be thinking clearly. It has the added advantage of it being unnecessary for the pilot to know what kind of spin he is in, the recovery procedures are the same whether the spin is upright or inverted, flat or normal, power on or off or otherwise.

In 1981 Eric Muller wrote a article entitled "The Spin-Myth & Reality" from which Beggs began his own study of this method of recovery. Anyone who flys aerobatics, or an airplane capable of spinning should know this method of spin recovery.

We are all aware of the dangers of flat spins, inadvertent spins, etc. Many very experienced and competent pilots have spun in accidentally including Art Scholl. What happened? Were they confused and disoriented, applying the wrong control inputs, trying desperately to recover form what they thought was an upright spin when in fact they were in an inverted spin? Or were they simply not allowing enough time for recovery to take place? Maybe they were holding opposite aileron or forgot to pull the power, either of which will prevent recovery in many airplanes.

John Morrissey, US team trainer, discusses how ones natural tendency when the nose is down, is to try and bring it up. Also when the wing is down to try and bring it up. The first action will prevent recovery and the second will make the spin go flat. Another factor is time compression which hinders ones ability to react.

Many are the tales of how an airplane "just went into a flat spin" or "it wouldn't come out no matter what I did!" only to recover while the pilot tried to unfasten his seat belt or unlatch the canopy. Obviously, the pilot was confused and applying the wrong control inputs.
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There are many reasons why pilots continue to get into trouble with spins but the most common are:
1. Lack of good instruction
2. The pilots refusal to admit he needs training.
3. Economic reasons, although instruction is really cheap compared to the price of an aerobatic airplane
4. Fear! Many pilots are afraid of spins and are afraid the instructor will take them up and wring them out.

Some spins to be considered:
I. Textbook Spins or Normal Spins. (Upright and inverted, left and right.)(power off, ailerons neutral, stick full back or full forward.)
II. Cross Controlled or Flat Spins. (Upright and inverted, left and right, power off, stick either full forward or full back, full opposite aileron.)
III. Accelerated Spins (Upright and inverted, left and right, power.)

An accelerated spin is one that develops when the pilot begins to move the stick slowly toward the neutral position from either the full back or full forward position after the spin has developed, or the type of spin that will result when the aircraft falls out of a maneuver and begins to spin with the stick not fully against the forward or back stop. The rate of rotation that can be developed in this type of spin can only be described as awesome! If encountered the first time on your own it can be very disorienting and frightening.

A little further explanation may be necessary. Let's take for example a normal upright spin to the left. Power off, and stick full back, ailerons neutral and full left rudder. After the spin develops, we will begin to slowly go forward with the stick and as we do, you will notice a dramatic increase in the rate of rotation. We now let go completely of the stick, and you will notice that the stick stays in the aft position and the ailerons will lay slightly "in spin". The stick will not be full back, it will be about half way between the true neutral position and the full aft position but it will feel like it is in neutral to you. If you now take the stick and try to push it forward, you will find a lot of resistance and it will take an unbelievable amount of force to push that stick forward. You will also notice that the harder you push, the faster the airplane will spin and even with full forward stick, the airplane will not recover! If you let go of the stick at this time, you will notice that the elevator will snap right back into that same position mentioned above. After the airplane gets into this type of spin, pushing the stick forward increases the rate of rotation and pulling it back slows the rate of
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rotation, in the case of an upright spin. This type of spin can be confusing and disorienting, with the pilot not knowing whether the spin is upright or inverted, left or right. This will also demonstrate that the elevator doesn,t get the airplane out of the spin! In most cases, used by itself, it will only aggravate the spin. The rudder is the most effective control for spin recovery. It doesn't matter if you don't understand the aerodynamics. Recovery is the same even if you don t know what type of spin you are in.
1. Cut the power
2. Let completely go of the stick
3. Push full opposite
4. Neutralize the rudder and pull out of the dive

Please understand that this is the recovery procedure used when you are not sure just what the airplane is doing. It is an emergency spin recovery procedure. A precision type spin recovery is one in which we first apply full opposite rudder with the stick full back and then apply nose down elevator at the point where we want the spin to stop, neutralize the rudders and then project a perfectly vertical down line.

Maneuvers most likely to result in a inadvertent spin during the first few attempts are:
l.Hammerheads 2. Immelmans 3.Vertical Rolls 4.Vertical Snaps.

THE ONE TURN SPIN
-The same as required for basic, sportsman and intermediate "smooth patch" awards.

The Approach:
The judge will look in the approach phase of a spin, for whether the airplane is starting to settle or climb prior to the break. One of the best ways is to be 5 to 10 knots above stall, in level flight, then all that is needed to enter the spin is a smooth reduction of power and the stall will occur without delay exactly where you intend it to.

The Entry
What you want to accomplish is a smooth slide of the nose in the direction of the spin as the nose begins to drop. With this technique, you will have good feel and control of the airplane as it enters the spin. This means smooth application of full rudder. For a good score on the entry, the judges are looking for one wing and the nose to fall. It would be incorrect for a wing to rise and go over the top as in a forced entry. In most airplanes the stick will not be at its aft limit when the critical angle of attack is reached. Don't yank the stick back the rest of the way. As the nose drops and slides in the direction of the spin, smoothly bring the stick back to the stop.
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Auto Rotation
Some airplanes accelerate right into a good rotation, even in a one turn spin, and some don,t. By easing the elevator off the stop with the stick, it can help to accelerate the aircraft into the proverbial "sweet spot" in terms of spin rotation, quickly.

Recovery
It is impossible to stop exactly on heading 100% of the time. Begin with rudder first at 45 degrees prior to the intended heading. Coming to the actual heading, apply brisk forward stick, which should stop the rotation as if the wings hit invisible stops. If it becomes obvious that you are going to undershoot the recovery you can, before the rotation stops, aileron it the rest of the way. You will usually get away with this little trick.

The Down Line And Pullout
You must establish a 90 degree down line with wings level immediately after spin recovery. It's best to establish the 90 while recovering, as there is no wasted motion. If recovering on the X-axis, be careful not to be positive or negative. On the Yaxis avoid dragging a wing. Both conditions will get you downgraded. Pick a point on the ground directly beneath to point at. The judge should look for a constant radius on the pull out. Be careful not to inadvertantly shallow out the down line. Keep the nose exactly on the point until you start the pull. When starting the pull, pull firmly and cleanly to level flight. Carve a nice radius without buffeting. You may want to extend your down line to obtain maximum energy for the the next figure. If you are approaching an overspeed, you can control the speed and stop acceleration with a firm pull. This is seldom a problem and you should always go to full power on establishing a down line to accelerate. This way you don't eat up too much altitude before your pull and will have plenty of energy for the next figure.


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