Excerpts from the Book

I am very interested in obtaining anything which will enhance my ability to author a book on the Korean Award System.  This includes: Orders, Medals, Decorations, books, articles, pictures, documents, legal codes, et al.  I am also very interested in obtaining short biographies of Korean Award Recipients.  A medal book which only gives dates, sizes, weights and design characteristics, can be a bit tedious.  If you can be of any assistance, please contact me.


Francis William Schofield

Born in Rugby, England in 1889, Schofield came to Canada at the age of 16 as a farm laborer.  He saved his farm wages, and enrolled in the Ontario Veterinary College (University of Toronto).  Partway through school, he was hit with Poliomyelitis (polio or infantile paralysis), and lost the use of one arm and one leg, but he persevered and in 1910 he graduated at the top of his class with a Bachelor of Veterinary Science Degree.  The college immediately recruited him as an instructor and graduate student.  He received a Doctorate of Veterinary Medicine Degree in 1911.  Then he heard about a teaching position at Severance Medical School (Yonsei University) in Korea. Schofield arrived in Korea in October of 1916 as a missionary of the Presbyterian Church and to teach bacteriology.  At the time, Korea was a colony of Japan and Schofield was appalled at the brutality of the colonial administration.  He openly sympathized with the growing Independence Movement.  On March 1, 1919, 33 leaders of the Korean community signed a Declaration of Independence in Pagoda Park.  Almost immediately, a national Independence Movement rose up in the hope of forcing the Japanese to allow Koreans to determine their own future.  Dr. Schofield served informally as minister of information, and is sometimes referred to as the 34th member.  With his camera, he made the only known visual records of the atrocities at Jeum ri and at SuChon-Ri.  He documented other violent reprisals of the Japanese colonial administration, and smuggled detailed accounts and pictures to the West where publication helped garner international support for Korea.  Among the students at Seoul National University, he became known as "Tiger Grandfather" for his passionate and frequent lectures in support of independence.  In the fall of 1919, his activities led to his imprisonment by the colonial authorities.  He was released and deported to Canada in the summer of 1920.  In 1921, he returned to the Ontario Veterinary College as professor in charge of pathology and bacteriology.  He remained there until he retired in 1955.  He is best remembered in Canada for his discovery of dicumarol, which prevents blood from clotting.  His discovery formed the basis of modern anticoagulant therapy in both animals and humans.  A spin-off was the development of pest control products such as rat poison.  After his retirement, Syngman Rhee invited Schofield to return to Korea as a National Guest.  In 1958, he started teaching at the Seoul National University Veterinary School.  He also founded and funded two orphanages.  In recognition of his many contributions to Korea, he was awarded the Order of Cultural Merit 문화훈장, Republic of Korea Medal 대한민국장 (1st Class) on Dec. 12th, 1960 and the Order of National Foundation 건국훈장, Presidential Class 대통령장 (2nd Class) in 1968.  He also received honorary degrees from two Korean universities.  From his alma mater, the University of Toronto, he received an LL.D. in 1962.  He also found a new passion, lecturing against the corruption of the Syngman Rhee and later, Park Chung Hee regimes.  His activities contributed to the demise of Syngman Rhee.  He died in Korea on April 12th, 1970.  On his deathbed, he asked to be laid to rest in Korea.  He is buried in plot 96 in the Patriots' Section of the National Cemetery, the only foreigner ever to be interred in a patriot's plot.  Presidents Syngman Rhee and Park Chung Hee are also buried there.  It is unknown what became of his medals. Footnote: In 1967 the Order of Cultural Merit was eliminated and the names for the various classes were given to the Order of National Foundation. The Order of Cultural Merit was re-established in 1973 with new Class Names.
Francis William Schofield
Wearing the Order of Cultural Merit
Dec. 12, 1960

Schofield's Grave


Dr. Eli Miller Mowry 모오리
(1880-1971)
Even as a young man growing up in rural Ohio, Eli Mowry knew he wanted to be a missionary.  While working his way through Wooster College, he became a member of the "Volunteer Band", a group of students who were looking forward to Christian service in foreign lands.  In 1906 after graduating with a BA, he entered Western Theological Seminary in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and was ordained a Presbyterian Minister in 1909.  Later that same year, he married Lois Thomas.  Their marriage was to last a lifetime and produced three children: Lucetta, David and Miriam, all of whom were born in Korea.  Originally scheduled to do Missionary work in China, the young couple were offered a position by William Baird, the founder and president of Soong Sil College 승실대학 (Union Christian College) in Pyongyang, Korea.  Dr. Mowry was the Dean of the College for about twenty years and in 1936 was made President.  He also did church work in the local area, covering about 160 villages.  Although he was never a musician, he organized the first choirs in Korea and was later called the "Father of Korean Church Music".  In 1918, while on furlough from Korea, he received a Master's Degree in Biology and in 1935, the College of Wooster awarded him an Honorary Doctor of Divinity Degree.  In 1938, the Japanese decreed that all students were to worship at Shinto Shrines.  Rather than compromise its religious principles, the college closed its doors.  Dr. Mowry left Korea in the spring of 1941, and while there was great sadness in his leaving, there was also great relief in finally being out from under the oppression of the Japanese regime in Korea.  After the War, Soong Sil College was reestablished in Seoul.
One of the most pivotal events in Korean history was the non-violent Mansei Demonstrations which began on March 1st, 1919.  The Koreans had secretly prepared a "Declaration of Independence".  In large part, it was based on the American concepts of independence and freedom.  Woodrow Wilson's Policy of "Self Determination" also helped to fuel the fires of Korean patriotism.  Mimeographed copies of the declaration were mass produced along with thousands of paper flags.  Suddenly, quite to the surprise of the Japanese, the entire nation rose up in protest.  Initially stunned by the enormity of the protest, the Japanese police soon began to take their retribution.  Thousands of Koreans were killed, and tens of thousands more were beaten and imprisoned.  In Pyongyang, the "Declaration of Independence" was read aloud in the Boy's Primary School.  Dr. Mowry, who was the principal, had been unaware of the student's activities prior to March 1st.  Some days later, the Japanese police came to Dr. Mowry's house and arrested a number of students.  That evening, Dr. Mowry and Dr. Samuel Moffett, the President of the College, were told to see the Japanese Chief of Police at the Central Station.  Initially the police accused Dr. Mowry of hiding a mimeograph machine, but when no machine was found at his home, he was charged with harboring criminals.  There was a trial, and Dr. Mowry was convicted and sentenced to six months of hard labor, but after several appeals, the sentence was dropped to a fine of 50 Yen.  Some readers may think that Dr. Mowry was simply a missionary who was arrested, tried, convicted and finally managed to buy his way out of prison.  But the story has far more significance than that.  For the Japanese, the original trial and conviction had been a show of strength.  It was proof that not even the Americans were beyond their reach.  However, the trial and the appeals process garnered international attention, and it kept the Mansei Demonstrations alive in newspapers throughout the world.  When Dr. Mowry paid the fine, it must have been a great relief to the Japanese.  They had found a simple way to save face, and it ended the bad publicity they were getting in the world press.  The police were never able to prove any outright complicity on the part of Dr. Mowry.  Never the less, the Japanese had their suspicions, and for months after the trial, they continued to dog Dr. Mowry's every move.  
In a ceremony conducted on March 1st, 1950, at the Korean Embassy in Washington D.C., Dr. Mowry received the Korean Order of National Foundation, Third Class 간국공로훈장, 삼등장.  Eighteen years later, Korean President Park Chung Hee wanted to bring Dr. Mowry's remarkable story to the attention of the Korean public, so he re-awarded Dr. Mowry with the Order of National Foundation, National Class 간국국민장, 삼등장.  A year earlier in 1967, Kyung Hee University 경희대학교 awarded Dr. Mowry with it's "Medal of Highest Honor" 대학장.

Award Ceremony - March 1st, 1950
Korean Embassy - Washington D.C.

Dr. Mowry is standing fifth from the right.  The Korean Ambassador, John Chang is to his immediate right.  Standing fourth from the left is William Hulbert.  He is accepting a posthumous award for his father, Homer B. Hulbert, who was also a well known educator in Korea. Of the ten named recipients in this picture, Dr. Mowry and Homer B. Hulbert are the only ones whose names appear on the Official Recipient List for the Order of National Foundation.

There are a number of other important and fascinating aspects to this remarkable story, but you will just have to wait until the book is published.  I would like to express my gratitude to Mrs. Lynn Cox, the granddaughter of Dr. Mowry.  The information that she gathered for me, has filled a number of large gaping holes that existed in my research.  I can't thank her enough.



Major General John Albert Broadus Dillard, Jr.

Born on Sept. 1, 1919 in Lake Charles Louisiana.  He graduated from Virginia Military Institute and served in Europe during WW II.  As a Major, he served his first tour in Korea during the War and was awarded the Korean Order of Military Merit 무공훈장, Chung Mu Class 충무장 with Gold Star금성.  His DA66 Officer Qualification Record also shows that his unit received the Korean Presidential Unit Citation.  As a Brigadier General, he served another tour in Korea, from June 1968 to November 1969, and was the Commanding General of the 8th Army Corps of Engineers.  The Korean Government awarded him the Order of National Security Merit ;보국훈장, Third Class 삼등장.  Shortly thereafter, he was promoted to Major General and on Nov 27, 1969, he began a tour of duty in Vietnam as the Chief of Army Engineers.  He was killed on May 12, 1970 when his helicopter was shot down near Pleiku in the Central Highlands of Vietnam.  Only one person survived the crash.  There is a set of his medals on display in the lobby of MG John A.B. Dillard, Jr. Building located at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri.  His name appears on the Vietnam Memorial Wall on Panel 10W, Line 23.  He is buried in Section 5 of Arlington National Cemetery.  His wife, Bette Lorraine Dillard (May 2, 1921 - February 26, 1991) is buried with him.

ORDER OF NATIONAL SECURITY MERIT
1967 Series


Syngman Rhee

In 1910, Korea was annexed into the Japanese Empire.  Nine years later, Koreans established a Provisional Government in Shanghai, China, with Syngman Rhee as president.  Their only goal was to regain Korean Independence.  On Aug. 15, 1948, exactly three years to the day, after the Japanese surrender at the end of WWII, the Republic of (South) Korea was established with Syngman Rhee as its first President.  In 1949, the Korean Government established two Orders: the Grand Order of Mugunghwa 무궁화대 훈장 and the Order of National Foundaton 건국 훈장.  The Grand Order of Mugunghwa is the highest Order awarded by the Republic of Korea.  It is only conferred on the President of the Republic of Korea and to the Chiefs of States of friendly nations.  The Order of National Foundation is awarded to anyone who contributed in the struggle for Korean Independence.  Syngman Rhee was awarded the first two Orders ever issued by the Korean Government.  In April of 1960, nationwide demonstrations forced Syngman Rhee to resign.  The two medals pictured here are from the Syngman Rhee Museum in Korea.  The Order of National Foundation on the left is from a later series and its design is not identical to the one that Syngman Rhee would have received.  The Grand Order of Mugunghwa at the right is of the correct design.  He donated his original medals to his Alma Mater, Harvard University.   If anyone gets to Korea and visits this museum, I would love to get good close up pictures for each of these two Orders.
Medals from the Syngman Rhee Museum


Order of Diplomatic Service Merit 수교훈장
Sungrye Medal 숭례장

Pictured here is another example of a Diplomatic Service Order.  It is a third class commanders medal.  
This particular medal was issued to Herve Brouhon.  He was the mayor of Brussels, Belgium in the late 70s and early 80s.  Unfortunately, there is no documentation to support the award.


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