PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED TO WORK --- AN INTRODUCTION
TO INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
by Paul M. Muchinsky. Brooks Cole, 1993, 1990



PREFACE --- This 4th edition covers current advancements in the field of industrial and organizational psychology. The changes in the book are more evolutionary than revolutionary, as befits a book that previously met with professional approval. The revision goals were:

    [1] To retain the basic style and flavor of the previous editions but serve to more sharply clarify how industrial and organizational psychology contributes to and meshes with our society. The increasing integration of industrial and organizational psychology into the total fabric of our lives represents the single greatest change in the field today compared to even a few years ago. We now live in an interdependent "global economic community!"

    [2] There is an intimate relationship between your work and your personal life. Thus there is a coalescence of work and nonwork interests. The subject of industrial and organizational psychology does not end when people leave work for home.

    [3] The workplace is not immune from the consequences of major societal problems such as illicit drug usage and contagious diseases.

This book describes how industrial and organizational psychology is influenced by these issues and in some way contributes to their articulation if not assists in their resolution. There is new or expanded coverage of large-scale issues such as drug testing, employee theft, meta-analysis, human/computer interactions at work, behavioral issues in collective bargaining, occupational stress and its management, statistical quality control, the genetic basis of job satisfaction, mental health, group goal setting, charismatic leadership, and mentoring. (pxi-xiv)

SECTION 1 --- INTRODUCTION (p2-23)

    1) An Introduction (p1-58)

      [1] Scope of the book (p22)

      [2] Major chapter objectives in review (p23)

    2) Research methods in I/O psychology (p24-58)

      Major chapter objectives in review (p56)

SECTION 2 --- PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY (p59-255)

    3) Criteria (p60-90)

      [1] Disagreement among people in making evaluations (p60-61)

      [2] Conceptual versus actual criteria (p61-63)

      [3] Criterion deficiency, relevance, and contamination (p63-65)

        (1) Criterion deficiency (p63)

        (2) Criterion relevance (p63-64)

        (3) Criterion contamination (p64-65)

      [4] Criterion Develoment (p65-67)

      [5] Job analysis --- What are the criteria of effective job performance? (p67-75)

        (1) Methods of job analysis (p67-69)

        (2) Job-oriented and worker-oriented procedures (p69-72)

        (3) Evaluating job-analysis methods (p73-75)

      [6] Job evaluation (p75-79)

        (1) Methods of job evaluation (p76-77)

        (2) Research on job evaluation (p77-79)

      [7] Standards for criteria --- What should criteria be like? (p79-85)

        (1) Introduction --- They should be relevant and representative of the job. In general, they must be appropriate, stable, and practical. Further, they must endure over time or across situations and not be too expensive or hard to measure. The most comprehensive or representative listing of performance factors is: (p79-85)

          1. Reliable

          2. Realistic

          3. Representative

          4. Related to other criteria

          5. Acceptable to the job analyst

          6. Acceptable to management

          7. Consistent from one situation to another

          8. Predictable

          9. Inexpensive

          10. Understandable

          11. Measurable

          12. Relevant

          13. Uncontaminated and bias-free

          14. Sensitive

        The choice of criteria is usually determined by either history or precedent or, unfortunately, sometimes because they are merely expedient or available.

        (2) Types of criteria (p80)

        (3) Objective criteria

          1. Salary

          2. Job level and promotions

          3. Sales

          4. Tenure and turnover

          5. Absenteeism

          6. Accidents

          7.Theft

        (4) Subjective criteria = judgments made of an employee's performance, which is usually a rating or ranking. For example, a supervisor rates an employee on the basis of overall effectiveness. This rating would then be the "standard" of job performance. Supervisor ratings are by far the most frequently used judgmental criteria. But ratings may also be supplied by peers, subordinates, and employees themselves! (p83-85)

      [8] Relationship among job-performance criteria (p85-86)

      [9] Composite versus multiple criteria (p86-88)

        (1) Composite criterion (p86-87)

        (2) Multipole criteria (p87)

        (3) Resolution of the controversy (p87-88)

      [10] Concluding comments --- The issue of criteria in I/O psychology is complex and important. The quality of our employment judgments is only as good as the evaluative standards that are used to make them. (p88)

      [11] Major chapter objectives in review (p88)

    4) Predictors --- A predictor is a "variable" used to forecast a "criterion" (p91-136)

      [1] Overview and evaluation of predictors (p129-132)

      [2] Summary (p132-134)

      [3] Major chapter objectives in review (p134-135)

    5) Personnel decisions (p137-177)

      [1] Placement and classification (p173-175)

      [2] Major chapter objectives in review (p175-176)

    6) Personnel training (p178-216)

      1] Training and learning (p179-181)

      [2] Stating training objectives in "behavioral terms" (p181-182)

      [3] Deterrents to effective training (p182-183)

      [4] The design of personnel training (p183-184)

      [5] Assessing training needs (p184-192)

      [6] Methods and techniques of training (p192-206)

      [7] Evaluation of training programs (p206-213)

      [8] Equal employment opportunity and training (p213-214)

      [9] Summary (p214)

      [10] Major chapter objectives in review (p214-215)

    7 Performance appraisal (p217-255)

PART 3 --- Organizational psychology (p257-426)

    8) Organizations and their influence on behavior (p258-288)

    9) Job satisfaction (p289-321)

    10) Work motivation (p322-358)

    11) Leadership (p359-395)

    12) Organizational communication (p396-426)

PART 4 --- THE WORK ENVIRONMENT (p427-534)

    13) How you can be involved (p209-210)

    14) Meaning and purpose (p250-260)

    13) How you can be involved (p209-210)

    15) Work conditions (p496-533)

REFERENCES (p535-570)

NAME INDEX (p571-579)

SUBJECT INDEX (p580-584)


Go to: Achievement Issue at Work
Go to: Motivation Issue at Work
Go to: Performance Issue at Work
Go to: Leadership Essay
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Go to: Interactive Index