AND TEAM LEADERS by Marianne Minor. Crisp, 1989, 1996


    [1] To explain how to teach both job skills and counseling

    [2] To help decide whether to "coach" or "counsel"

    [3] To suggest ways to give effective feedback

    [4] To help translate the principles of "coaching" and "counseling" into action

Assessing your progress with a unique new "assessment tool" which is a 25-item multiple choice/true-false questionnaire for you to evaluate your comprehension of employment "coaching" and "counseling"


Licensed clinical social worker and management consultant who consults with organizations on how to implement human resource systems and decentralize decision making with specialties in team building and leadership training


The comprehensive self-study books for business or personal use are filled with exercises, activities, assessments and case studies to increase your understanding. Other Crisp tutorials include a variety of learning style formats for both individual or group study, including audio, video, CD-RO M and computer-based training programs


Counseling and coaching skills can be learned through persistence and patience --- if you have self-discipline to practice specific strategies for success. The emphasis in this book is on how your new skills will affect your workplace.

1) Employment "counseling" and "coaching" (p3-20)

    [1] Definitions (p4)

      (1) Basic definition of "employment counseling" --- A supportive process by a manager to help an employee define and work through personal problems or organizational changes that affect job performance (p4)

      (2) Basic definition of "employment coaching" --- A directive process by a manager to train and orient an employee to the realities of the workplace and to help the employee remove barriers to optimum work performance (p4)

    [2] Benefits of "employment counseling" (p5)

      (1) Employment counseling improves productivity of your organization since employees will feel listened to and supported

      (2) Employment counseling reduces turnover when employees feel they can vent their thoughrts and feelings and deal with problems openly and constructively

      (3) Employment counseling makes your job easier by giving you warning of resistance or problems that may occur following changes

      (4) Employment counseling increases efficiency of your business when you understand the motives and needs of each employee and how he or she will react to organizational events

      (5) Employment counseling reduces conflict andpreserves self-esteem when parties are really listened to

      (6) Employment counseling helps you solve problems before they occur

      (7) Employment counseling improves your decision-making when everyone's ideas are heard and employees' strengths and abilities are complemented

      (8) Employment counseling improves your career opportunities when you are known as a manager who can motivate employees and build constructive working relationships with bosses and peers

      (9) Employment counseling increases self-knowledge and personal satisfaction in your job

      (10) Employment counseling improves your self confidence

    [3] Benefits of "employment coaching" (p7)

      (1) Employment coaching makes your job easier when employees build their skill levels

      (2) Employment coaching enables greater delegation so you can have more time to truly manage versus "do for"

      (3) Employment coaching builds your reputation as a people developer

      (4) Employment coaching increases productivity when employees know what the goals are and how to achieve them

      (5) Employment coaching develops sharing of leadership responsibilities

      (6) Employment coaching positive recognition and feedback increases employee motivation and initiative

      (7) Employment coaching increases likelihood of tasks being completed in a quality way

      (8) Employment coaching avoids surprises and defensiveness in performance appraisals

      (9) Employment coaching increases creativity and innovation of team as employees feel safe to take risks

      (10) Employment coaching increases "team cohesiveness" due to clarified goals and roles

    [4] Why managers avoid counseling (p8)

    [5] Why managers avoid coaching (p9)

    [6] Characteristics of effective counselors (p10-11)

    [7] Effective counselor assessment (p12-13)

    [8] Characteristics of effective coaches (p14-15)

    [9] Effective coach assessment (p16-17)

    [10] Review --- Now can you recognize the differences between coaching and counseling? Do you now have an understanding of when to use them?(p18)

2) When should you counsel or coach? --- a successful coach or counselor listens more than talks --- effective listening and effective response (p19-40)

    [1] When to "counsel" or "coach?" (p21)

      (1) Work situations that may require counseling (p22)

      (2) Work situations that may require coaching (p23)

    [2] Symptoms of performance problems --- signs of declining performance (p24-27)

      Why employees don't get the job done --- three "root causes!"

      (1) Skill deficits --- "They don't know how to perform the job?"

      (2) Motivational deficits --- "They don't want to do the job --- now or forever!"

      (3) Resource deficits --- "Can anyone really do this job? Are your subordinates getting "burned-out"?

    [3] Personal problems that may affect job performance (p28-35)

      (1) Depression (p28-29)

        --- Assessing warning signs of depression (p28-29)

        --- What to do next? --- 10 tips (p29)

      (2) Grief reactions (p30-31)

        --- Assessing warning sins of grief reactions (p30)

        --- What to do next --- 10 tips (p31)

      (3) Hostility --- that could lead to violence (p32-33)

        --- Assessing warning signs of hostility (p33)

        --- What to do after a critical incident --- 10 tips (p33)

      (4) Chemical dependency (p34-35)

        --- Assessing warning signs of chemical dependency (p34 )

        --- What to do next --- ten tips (p35)

    [4] Case studies to evaluate your skills (p36)

    [5] Answers to the case study problems (p37)

3) Giving and receiving feedback (p41-56)

4) Plan and conduct counseling and coaching sessions (p57-70)

5) Pulling it all together (p71-79)

OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT (p81-87) The dynamics of management style --- what can be changed by a "coach" or "counselor?" Questionnaire:

    [1] Makes performance expectations and priorities clear --- coach!

    [2] Provides regular feedback about an employee's job performance --- coach!

    [3] Considers an employee's interests and skills when delegating work --- coach!

    [4] Helps employees feel confident about their ability to solve problems --- counselor!

    [5] Coaching presents knowledge of job responsibilities and expectations while counseling is a supportive process that recognizes that employees' personal problems can affect their job performance --- true!

    [6] The work situation that most requires "coaching" is --- "a new employee needs orientation and training"

    [7]The work situation that most requires "counseling" is --- "an employee has a conflict with another employee"

    [8] Employee behavior can indicate either a poor atttitude or declining performance. The behavior that most clearly indicates declining performance is --- "away from desk for long periods of time"

    [9] Case Study = Your subordinate stops by to talk to you about a promotion to supervisor that he has just been offered. He fears the increased stress level of the job. He has demonstrated skill in managing his work unit, and you are convinced he can handle the new assignment. The situation requires --- "Your counseling" and not coaching

    [10] Criticism as "feedback" is most likely to --- "Lead to escape and avoidance"

    [11] The most effective feedback is --- "Please inform the team about the plans we have just made"

    [12] The most innefecive form of feedback is --- "Criticism!"

    [13] Case Study = A new employee has just turned in her first marketing report. You believe it must include more details if it is to be useful to management. Your most effective behavior would be to --- "show her now to construct a useful report!"

    [14] The following are examples of "positive reinforcement" --- "giving a choice in flex-time, schedule or vacations; giving public praise; involving an employee to a greater depth"

    [15] To avoid providing a catalyst for violent behavior, management should --- "handle changes with sensitivity; assess employees' emotional behavior; have a crisis management plan"

    [16] In a counseling session, you should --- "know why you want the session and your goals for it"

    [17] Coaching "pitfalls" are --- "manager fails to document evolving performance problems; manager does not have enough information; manager is unclear about what is expected" but a good coaching manager --- "removes all distractions from the meeting place"

    [18] A counseling session is most likely to be successful if you --- "summarize key points at the end" but won't be successful if you --- "don't solicit employees' suggestions or solutions; avoid providing resources; use judgmental words"

    [19] If all else fails, and you decide to transfer an employee to another branch of the organization, the most important question to ask yourself is --- "Can your subordinate make a contribution elsewhere in the organization?

    [20] The best predictor of future employee violence is employee --- "history of violence" and not "isolation from others; apathy; absenteeism"

    [21] The best order of steps that should be taken in a disciplinary action is --- "verbal warning, written reminder, termination discussion"

    [22] Many organizations allow a manager to consider immediate suspension for the following --- "theft of organization property" but not "frequent errors in records; refusing to accept advice; inability to solve personality conflicts"

    [23] Case Study = An employee has been with your organization for three years. He wants a promotion to marketing manager and frequently stops by your office to tell you of his interest. Yet he turns in incomplete records, does not check on customer satisfaction , and dominates sales meetings but has few solid suggestions for improving sales.

    As his supervisor, you should provide him with --- "coaching"

    [24] A good first step for your subordinate would be to --- "give him training in monitoring customer satisfaction" and not "to teach him managerial skills or discourage him from thinking of being a manager"

    [25] You can both help your organization and help your subordinate achieve his goals if you --- "make clear to him the connection between performance and career goals!"


    [1] Questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 --- To explain how to teach both job skills and counseling

    [2] Questions 6, 7, 8, 9 --- To help decide whether to coach or to counsel

    [3] Questions 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 23, 24, 25 --- To suggest ways to give effective feedback

    [4] Questions 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 --- To help translate the principles of coaching or counseling into action!


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