COACHING AND COUNSELING --- A PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR MANAGERS
AND TEAM LEADERS by Marianne Minor. Crisp, 1989, 1996
LEARNING OBJECTIVES (piii)
 To explain how to teach both job skills and counseling
Assessing your progress with a unique new "assessment tool" which
is a 25-item multiple choice/true-false questionnaire for you to evaluate your comprehension
of employment "coaching" and "counseling"
 To help decide whether to "coach" or "counsel"
 To suggest ways to give effective feedback
 To help translate the principles of "coaching" and "counseling" into action
ABOUT THE AUTHOR (pv)
Licensed clinical social worker and management consultant who consults with organizations
on how to implement human resource systems and decentralize decision making with specialties
in team building and leadership training
CRISP 50-MINUTE SERIES OF OVER 200 TITLES
The comprehensive self-study books for business or personal use are filled with exercises,
activities, assessments and case studies to increase your understanding. Other Crisp tutorials
include a variety of learning style formats for both individual or group study, including audio,
M and computer-based training programs
Counseling and coaching skills can be learned through persistence and patience --- if you
have self-discipline to practice specific strategies for success. The emphasis in this book
is on how your new skills will affect your workplace.
1) Employment "counseling" and "coaching" (p3-20)
 Definitions (p4)
2) When should you counsel or coach? --- a successful coach or counselor
listens more than talks --- effective listening and effective response (p19-40)
(1) Basic definition of "employment counseling" --- A supportive process by a manager to help an employee define and work through personal problems or organizational
changes that affect job performance (p4)
 Benefits of "employment counseling" (p5)
(2) Basic definition of "employment coaching" --- A directive process by a manager to train and orient an employee to the realities of the workplace and to help the employee
remove barriers to optimum work performance (p4)
(1) Employment counseling improves productivity of your organization since
employees will feel listened to and supported
 Benefits of "employment coaching" (p7)
(2) Employment counseling reduces turnover when employees feel they can vent
their thoughrts and feelings and deal with problems openly and constructively
(3) Employment counseling makes your job easier by giving you warning of resistance
or problems that may occur following changes
(4) Employment counseling increases efficiency of your business when you
understand the motives and needs of each employee and how he or she
will react to organizational events
(5) Employment counseling reduces conflict andpreserves self-esteem when
parties are really listened to
(6) Employment counseling helps you solve problems before they occur
(7) Employment counseling improves your decision-making when everyone's
ideas are heard and employees' strengths and abilities are complemented
(8) Employment counseling improves your career opportunities when you are
known as a manager who can motivate employees and build constructive
working relationships with bosses and peers
(9) Employment counseling increases self-knowledge and personal satisfaction in
(10) Employment counseling improves your self confidence
(1) Employment coaching makes your job easier when employees build their skill levels
 Why managers avoid counseling (p8)
(2) Employment coaching enables greater delegation so you can have more time to truly
manage versus "do for"
(3) Employment coaching builds your reputation as a people developer
(4) Employment coaching increases productivity when employees know what
the goals are and how to achieve them
(5) Employment coaching develops sharing of leadership responsibilities
(6) Employment coaching positive recognition and feedback increases employee
motivation and initiative
(7) Employment coaching increases likelihood of tasks being completed in a
(8) Employment coaching avoids surprises and defensiveness in performance
(9) Employment coaching increases creativity and innovation of team as employees
feel safe to take risks
(10) Employment coaching increases "team cohesiveness" due to clarified goals and roles
 Why managers avoid coaching (p9)
 Characteristics of effective counselors (p10-11)
 Effective counselor assessment (p12-13)
 Characteristics of effective coaches (p14-15)
 Effective coach assessment (p16-17)
 Review --- Now can you recognize the differences between coaching and
counseling? Do you now have an understanding of when to use them?(p18)
 When to "counsel" or "coach?" (p21)
3) Giving and receiving feedback (p41-56)
(1) Work situations that may require counseling (p22)
 Symptoms of performance problems --- signs of declining performance (p24-27)
(2) Work situations that may require coaching (p23)
Why employees don't get the job done --- three "root causes!"
 Personal problems that may affect job performance (p28-35)
(1) Skill deficits --- "They don't know how to perform the job?"
(2) Motivational deficits --- "They don't want to do the job --- now or forever!"
(3) Resource deficits --- "Can anyone really do this job? Are your subordinates
(1) Depression (p28-29)
 Case studies to evaluate your skills (p36)
--- Assessing warning signs of depression (p28-29)
(2) Grief reactions (p30-31)
--- What to do next? --- 10 tips (p29)
--- Assessing warning sins of grief reactions (p30)
(3) Hostility --- that could lead to violence (p32-33)
--- What to do next --- 10 tips (p31)
--- Assessing warning signs of hostility (p33)
(4) Chemical dependency (p34-35)
--- What to do after a critical incident --- 10 tips (p33)
--- Assessing warning signs of chemical dependency (p34 )
--- What to do next --- ten tips (p35)
 Answers to the case study problems (p37)
4) Plan and conduct counseling and coaching sessions (p57-70)
5) Pulling it all together (p71-79)
OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT (p81-87) The dynamics of management style --- what can be changed by a "coach" or "counselor?" Questionnaire:
 Makes performance expectations and priorities clear --- coach!
QUALITATIVE OBJECTIVES FOR COACHING AND COUNSELING (p87)
 Provides regular feedback about an employee's job performance --- coach!
 Considers an employee's interests and skills when delegating work --- coach!
 Helps employees feel confident about their ability to solve problems --- counselor!
 Coaching presents knowledge of job responsibilities and expectations while
counseling is a supportive process that recognizes that employees' personal problems
can affect their job performance --- true!
 The work situation that most requires "coaching" is --- "a new employee needs
orientation and training"
The work situation that most requires "counseling" is --- "an employee has a conflict
with another employee"
 Employee behavior can indicate either a poor atttitude or declining performance. The
behavior that most clearly indicates declining performance is --- "away from desk for long
periods of time"
 Case Study = Your subordinate stops by to talk to you about a promotion
to supervisor that he has just been offered. He fears the increased stress level of the job.
He has demonstrated skill in managing his work unit, and you are convinced he can handle
the new assignment. The situation requires --- "Your counseling" and not coaching
 Criticism as "feedback" is most likely to --- "Lead to escape and avoidance"
 The most effective feedback is --- "Please inform the team about the plans we
have just made"
 The most innefecive form of feedback is --- "Criticism!"
 Case Study = A new employee has just turned in her first marketing report.
You believe it must include more details if it is to be useful to management. Your most
effective behavior would be to --- "show her now to construct a useful report!"
 The following are examples of "positive reinforcement" --- "giving a
choice in flex-time, schedule or vacations; giving public praise; involving an employee
to a greater depth"
 To avoid providing a catalyst for violent behavior, management should --- "handle
changes with sensitivity; assess employees' emotional behavior; have a crisis management
 In a counseling session, you should --- "know why you want the session and
your goals for it"
 Coaching "pitfalls" are --- "manager fails to document evolving performance
problems; manager does not have enough information; manager is unclear about
what is expected" but a good coaching manager --- "removes all distractions from
the meeting place"
 A counseling session is most likely to be successful if you --- "summarize key
points at the end" but won't be successful if you --- "don't solicit employees' suggestions
or solutions; avoid providing resources; use judgmental words"
 If all else fails, and you decide to transfer an employee to another branch of
the organization, the most important question to ask yourself is --- "Can your subordinate
make a contribution elsewhere in the organization?
 The best predictor of future employee violence is employee --- "history of violence" and not "isolation from others; apathy; absenteeism"
 The best order of steps that should be taken in a disciplinary action is --- "verbal
warning, written reminder, termination discussion"
 Many organizations allow a manager to consider immediate suspension for the
following --- "theft of organization property" but not "frequent errors in records; refusing
to accept advice; inability to solve personality conflicts"
 Case Study = An employee has been with your organization for three years. He
wants a promotion to marketing manager and frequently stops by your office to tell you
of his interest. Yet he turns in incomplete records, does not check on customer satisfaction ,
and dominates sales meetings but has few solid suggestions for improving sales.
As his supervisor, you should provide him with --- "coaching"
 A good first step for your subordinate would be to --- "give him training in
monitoring customer satisfaction" and not "to teach him managerial skills or discourage him
from thinking of being a manager"
 You can both help your organization and help your subordinate achieve his goals if you ---
"make clear to him the connection between performance and career goals!"
 Questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 --- To explain how to teach both job skills and counseling
ANSWER KEY (p87)
 Questions 6, 7, 8, 9 --- To help decide whether to coach or to counsel
 Questions 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 23, 24, 25 --- To suggest ways to give effective feedback
 Questions 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 --- To help translate the principles of coaching or counseling into action!