by John D. Baldwin & Janice I. Baldwin. Prentice Hall, 3rd edition, 1995

PREFACE --- This book is designed to give you many disovery --- "Eurika!" --- experiences as you learn both "behavior" principles and the skills of "behavior analysis" with immediate pleasant "positive reinforcement!"

Because of the optimistic organization (structure) of the ideas presented in this book, you can "focus" your attention on learning the subjects (pvi-x)

1) Science and human behavior (p1- 12)

2) Pavlovian conditioning (p13-39)

3) Operant conditioning (p40-72)

4) Pavlovian and operant conditioning together (p73-83)

5) The stimulus collage (p83-108)

6) Behavior modification (p109-137)

    [1] Behavior modification

    "Goal setting" explained (p111-113)

    [2] Behavioral definitions (p113-116)

    [3] Functional analysis (p116-117)

    [4] Various "objective" measures (p117-120)

    [5] Data collection (p120-133)

    [6] Evaluation (p133-135)

    [7] Conclusion (p135)

    [8] Questions (p135-136)

    [9] Questions (p136-137)

    [10] Notes (p136-137)

7) "Primary" reinforcers and punishers (p138-171)

8) "Secondary" reinforcers and punishers (p172-199)

9) "Differential reinforcement" and "shaping" (p200-227)

    [1] Differential reinforcement (p201-208)

    [2] Response generalization (p208-211)

    [3] Shaping (p211-224)

      (1) "Shaping" defined --- Shaping is a process by which "operants" are changed in a series of steps from an initial performance toward a final performance (p211-212)

      (2) "Systematic shaping" defined --- Systematic shaping involves changing behavior in carefully designed steps of successive approximation toward a preestablished final performance. At each step, reinforcement is given for behavior that best approximates the final performance. (p212-215)

      Systematic shaping provides generous "positive reinforcement" for learning new behavior. It minimizes the "risks of failure" and "aversive feelings" associated with learning.

      As employees move up the series of steps, with generous "positive reinforcement" and no failures, they develop a strong sense of "perceived self-efficacy."

      Thus, employees learn the self-perception that they are in charge of their lives and will be successful in approaching new challenges.

      The multiple successes and reinforcers experienced during shaping boost an employee's self-confidence about being able to learn many other things in the future. (p214)

      (3) Naturally occurring efficient shaping (p215-224)

        (a) Teachers.

        (b) Self-shaping (p217-219)

      (4) Haphazard shaping (p219-221)

      (5) Indiscriminant use of consequences (p221-222)

      (6) Shaping without other people present (p222-224)

    [4] Behavior modification (p224-225)

    [5] Conclusion (p225-227)

    [6] Questions (p226)

10) "Modeling" and "observational learning" (p228-252)

    [1] Models (p229-232)

    [2] Pavlovian conditioning (p232-235)

    [3] Operant behavior (p235-246)

    [4] Mass media modeling (p246-249)

    [5] Behavior modification (p249-250)

    [6] Conclusion (p250)

    [7] Questions (p250-251)

    [8] Notes (p251-252)

11) "Prompts" and "fading" (p253-259)

12) Rules (p260-277)

13) "Schedules" (278-312)

14) Positive and negative "control" (p313-330)

15) Thinking, the "self" and "self-control" (p331-360)


NAME INDEX (p380--382)

SUBJECT INDEX (p383-390)

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