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Notes and References

to book text: Living Ethics: The Way of Wholeness
by Donivan Bessinger. All rights reserved.

For works of Carl G. Jung ("Jung" or "CGJ"):

For works of Albert Schweitzer ("Schweitzer" or "AS"):


Introduction (1993): New world order

TIME OF THIS WRITING. The main text has been developed and frequently revised during 1985-1989. It was re-edited in 1990. The Introduction was written in January 1991, and the final chapter, in March 1991. The reader will understand that this has been a period of incredibly rapid change from an "old order" to a new one whose principles must transcend the references to recent events.


Chapter One: How should we live?

"THE RELEASE OF ATOMIC ENERGY" -- Albert Einstein. Quoted in: Peter's Quotations, Ideas for Our Time. L.J. Peter (editor). New York: Bantam, 1979. p. 32.

"THE QUESTION THAT CONCERNS US" -- The Greeks, a film by Christopher Burstall. BBC, 1980. Translation by Kenneth Dover.

ETHICS IS THE COMPLETE ENTERPRISE -- The word ethics may be construed as singular or plural, according to the Random House unabridged dictionary. Since I cannot discern any basis for a consistant rule, I will simply follow my personal sense of what sounds best in the particular sentence.

"NATURE IS NEUTRAL" -- Adlai Stevenson speech at Hartford, Connecticut on September 18, 1952. Quoted in: Familiar Quotations by John Bartlett, 13th Edition. Boston: Little Brown, 1955. page 987.


Chapter Two: Global problems and ethical dilemma

CLASSIC ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE -- James Harvey Robinson. "Civilization." Encyclopedia Britannica 1965, 8: 825.

SINGLE COSMOS IN COMMON -- Martin Buber. Knowledge of Man. A Philosophy of the Interhuman. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.

MEANING OF BEING THAT DWELLS -- Buber, ibid.

"WORDS HAVE ALWAYS BEEN REGARDED" -- Robinson, op. cit.


Chapter Three: World view and ethics

ALCHEMIST SYMBOLICALLY SOUGHT SPIRITUAL RENEWAL -- Jung. MDR, p 201. Also: Joseph Campbell. The Mythic Image. Princeton University Press, 1974. p 254 ff.

KNOWLEDGE -- Books by Mortimer Adler (New York: Macmillan) have been especially helpful in developing the section on knowledge. See Six Great Ideas (1981) and Ten Philosophical Mistakes (1985).

"AS IF BY A CHAIN" -- Stanley V. Keeling. "Descartes, Rene‚". Encyclopedia Britannica 1965, 7: 281.

SNAKE BITING ITS TAIL -- C.G. Jung. MHS p 38.


Chapter Four: Self view and ethics

"HE WHO KNOWS OTHERS IS WISE" -- Tao-Te Ching. See The Portable World Bible, R. O. Ballou, editor. New York: Penguin Books, 1985. p 548

"THE KINGDOM OF GOD IS WITHIN YOU" -- Luke 17:21 (KJV)

"WHOEVER KNOWS HIMSELF WILL FIND IT" -- Oxyrhinchus Papyrus, cited in Gospel Parallels, A Synopsis of the First Three Gospels, B. Throckmorton Jr, editor. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1979. p 125 fn. -- Compare the second-century (?) gnostic Gospel of Thomas: "...the kingdom of God is inside of you, and it is outside of you. When you come to know yourselves, then you will become known...". See The Other Bible, W. Barnstone, editor. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1984. p 300.

"THERE IS NO REAL PHILOSOPHY" -- Will Durant. The Story of Philosophy. New York: Washington Square Press/Pocket Books, 1953. page 6.

`MIND' RATHER THAN `PSYCHE' -- The word psyche is sometimes used to define that part of a human being which is not body. For that concept, I will generally use such terms as "total psyche" or "total self". However, psyche is Greek for soul. Here I use "psyche" to refer to the unconscious, and "mind" (Greek nous) to refer to the realm of conscious mental activity.

PSYCHIC CONTRIBUTION -- "Psychic" means pertaining to the psyche (the unconscious) or perhaps to the total psyche. In this book, it is never used to refer to "mental powers" claimed by practitioners of the occult.

FUNCTIONS MAY BECOME SO EXAGGERATED -- See first an introductory essay: Jung. "A Psychological Theory of Types" in MMSS p 74. -- For clinical descriptions, see: CGJ. "Psychological Types: General Description of the Types" (1923) in PJ p 178 ff., or: CW 6.

"TWO PEOPLE SEE THE SAME OBJECT" -- CGJ, PJ p 229

"WE MUST NOT FORGET" -- ibid. p 230


Chapter Five: World as System

OF WHICH KEKULE DREAMED -- See Chapter Three.

CIRCULAR SELF-CONTAINED PROCESS -- Marie-Louise von Franz. Alchemy, An Introduction to the Symbolism and the Psychology. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1980. p 41.

ONE ALCHEMICAL SOURCE -- "Alchemie". Brockhause Enzyklopaedie (Wiesbaden), 1966. I: 297. The inscription illustrated is rendered "En to pan". Heraclitus rendered it as "En panta". Both translate as "One is all" ("Eins ist alles"). See note following.

EN PANTA. ONE IS ALL -- Heraclitus. "Fragment B 50", in: Martin Heidegger. Early Greek Thinking. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1984. p 59.

"ONE UNIFYING ALL" -- ibid, p 75.

ORIGINAL AMERICAN PEOPLE -- Since being a "native" of a place means that one was born there, the term "Native American" could be taken literally to apply to anyone who was born in the Americas. "Original American People" seems to me a more specific and respectful term, since the original Americans generally knew themselves by whatever term in the language meant "The People."

OPERATIONS RESEARCH -- Encyclopedia Britannica 1965, 16: 984.

CYBERNETICS -- Encyclopedia Britannica 1965, 6: 937.

AUTOMATION -- Encyclopedia Britannica 1965, 2: 858.

SYSTEMS THEORY IS GENERIC -- See: J.G. Miller and J.L. Miller. "General Living Systems Theory" in Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, H.I. Kaplan and B.J. Sadock, editors. Fourth Edition. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1985. pp 13-24. -- See also: J. G. Miller. Living Systems. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978.

"REPORT" EFFECTS THE CONTINUATION OF "ORDERS" -- The words order and report derive from my military metaphor, not from systems theory.

THE EQUILIBRIUM IS DYNAMIC -- Miller. op. cit. p 19.

SYSTEMS ARE ALSO CHARACTERIZED BY RHYTHM -- Fritjof Capra. The Turning Point. New York: Bantam, 1983. p 300.

HARMONIC LAW (KEPLER'S THIRD) -- For popular description see: Carl Sagan. Cosmos. New York: Random House, 1980. p 259.

PHENOMENON CALLED `SHRED-OUT' -- Miller. op. cit. p 14.

EMERGENT IS `SOMETHING SPECIAL' -- ibid.


Chapter Six: The material cosmos

"THE FIRST ASPECT OF THIS PROFOUND ONENESS" -- Pierre Teilhard de Chardin. "Cosmic Life" (1916) in Prayer of the Universe. New York: Harper & Row, 1965 or Writings in Time of War, 1968.

THE EARLY IDEA THAT SPACE IS PERMEATED -- These sources contributed to this section of the chapter:

"QUANTUM REALITY" -- Nick Herbert. Quantum Reality: Beyond the New Physics. Garden City NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1985. p 16 ff. Scientists quoted in the "numbered realities" section are also quoted by Herbert. The names of the realities are Herbert's.

"THE STRUCTURE OF BELL'S PROOF" -- ibid; p 212.

"BELL'S THEOREM SHOWS THAT THE HOLISTIC" -- ibid; p 242.

THE COVER ILLUSTRATION -- Douglas R. Hofstadter. Goedel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. New York: Vintage/Random House, 1980.


Chapter Seven: Biological systems

"THERE ARE FROM TIME TO TIME" -- Henry David Thoreau. Journal, January 26, 1853.

SUCH HYBRID SPECIALTIES AS -- Biology and the Future of Man. Philip Handler, editor. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970. page 431-2.

GAIA HYPOTHESIS -- J. E. Lovelock. Gaia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.

"THE PLANET IS NOT ONLY TEEMING" -- Fritjof Capra, 1983 op.cit. (Chapter 5) p 285.

A LIVING ORGANISM IS AN ENTITY -- P. Handler, editor. op. cit. p 7.

"PERHAPS THE MOST IMPRESSIVE DEMONSTRATION" -- Theodosius Dobzhansky. Genetics of the Evolutionary Process. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970. p 8.

"THE EVOLUTIONARY CONTINUITY OF ALL ORGANISMS" -- Philip Leder. "Mechanisms of Gene Evolution". Journal of the American Medical Association 1982 (Oct 1); 248: 1582.

AN INFLUENTIAL PHILOSOPHER OF SCIENCE -- K.R.Popper. The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1934). New York: Harper and Row, 1959.

POPPER HELD THAT DARWINISM -- Gordon Rattray Taylor. The Great Evolution Mystery. New York: Harper and Row, 1983. p 33.

DARWIN HELD THAT SPECIES CHANGE -- Charles Robert Darwin. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life. 1859.

"I AM CONVINCED THAT NATURAL SELECTION" -- ibid, Introduction, First Edition.

"NEVERTHELESS, LOW AND SIMPLE FORMS" -- ibid, Chapter Four.

VIRUSES CAN IMPORT -- Taylor. op. cit. pp 51, 234.

LONG TERM STABILITY OF SPECIES -- Niles Eldredge and Stephen J. Gould. "Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism" in Models in Paleobiology. T.J.M.Schopf (editor). San Francisco: Freeman, Cooper and Co., 1972. (Available in Eldredge, reference below)

"IT TURNS OUT, MOREOVER, THAT THE FOSSIL" -- Niles Eldredge. Time Frames: The Rethinking of Darwinian Evolution and the Theory of Punctuated Equilibria. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985. p 190.

"INVOLVED IN SPREADING GENES AROUND" -- Eldredge (1985). op. cit. p 99.

CO-EVOLUTION -- Dobzhansky. op. cit. p 215-216.

"WE LIVE IN A WORLD" -- Stephen Jay Gould. "Darwinism and the expansion of evolutionary theory." Science (Apr 23) 1982. 216: 385-6.

CONCEPT OF INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT -- Carl F. Rothe. "Regulation of Visceral Function" in Physiology (Third Edition), E. E. Selkurt, Editor. Boston: Little Brown and Co, 1971. p 189.

"I DRESSED THE WOUND" -- "Je le pansay, Dieu le guarit", the inscription on Pare's statue. Encyclopedia Britannica 1965. 17: 283.

FIGHT OR FLIGHT - - Rothe. op. cit. p 178. Also see any standard textbook of physiology or general surgery.

"THE ETHICAL QUESTION IS DIFFICULT" -- Marston Bates. The Forest and the Sea. New York: Vintage/Random House, 1960. p 257.


Chapter Eight: Human systems

"THE EDUCATION OF THE HUMAN RACE" -- Augustine, Bishop of Hippo (354-430). The City of God, trans. Marcus Dods. New York: Random House/Modern Library, 1950. Bk 10, Sect 14.

"SHADOW-FOOT" -- Daniel J. Boorstin. The Discoverers. New York: Random House, 1983. p 626.

"WHOEVER IS BORN ANYWHERE" -- Augustine. ibid.

"ECUMENICAL IDEA" OF MANKIND -- Robert Nisbet. The Social Philosophers: Community and Conflict in Western Thought. New York: Thomas Crowell, 1973. p 186.

AS BOORSTIN REMINDS US -- Boorstin. op.cit. p 629.

SEPULVEDA -- ibid. pp 632-633.

AZTEC JUGGLERS -- ibid. p 630.

"PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY" -- Maurice Friedman. Introductory essay to: Martin Buber: The Knowledge of Man: A Philosophy of the Interhuman. New York: Harper & Row, 1965. p 13.

"A LEGITIMATE PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY" -- Buber. ibid. p 14.

"CULTURE IS THE NON-BODILY" -- Weston LaBarre. The Human Animal. University of Chicago Press/Phoenix, 1954. p 211.

"WHAT CONNECTS THE FATHER AND SON" -- ibid. p 212.

"THE FONT OF ALL MORALITY" -- ibid. p 213.

SPENCER -- "Survival of the fittest" was Spencer's term, as acknowledged by Darwin in Origin of Species, Chapter 3. Darwin also replies to Spencer's "law that homologous units of any order became differentiated in proportion as their relations to incident forces became different" (Chapter 4).

HIS WORK ON SOCIETY AS ORGANISM -- Stanislav Andreski. "Sociology, Biology and Philosophy in Herbert Spencer." Introductory essay in Herbert Spencer: Structure, Function and Evolution. New York: Charles Scribner, 1971. p 27.

"A WHOLE OF WHICH THE PARTS" -- Herbert Spencer. The Principles of Sociology Vol. I (1876). See Andreski, editor. op. cit. p 108.

"HOW THE COMBINED ACTIONS" -- ibid. p 112.

"LET US NOW RETURN AND SUM" -- ibid. p 120.

SOMETIMES FOR GOOD -- Axel Madsen. Private Power: Multinational Corporations for the Survival of Our Planet. New York: William Morrow, 1980.

SOMETIMES FOR EVIL -- Richard J. Barnet and Ronald E. Mueller. Global Reach: The Power of the Multinational Corporations. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974.

"THIS DIVISION OF LABOR" -- Adam Smith. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 1776. Bk 1., Ch 2.

"THE DIFFERENCE OF NATURAL TALENTS" -- ibid.

"SOME SPECULATIVE PHYSICIANS" -- ibid. Bk 4, Ch 9.


Chapter Nine: Psyche as System

"WE ARE SUCH STUFF" -- William Shakespeare. The Tempest. Act IV. Scene 1.

"TOTAL PSYCHE" -- See note

PRIMORDIAL IMAGES TRACEABLE TO HERACLITUS -- C. G. Jung. "Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche" (1927). CW 8. PJ 57.

HERBERT SPENCER AND WILLIAM JAMES -- ibid. PJ 50.

"UNCONSCIOUS ALTRUISM" -- Herbert Spencer. The Data of Ethics (1879). Chap 12.

SIGMUND FREUD WHO GAVE US -- James Grier Miller. "Unconsciousness." Encyclopedia Britannica, 1965, 22: 681.

"PSYCHOANALYSIS DERIVES ALL" -- Sigmund Freud. "Psychoanalysis" (1926). Encyclopedia Britannica, 1965, 18: 671.

"SUPPOSES THAT THE MENTAL REPRESENTATIONS" -- ibid.

"ACCORDING TO THE MOST RECENT PSYCHOANALYTIC" -- ibid.

NEUROTIC ABERRATION AND ILLUSION -- see Sigmund Freud: Future of an Illusion (1927, trans. 1961).

FREUD ... SELF-ANALYSIS -- Heinz Hartmann. "Sigmund Freud." Encyclopedia Britannica, 1965, 9: 928.

PARTICIPATED IN MUTUAL ANALYSIS -- C. G. Jung. MDR 158.

"WHAT FREUD HAS TO SAY ABOUT SEXUALITY" -- CGJ. "Freud and Jung: Contrasts" (1929). CW 4. MMSS 116-117. -- For additional commentary, see Victor White. "Freud, Jung and God" in God and the Unconscious (1952). Dallas: Spring Publications, 1982.

JUNG'S MODEL VIEWS THE HUMAN -- The general description of Jung's model is based on:

ANY MODEL OF THE PSYCHE MUST ACCOUNT -- C. J. Groesbeck. "Carl Jung" in Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, Fourth Edition, H. I. Kaplan and B. J. Sadock, editors. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, page 433.

MODEL DIAGRAMMED AS A SPHERE -- Maria-Louise von Franz. "The process of individuation" in CGJ. MHS 161 (fig).

PERSONA COMMONLY DESCRIBED AS A COMPLEX -- Groesbeck. op. cit.

"WHEN WE ANALYZE THE PERSONA" -- CGJ. CW 7. PJ 105.

EGO-SELF AXIS -- For implications of the ego-self axis and correlations between theology and psychology, see Fritz Kunkel: Selected Writings. Edited, with commentary, by John Sanford. New York: Paulist Press, 1984.

"THE SHADOW IS A MORAL PROBLEM" -- CGJ. CW 9ii. PJ 145.

"IT IS EASIER TO GAIN INSIGHT" -- CGJ. CW 9ii. PJ 155.

"I DO NOT WISH OR INTEND" -- CGJ. CW 9ii. PJ 152.

"THE ANIMA IS A PERSONIFICATION" -- von Franz. op. cit. p 177.

"THE ANIMUS IN ITS MOST" -- ibid. p 193.

ONE PARTICULARLY PRACTICAL GUIDE -- Robert A. Johnson. Inner Work: Using Dreams and Active Imagination for Personal Growth. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1986.

REARRANGEMENT OF MEMORY -- Jonathan Winson. Brain & Psyche: The Biology of the Unconscious. New York: Vintage/Random House, 1986.

"REVERSE LEARNING" -- F. H. C. Crick and Graeme Mitchison. "The function of dream sleep." Nature 304, 5922 (1983): 111-114.


Chapter Ten: The collective unconscious

"THE ETERNAL-FEMININE LURES" -- "Das Ewig-Weibliche zieht uns hinan." The final line of Goethe's Faust. Translated by Walter Kaufman. New York: Anchor/Doubleday, 1963. Line 12110, p. 502. Selections here and below used by permission of the publisher.

"AND LIKEWISE THE SO-CALLED TUBE" -- CGJ. "Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche" (1927). CW 8. PJ 37. -- The mythology of the Tukano Indians of Brazilian and Colombian Amazonia (not mentioned by Jung) also refers to the "seed of the sun" stored in the "penis of the sun". Fritz Trupp. The Last Indians: South America's Cultural Heritage. Woergl (Austria): Perlinger, 1981. p 93-94. -- [The standard skeptical position is that such imagery derives from cryptamnesia, that is, it emerges from "hidden memories," long since forgotten. See my Cult and Controversy, in which I respond to the work of Richard Noll.]

"IT DOES NOT, OF COURSE, SUFFICE" -- CGJ. "Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious" (1936). CW 9i. PJ 68.

ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS -- So named by Jung, to distinguish them from Freudian psychoanalysts.

RELATIVELY YOUNG CONCEPT -- CGJ. "Instinct and the Unconscious" (1919). CW 8. PJ 47f. Forgive the pun. The German name Jung means "Young".

"THE UNCONSCIOUS, AS" -- CGJ. "Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche" (1927). CW 8. PJ 44, 45, 46.

"IF IT WERE PERMISSIBLE TO PERSONIFY" -- CGJ. "Basic Postulates of Analytical Psychology" (1931). CW 8: 673. MMSS 186.

"SINCE THE PSYCHE IS A SELF-REGULATING" -- CGJ. "The Transcendent Function" (1916). CW 8. PJ 285.

FRITZ KUNKEL -- Fritz Kunkel. Selected Writings. New York: Paulist Press, 1984.

"NOW IT IS A PECULARITY OF PSYCHIC" -- CGJ. ibid. CW 8. PJ 286.

CAPITALISM vs COMMUNISM -- [Note that despite the collapse of the Soviet Union after this was written, the problem continues (2000), especially between China and Tibet. At the end of 1999 the fourteen-year old lama handpicked by Chinese authorities as a puppet "Dalai Lama" escaped, like the Dalai Lama XIV before him, across the Himalaya into India.]

"THE QUESTION OF THE REMARKABLE DIFFERENCES" -- CGJ. "Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche" (1927). CW 8. PJ 44.

"I HAVE FOUND THAT A RATIONAL UNDERSTANDING" -- ibid. PJ 43.

"I HAVE, ALAS, STUDIED PHILOSOPHY" -- Goethe. op. cit. L. 354. p 93.

"IT SAYS: `IN THE BEGINNING"' -- ibid. L 1224. p 151.

"KINGDOM OF GOD WITHIN" -- Mark 8: 34, Luke 9: 23, Luke 17: 21. (See also note to Chapter Four.)


Chapter Eleven: The collective conscious

"A SENSE OF COLLECTIVITY, ARISING" -- Pierre Teilhard de Chardin. "The Formation of the Noosphere" (1947). The Future of Man. New York: Harper & Row/ Torchbooks, 1969. p 161.

"IN COMA THE PATIENT CANNOT" -- Russell Brain. Diseases of the Nervous System, Fifth Edition. London: Oxford University Press, 1955. p 939.

RETICULAR SYSTEM AS ALERTING SYSTEM -- Roger Bannister. BRAIN'S Clinical Neurology, Fifth Edition. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1978. p 150. -- [During the 1990s there has been a massive expansion of multidisciplinary interest in consciousness studies, seeking to establish a "science of consciousness." The goal is very elusive and as yet there is no hint of consensus. As expected, the field polarizes between those seeking a purely materialist explanation (mind/consciousness as epiphenomenon of biological process), and those (such as myself, still apparently in the minority) who believe that consciousness relates to (nonlocal) quantum reality (see Chapter Seven). One of the most interesting theories of this type is that of Hameroff and Penrose, who propose that the microtubules in neurons, working in concert, interact with the quantum world to create consciousness. For references see my "Reflections on Reality, Healing, and Consciousness" and followup papers.]

EXPERIENCE OF A SPIRITUAL WORLD -- For Jung's description of the "personification" of the collective unconscious, see Chapter Ten. Jung's description was written before the development of modern cardiopulmonary resuscitation. -- [The "tunnel of light" experience can be evoked by brain hypoxia at high gravitational fields, as in pilot-training centrifuges, but the descriptions of those experiments seem to lack the strong numinous feeling tone of "natural" near-death experiences; see below.]

SAGAN SPECULATES -- Carl Sagan. Broca's Brain. New York: Ballentine Books, 1980. p 356.

THE FEELING TONES REPORTED -- For a psychiatrist's presentation of near-death images and feelings reported by patients, see Raymond A. Moody, Jr. Life After Life. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books, 1976. -- See also: Ian Stevenson and Bruce Greyson. "Near-Death Experiences: Relevance to the Question of Survival After Death." Journal of the American Medical Association, (July 20) 1979; 242: 265-267.

"I DESIRED TO DETERMINE AS FAR" -- Santiago Ramon y Cajal, quoted by Walle J.H. Nauta and Michael Feirtag. Fundamental Neuroanatomy. New York: W.H.Freeman, 1986. p 309.

"THE NOMENCLATURE DEVISED" -- Nauta and Feirtag. op. cit. page 311,312.

NEURAL NET -- Heinz R. Pagels. The Dreams of Reason: The Computer and the Rise of the Sciences of Complexity. New York: Bantam Books, 1989. p 114 ff.

"THERE IS A BROAD DISTINCTION" -- Bannister, op. cit.

"HISTORICALLY, LIFE WHICH MEANS" -- Teilhard. On Love and Happiness. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1984. p 63.

"HOMINIZATION CAN BE ACCEPTED" -- Teilhard. The Phenomenon of Man (1955). New York: Harper & Row/Colophon, 1975. p 180.

"WE MUST ENLARGE OUR APPROACH" -- Teilhard. The Future of Man. p 163.

NOOSPHERE IS THE REALM OF -- For example, Jungian analyst Marie-Louise von Franz uses "collective consciousness" in relation to the culture of a particular people. See her Alchemy: An Introduction to the Symbolism and the Psychology (1959). Toronto: Inner City Books, 1980.
p 18.

PLATONIC FORM -- See CGJ. "Instinct and the Unconscious" (1919). CW 8. PJ 55.

"THE ARCHETYPE IS THE PROMOTER" -- von Franz. Alchemy, op. cit. page 34.

"ETHER WAS HIS GOD" -- ibid. p 33.

REACTIONS OF MODERN BIOLOGISTS -- For example, to Gould

"IT WAS AS IF THE ENTIRE" -- Carl Sagan. Cosmos. New York: Random House, 1980. p 336.

"ACUPUNCTURE, ASTROLOGY ... " -- Norman Cousins. "Holistic Health and Healing" in Anatomy of an Illness as Perceived by the Patient. (1979). New York: Bantam Books, 1981. p 119.

INTEGRATIVE MEDICINE -- [This paragraph is new. I have proposed "unitive healing" as a better term which avoids both the connotations of "new age" superficiality, and confusion with "integrated" conglomerate medical delivery systems, while denoting a broader-deeper concept of body-mind-spirit unity within mainstream "evidence-based" medicine. My unitive healing website has material of interest both to patients and professionals.]

"WE HAVE LOST THE GODS" -- Robert M. Powers. The Coattails of God: The Ultimate Spaceflight - The Trip to the Stars. New York: Warner Books, 1981. p xvi.


Chapter Twelve: Emerging from chaos

"DARKNESS THERE WAS" -- Rig-Veda. Portable World Bible, op. cit. p 32.

"FIRST THERE WAS CHAOS" -- John Milton, attributed without specific reference by Edith Hamilton, Mythology (New York: New American Library, 1940/1969) p 63. I have not found this quote in my volume of Milton's English poems; perhaps it is a translation from one of his Latin ones.

PROGENY OF CHAOS -- Robert Graves. Greek Myths, Vol. 1. New York: Penguin, Revised 1960. Section 4a. Vol 1, p 33

"THE FORMS OF DETERMINATE BEING" -- Encyclopedia Britannica 1965; 5: 277

"WHEN EVERLASTING FATE SHALL YIELD" -- Milton. Paradise Lost

IN HIS 1988 BOOK -- James Gleick. Chaos: Making a New Science. New York: Penguin Books, 1988.

"ETHICS WITHOUT BIOLOGY" -- Thomas Nagel. "Ethics without biology" in Mortal Questions. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

"SING RECOVERED PARADISE" -- Milton. Paradise Regained.


Chapter Thirteen: The emerging worldview

For references, see Part I: Wholeness and Ethic.


Chapter Fourteen: The psychological problem

HEURISTIC RULE OR DECISION -- H. E. Pople, Jr. "Heuristic Methods for Imposing Structure on Ill-structured Problems: The Structuring of Medical Diagnostics. In Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, P. Szolovits, editor. Boulder: Westview Press, 1982.

"IT IS THOUGHT THAT EVERY ACTIVITY" -- Aristotle. Ethics. Bk 1. Chap 1. Translation of J. A. K. Thomson. Middlesex: Penguin Classics, 1953.

"HAPPINESS THEN, THE END TO WHICH" -- ibid. 1: 7.

"THE END OF MEDICAL SCIENCE IS HEALTH" -- ibid. 1: 1.

GOLDEN MEAN -- For an expanded discussion of these points see Will Durant. The Story of Philosophy. New York: Washington Square Press (Pocket Books), 1953. p 74-79.

"VIRTUE IS NOT THE POSSESSION" -- Durant. op. cit. p 75.

NATURALISTIC FALLACY -- G. E. Moore. Principia Ethica, 1903. See G. W. Stroh. American Ethical Thought. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1979. p 175 ff. -- [see also below]

JUSTICE; MAXIMIN PRINCIPLE -- John Rawls, A Theory of Justice. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1971.

COSMOLOGICAL TEST -- Tristan Englehardt: Foundations of Bioethics, page 45.

"IF ETHICS IS JUST A CERTAIN TYPE" -- Thomas Nagel, op. cit. p 142.


Chapter Fifteen: Approaches to natural ethics

"THE VERY TITLE OF THIS PRESENT MEETING" -- Bernard Towers. "Toward an Evolutionary Ethic." Teilhard Review, October 1977. p 80.

MASAI FORMULATION OF TEN LAWS -- Wolfgang Wickler. The Biology of the Ten Commandments (Munich, 1971). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972. p 43 f.

ARGUMENT OF NATURAL HUMAN AGGRESSIVENESS -- Konrad Lorenz. On Aggression. New York: Harcourt Brace and World, 1966.

"WE EMPHATICALLY REJECT THIS" -- Richard E. Leakey and Roger Lewin. Origins. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1977. p 208.

"HUMANS ARE NOT INNATELY DISPOSED" -- ibid. p 213.

STUDY OF HUMAN DESTRUCTIVENESS -- Erich Fromm. The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness. New York: Holt Rhinehart Winston, 1973.

COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR -- Wickler. op. cit. p 114

`UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR' OF ANIMALS -- [Observing apparently intentionally deceitful behavior in animals raises the very interesting question of the extent to which they have a differentiated (even though primitive) ego-consciousness.]

AUSTRALIAN ZEBRA FINCHES -- ibid. pp 122-123.

HIERARCHICAL BABOON SOCIETY -- ibid. p 160.

NOOSPHERE -- Teilhard de Chardin. See Wholeness and Ethic, Chapter Eleven.


Chapter Sixteen: Good, ethics, and evil

RABBI KUSHNER -- Harold Kushner. When Bad Things Happen to Good People. New York: Schocken Books, 1981.

PRIVATIO BONI -- For an overview, see: John A. Sanford. "The Ontology of Evil" in Evil, The Shadow Side of Reality. New York: Crossroad, 1986.

GOD AS NEUTRAL -- See Sanford (op. cit.) for review of Jung's thought on the subject, and bibliography. -- See also CGJ. Introduction (1952) to Victor White: God and the Unconscious. Dallas: Spring Publications, 1982. -- Also CGJ. "Prefatory Note" (1956) added to "Answer to Job" (1952). PJ, p 519. CW 11. -- [The word morally (neutral) is added for this internet edition. Moral responsibility derives from ordinary ego-consciousness (derived from sensation of the physical world), which is a property of humanity, not divinity. In Answer to Job, Jung interprets the dialog between Job and Jahweh as a dialog between consciousness and the collective unconscious.]

NATURAL VERSUS SUPERNATURAL -- [I ask the reader to understand that I am not arguing for a devaluation of the supernatural or spiritual view of life (far from it !!), but in favor of a much richer and broader concept of what is "natural." Since physics now points to a nonlocal realm, the formerly easy divide between physical and metaphysical has become much blurred. My theological position, that the natural and supernatural realms inhere within each other in a paradoxical and mystical way, is explored in my website Pleromatics Project. Note, however, that this systems approach to ethics is not derived from theological argument.]

THE PROBLEM OF EVIL -- [Having now given more thought to the nature of nonlocality in the Pleromatics Project (leading to a proposal for a pulsed nonlocality model of reality), I can see the outlines of a karma-like collective "pressure" toward evil, which could increase the potential for evil action by unwary (i.e. less-conscious) egos. Such "pressure" would be in tension with the (unconscious) "collective karma" of moral (conscious) intention. (To borrow the term karma is not to take a position on eastern doctrines regarding reincarnation or metaphysical merit.)]

NATURALISTIC FALLACY -- G. E. Moore. Principia Ethica, 1903. See G. W. Stroh. American Ethical Thought. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1979. p 175 ff. -- [see also Chapter Fourteen]

"THE SHADOW IS A MORAL PROBLEM" -- CGJ. "Aion: Phenomenology of the Self" (1951). CW 9ii. PJ, p 145, 146.


Chapter Seventeen: Reverence for life and natural ethic

"TO BECOME ETHICAL MEANS" -- Schweitzer. PC, p 309.

"LOST IN THOUGHT I SAT" -- AS. OMLT, p 185.

"THE WILL, WHICH, CONSIDERED" -- Arthur Schopenhauer. The World as Will and Idea (1818). Bk 4 Nr. 54.

"WHETHER IT CAN EXPRESS ITSELF" -- AS. PC. p 309.

"A GREAT ANTHOLOGY OF WOE" -- Will Durant. op. cit., page 300. -- See also, Schweitzer. PC, Chapter 20.

"INDWELLING PURPOSIVENESS" -- Charles Singer. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1965. 8: 608.

"I THINK, THEREFORE I AM" -- Rene Descartes. Discourse on Method (1637). Part IV. -- [Some interpreters regard the "Je pense" as referring to consciousness, rather than to cognition as such. Of course, consciousness is indispensible for ethics, and living in broader/deeper consciousness of one's relationship to all life is the essence of Schweitzer's formulation.]

ETHIC BASED ON KNOWLEDGE ALONE -- AS. PC, p 76.

"TRUE PHILOSOPHY MUST START" -- AS. PC, p 309.

"ETHICS CONSIST, THEREFORE" -- ibid.

"REVERENCE FOR LIFE, VENERATIO" -- AS. PC. p 79.

EVOLVING CHRISTIANITY -- Norman Cousins. Albert Schweitzer's Mission: Healing and Peace. New York: Norton, 1985. p 124 ff.

TRUE RELIGION -- Bessinger, D. Religion Confronting Science. p 111.

"TO UNDERTAKE TO LAY DOWN" -- AS. OMLT, p 271.


Chapter Eighteen: The ethical field

CHUNG YUNG -- "The Doctrine of the Steadfast Mean" in The Portable World Bible, op. cit. p 510.

RAISE LIFE TO THE HIGHEST LEVEL -- Schweitzer. OMLT, p 188.

PAIN DISTINGUISHED FROM SUFFERING -- Eric J. Cassel. "The Nature of Suffering and the Goals of Medicine." New England Journal of Medicine, 1982 (March 18). 306: 639-645.

DULLING PAIN -- Of course, an action to dull pain without giving other treatment is ethical when no efficacious treatment is available.


Chapter Nineteen: Metaethics

"LEARNED BORROWING" -- I am using the unabridged edition of The Random House Dictionary of the English Language, 1973.

"GLOBALLY, LOCALLY" -- The "Think globally, act locally" formula is taken from Rene Dubos, "The Wooing of Earth" (1980). See The World of Rene Dubos: A Collection of His Writings. Gerard Piel and Osborn Segerberg, Jr., Editors. New York: Henry Holt, 1990. -- Also Fritjof Capra: op. cit. p 300.

ONE MAY NOT SUBORDINATE ETHICS -- See Schweitzer's discussion: PC, p 324.

ANENCEPHALIC INFANT -- An infant with a brain stem, but with congenital absence of higher brain structures. Such infants exhibit spontaneous heart and respiratory function, and other reflexes, and perhaps movement of extremities. The abnormality is usually fatal in early infancy, but rare survivals into childhood of some such infants have been reported.

"WHENEVER I INJURE" -- Schweitzer. PC, p 318.


Chapter Twenty: Comparative ethics

ETHICAL THEORIES -- For a useful abbreviated summary of ethical theories, see Samuel Gorovitz: "Moral Conflict and Moral Choice" in Doctor's Dilemmas: Moral conflict and Medical Care. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982. p 83 ff.

"A MAN IS TRULY ETHICAL ONLY" -- Schweitzer. PC, p 310.

"WHO AMONG US KNOWS WHAT SIGNIFICANCE" -- AS.OMLT, p 271.

"IF WE DO NOT ATTEMPT TO CLARIFY" -- Raymond J. Lawrence. "David the `Bubble Boy' and the boundaries of the human." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1985 (Jan 4). 253: 74-76.

"TRIPLE CONTRACT" -- Robert M. Veatch. A Theory of Medical Ethics. New York: Basic Books, 1981. Cited in review, JAMA 1982 (April 23); 247: 2293.


Chapter Twenty-one: The ethical model

CONFLICT BETWEEN SCIENCE AND RELIGION -- See preface to Religion Confronting Science

"BE PERFECT" -- Matthew 5: 48, King James Version.

"WHAT HEAVEN HAS CONFERRED" -- Confucianist writing "The Doctrine of the Steadfast Mean". See The Portable World Bible, op. cit. pp 510-511.

JESUS' AWARENESS OF NATURE -- For example, the "lilies of the field" passage. Matthew 6: 28. See also Religion Confronting Science, Chapter Five

JESUS' "WAY" -- John 14: 6

"KINGDOM OF HEAVEN WITHIN" -- Luke 17: 21. See also notes 4:2 and 10:16.

"SO WHATEVER YOU WISH" -- Matthew 7: 12. RSV.

"TEACHER, WHICH IS THE GREAT" -- Matthew 22: 36-40. RSV.

"I DO NOT, THEREFORE, NEED" -- Immanuel Kant. Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, First Section. In the section following, Kant gives the law an unequivocally organic interpretation: "Act as if the maxim of thy action were to become by thy will a universal Law of Nature". He illustrates that by imagining a man so depressed as to ask "whether it would not be contrary to his duty to himself to take his own life." Kant:

"ETHICS CONSIST, THEREFORE" -- Schweitzer. PC, p 309.


Chapter Twenty-two: Ethics and the individual

"THE WORLD VIEW OF REVERENCE FOR LIFE" -- Norman Cousins describes efforts to bring the third volume to publication. op. cit. (17).

"SINCERITY IS THE WAY OF HEAVEN" -- "The Doctrine of the Steadfast Mean". Portable World Bible, op. cit. p 513.


Chapter Twenty-three: Ethics and society

"ALL THINGS ARE NOURISHED TOGETHER" -- " The Doctrine of the Steadfast Mean". Portable World Bible. op. cit., p 514.

SURVIVAL OF THE FIT -- Theodosius Dobzhanzky. Mankind Evolving: The Evolution of the Human Species. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1962. p 133.

"IN NO WAY DOES REVERENCE FOR LIFE" -- Schweitzer. PC, p 330.

ETHICS, GOOD SCIENCE -- It is of course also obvious that good science must be based on "good ethics". Experiments improperly done and information falsified do not yield "science".

"THE OBJECTION IS RAISED" -- Schweitzer. PC, p 342 f.


Chapter Twenty-four: Ethics and New World Order

MALIGNANT AGGRESSION -- Erich Fromm. op. cit. (15:142).


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