A Selected Plant Glossary


Angiosperm
Any seed plant whose seeds are surrounded by the mature ovary or fruit
 
 
Adventitious
Organ or structure in an unusual place such as roots growing from the stem
 
 
Antheridium
In bryophytes it is the gametophyte tissue that produces and releases the sperm
 
 
Apical cells
cells growing from the shoot or root tip
 
 
Archegonium
In plants it is the gametophyte tissue that produces and houses the egg, and for a time supports the embryo

 

 
Dioecious
The condition where sperm and egg are produced in separate individuals (two houses)
 
 
Gametophyte
The haploid generation of plants which produce eggs and sperm
 
 
Heterosporous
Referring to plants that produce microspores and megaspores, which give rise, respectively, to sperm-producing and egg producing gametophytes
 
 
Homosporous
Pertaining to plants that produce only one type of spore so their gametophytes are monoecious producing both egg and sperm (mosses and ferns)
 
 
Megagametophyte
is the female gametophyte, the product of a megaspore. It is within the megagametophyte that the egg will form
 
 
Megaspore
In heterosporous plants, spores that form the female gametophyte (megagametophyte) which in turn produces the egg
 
 
Megaspore mother cell
In the seed cone and in the ovary of a flower, a diploid cell destined to undergo meiosis and form four haploid magaspores, one of which gives rise to the female gametophyte
 
 
Microgametophyte
It is the male gametophyte, the product of a microspore and a structure in which sperm form
 
 
Microspore
In heterosporous plants, spores that form the male gametophyte (microgametophyte) which produces sperm
 
 
Microspore mother cell
In either the pollen cone or in the anther of a flower, a diploid cell destined to undergo meiosis and form haploid microspores, cells that form male gametophytes
 
 
Monoecious
means "one house". Monoecious plants produce both egg and sperm in one individual.
 
 
Ovule
In the sporophyte, tissue containing the megaspore mother cell, and a surrounding nucellus and integuments. It later contains the egg cell, and, following fertilization and development forms the seed.
 
 
Phloem
Vascular tissue specialized for the transport of sap containing sugars and other substances
 
 
Pollen grain
The microspore of a seed plant, haploid cells that comprise of give rise to the male gametophyte (microgametophyte)
 
 
Xylem
Vascular tissue designed to help transport water and minerals from the root to the leaves. The most primitive of the xylem vessels is the tracheid. All plants which use tracheids are called tracheophytes