The Electron Transport Chain
Electron transport chains occur in the membranes of
mitochondria, chloroplasts, and some prokaryotes. The E.T.C. builds a
free energy gradient of protons (H+) which can then be
tapped by ATP synthase in either F0F1 or
CF0CF1 complexes to make ATP.
The Electron Transport Chain:
- uses electrons to activate proton pumps which
build large H+ gradients
- requires membranes to organize the molecular
components such as cytochromes, proton pumps, and ATP synthases to
- requires a double membrane system to make two
compartments so that the organelle can act as a
- NADH and FADH2 bring electrons and
H+ ions to the electron transport chain.
Nov. 9 2005