The Electron Transport Chain

Electron transport chains occur in the membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and some prokaryotes. The E.T.C. builds a free energy gradient of protons (H+) which can then be tapped by ATP synthase in either F0F1 or CF0CF1 complexes to make ATP.


The Electron Transport Chain:

  1. uses electrons to activate proton pumps which build large H+ gradients


  1. requires membranes to organize the molecular components such as cytochromes, proton pumps, and ATP synthases to function efficiently.


  1. requires a double membrane system to make two compartments so that the organelle can act as a battery.


  1. NADH and FADH2 bring electrons and H+ ions to the electron transport chain.

Nov. 9 2005